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The history of science abounds with momentous theories that disrupted conventional wisdom and yet were eventually proven true. Ajit Varki and Danny Brower's "Mind over Reality" theory is poised to be one such idea-a concept that runs counter to commonly-held notions about human evolution but that may hold the key to understanding why humans evolved as we did, leaving all other related species far behind. At a chance meeting in 2005, Brower, a geneticist, posed an unusual idea to Varki that he believed could explain the origins of human uniqueness among the world's species: Why is there no humanlike elephant or humanlike dolphin, despite millions of years of evolutionary opportunity? Why is it that humans alone can understand the minds of others? Haunted by their encounter, Varki tried years later to contact Brower only to discover that he had died unexpectedly. Inspired by an incomplete manuscript Brower left behind, DENIAL presents a radical new theory on the origins of our species. It was not, the authors argue, a biological leap that set humanity apart from other species, but a psychological one: namely, the uniquely human ability to deny reality in the face of inarguable evidence-including the willful ignorance of our own inevitable deaths. The awareness of our own mortality could have caused anxieties that resulted in our avoiding the risks of competing to procreate-an evolutionary dead-end. Humans therefore needed to evolve a mechanism for overcoming this hurdle: the denial of reality. As a consequence of this evolutionary quirk we now deny any aspects of reality that are not to our liking-we smoke cigarettes, eat unhealthy foods, and avoid exercise, knowing these habits are a prescription for an early death. And so what has worked to establish our species could be our undoing if we continue to deny the consequences of unrealistic approaches to everything from personal health to financial risk-taking to climate change. On the other hand reality-denial affords us many valuable attributes, such as optimism, confidence, and courage in the face of long odds. Presented in homage to Brower's original thinking, DENIAL offers a powerful warning about the dangers inherent in our remarkable ability to ignore reality-a gift that will either lead to our downfall, or continue to be our greatest asset.
This revised and updated edition focuses on constrained ordination (RDA, CCA), variation partitioning and the use of permutation tests of statistical hypotheses about multivariate data. Both classification and modern regression methods (GLM, GAM, loess) are reviewed and species functional traits and spatial structures analysed. Nine case studies of varying difficulty help to illustrate the suggested analytical methods, using the latest version of Canoco 5. All studies utilise descriptive and manipulative approaches, and are supported by data sets and project files available from the book website: http://regent. prf. jcu. cz/maed2/. Written primarily for community ecologists needing to analyse data resulting from field observations and experiments, this book is a valuable resource to students and researchers dealing with both simple and complex ecological problems, such as the variation of biotic communities with environmental conditions or their response to experimental manipulation.
Domestic lawyers are, above all, officers of the court. By contrast, the public international lawyer representing states before international tribunals is torn between loyalties to the state and loyalties to international law. As the stakes increase for the state concerned, the tension between these loyalties can become acute and lead to practices that would be condemned in developed national legal systems but have hitherto been ignored by international tribunals in international legal scholarship. They are the 'dirty stories' of international law. This detailed and contextually sensitive presentation of eight important cases before a variety of public international tribunals dissects some of the reasons for the resort to fraudulent evidence in international litigation and the profession's baffling reaction. Fraudulent evidence is resorted to out of greed, moral mediocrity or inherent dishonesty. In public international litigation, by contrast, the reasons are often more complex, with roots in the dynamics of international politics.
In this important new book, Giandomenico Majone examines the crucial but often overlooked distinction between the general aim of European integration and the specific method of integration employed in designing an (ill-considered) monetary union. Written with the author's customary insight and precision, this highly topical and provocative book reviews the Union's leaders' tradition of pushing through ambitious projects without considering the serious hurdles that lie in the way of their success. Regional and European integration topics are discussed, including credibility of commitments, delegation of powers, bargaining and influence activities, adverse selection and moral hazard. The author also offers a deeper examination of the specific crisis of monetary integration, arguing that it might be more effectively achieved with inter-jurisdictional competition and suggesting how integration should be managed in the globalized world.
The idea of infinity plays a crucial role in our understanding of the universe, with the infinite spacetime continuum perhaps the best-known example - but is spacetime really continuous? Throughout the history of science, many have felt that the continuum model is an unphysical idealization, and that spacetime should be thought of as 'quantized' at the smallest of scales. Combining novel conceptual analysis, a fresh historical perspective, and concrete physical examples, this unique book tells the story of the search for the fundamental unit of length in modern physics, from early classical electrodynamics to current approaches to quantum gravity. Novel philosophical theses, with direct implications for theoretical physics research, are presented and defended in an accessible format that avoids complex mathematics. Blending history, philosophy, and theoretical physics, this refreshing outlook on the nature of spacetime sheds light on one of the most thought-provoking topics in modern physics.
Unlike other Victorian novelists George Eliot rarely incorporated stock market speculation and fraud into her plots, but meditations on money, finance and economics, in relation both to individual ethics and to wider social implications, infuse her novels. This volume examines Eliot's understanding of money and economics, its bearing on her moral and political thought, and the ways in which she incorporated that thought into her novels. It offers a detailed account of Eliot's intellectual engagements with political economy, utilitarianism, and the new liberalism of the 1870s, and also her practical dealings with money through her management of household and business finances and, in later years, her considerable investments in stocks and shares. In a wider context, it presents a detailed study of the ethics of economics in nineteenth-century England, tracing the often uncomfortable relationship between morality and economic utility experienced by intellectuals of the period.
This provocative new history of Palestinian Jewish society in antiquity marks the first comprehensive effort to gauge the effects of imperial domination on this people. Probing more than eight centuries of Persian, Greek, and Roman rule, Seth Schwartz reaches some startling conclusions--foremost among them that the Christianization of the Roman Empire generated the most fundamental features of medieval and modern Jewish life. Schwartz begins by arguing that the distinctiveness of Judaism in the Persian, Hellenistic, and early Roman periods was the product of generally prevailing imperial tolerance. From around 70 C. E. to the mid-fourth century, with failed revolts and the alluring cultural norms of the High Roman Empire, Judaism all but disintegrated. However, late in the Roman Empire, the Christianized state played a decisive role in ''re-Judaizing'' the Jews. The state gradually excluded them from society while supporting their leaders and recognizing their local communities. It was thus in Late Antiquity that the synagogue-centered community became prevalent among the Jews, that there re-emerged a distinctively Jewish art and literature--laying the foundations for Judaism as we know it today. Through masterful scholarship set in rich detail, this book challenges traditional views rooted in romantic notions about Jewish fortitude. Integrating material relics and literature while setting the Jews in their eastern Mediterranean context, it addresses the complex and varied consequences of imperialism on this vast period of Jewish history more ambitiously than ever before. Imperialism in Jewish Society will be widely read and much debated.
This book examines the extant fragments of the archaic Greek poem known in antiquity as Hesiod's Catalogue of Women. Kirk Ormand shows that the poem should be read intertextually with other hexameter poetry from the eighth to sixth century BCE, especially Homer, Hesiod, and the Cyclic epics. Through literary interaction with these poems, the Catalogue reflects political and social tensions in the archaic period regarding the production of elite status. In particular, Ormand argues that the Catalogue reacts against the "middling ideology" that came to the fore during the archaic period in Greece, championing traditional aristocratic modes of status. Ormand maintains that the poem's presentation of the end of the heroic age is a reflection of a declining emphasis on nobility of birth in the structures of authority in the emerging sixth century polis.
This international history of the origins and nature of 'cold war' offers the first systematic examination of the complex relationship between the United States and Italy, and of American debates about warfare in the years between World War II and the Korean War. Kaeten Mistry reveals how the defeat of the Marxist left in the 1948 Italian election was perceived as a victory for the United States amidst a 'war short of war', as defined by influential planner George Kennan, becoming an allegory for cold war in American minds. The book analyses how political warfare sought to employ covert operations, overt tactics and propaganda in a co-ordinated offensive against international communism. Charting the critical contribution of a broad network of local, religious, civic, labour, and business groups, Mistry reveals how the notion of a specific American success paved the way for a problematic future for US-Italian relations and American political warfare.
Small vessel disease is an important frontier in neurology; about 25% of strokes are classified as small vessel, and SVD is the most common cause of vascular cognitive impairment. The risk of developing SVD increases with age, making this a growing concern for countries with aging populations. Despite this, there has been a paucity of information about its causes, diagnosis, prevention and treatment. This volume brings together contributions from leading international experts in the field, and discusses pathogenesis, pathophysiology, clinical and radiologic manifestations, prevention and treatment modalities, and future directions for research and practice. Genetic forms of SVD are discussed, as well as the rapid development of neuroimaging techniques as tools for screening and treatment. This authoritative book is essential reading for neurologists, stroke physicians, geriatricians, and interventional neuroradiologists, as well as researchers in the fields of aging and dementia.
This Companion presents fifteen short, accessible essays exploring the most important topics and themes in John Milton's masterpiece, Paradise Lost. The essays invite readers to begin their own independent exploration of the poem by equipping them with useful background knowledge, introducing them to key passages, and acquainting them with the current state of critical debates. Chapters are arranged to mirror the way the poem itself unfolds, offering exactly what readers need as they approach each movement of its grand design. Essays in Part I introduce the characters who frame the poem's story and set its plot and theological dynamics in motion. Part II deals with contextual issues raised by the early books, while Part III examines the epic's central and final episodes. The volume concludes with a meditation on the history of the poem's reception and a detailed guide to further reading, offering students and teachers of Milton fresh critical insights and resources for continuing scholarship.
The aim of this book is to give a systematic and self-contained presentation of basic results on stochastic evolution equations in infinite dimensional, typically Hilbert and Banach, spaces. These are a generalization of stochastic differential equations as introduced by Itô and Gikham that occur, for instance, when describing random phenomena that crop up in science and engineering, as well as in the study of differential equations. The book is divided into three parts. In the first the authors give a self-contained exposition of the basic properties of probability measure on separable Banach and Hilbert spaces, as required later; they assume a reasonable background in probability theory and finite dimensional stochastic processes. The second part is devoted to the existence and uniqueness of solutions of a general stochastic evolution equation, and the third concerns the qualitative properties of those solutions. Appendices gather together background results from analysis that are otherwise hard to find under one roof. The book ends with a comprehensive bibliography that will contribute to the book's value for all working in stochastic differential equations.
The European Union's Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) is the world's largest carbon trading market. This book offers a new perspective on the EU ETS as a multi-level governance regime, in which the regulatory process is composed of three distinct 'competences' - norm setting, implementation, and enforcement. Are these competences best combined in a single regulator at one level of government or would they be better allocated among a variety of regulators at different levels of government? The combined legal, economic, and political analysis in this book reveals that the actual allocation of competences within the EU ETS diverges from a hypothetical ideal allocation in important ways, and provides a political economy explanation for the existing allocation of norm setting, implementation and enforcement competences among various levels of European government.
Intraplate earthquakes occur away from tectonic plate boundaries: their locations are difficult to predict, risking huge damage and loss of life. The 2001 Bhuj earthquake (featured in this book) was the largest intraplate earthquake for three decades and has provided unique insight into these events. This cutting-edge book brings together research from international leading experts in the field. Each chapter provides a comprehensive review of these earthquakes in a different global location, ranging from Australia, China, India and the Sea of Japan, to Western Europe, Brazil, New Madrid (Central USA), and Eastern Canada. They explore similarities and differences between regional features and the mechanical models required to explain them, as well as assessing geophysical techniques used to investigate them. Providing the first global overview of intraplate earthquakes, this is an essential book for academic researchers and professionals in seismology, tectonics, tectonophysics, geodesy, structural geology, earthquake dynamics, geophysics, and structural engineering.
As UN Secretary-General, Dag Hammarskjöld shaped many of the fundamental principles and practices of international organisations, such as preventive diplomacy, the ethics of international civil service, impartiality and neutrality. He was also at the heart of the constitutional foundations and principles of the UN. This tribute and critical review of Hammarskjöld's values and legacy examines his approach towards international civil service, agency and value-based leadership, investigates his vision of internationalism and explores his achievements and failures as Secretary-General. It draws on specific conflict situations and strategies such as Suez and the Congo for lessons that can benefit contemporary conflict resolution and modern concepts such as human security and R2P. It also reflects on ways in which actors such as international courts, tribunals and the EU can benefit from Hammarskjöld's principles and experiences in the fields of peace and security and international justice.
This best-selling textbook addresses the need for an introduction to econometrics specifically written for finance students. Key features: · Thoroughly revised and updated, including two new chapters on panel data and limited dependent variable models · Problem-solving approach assumes no prior knowledge of econometrics emphasising intuition rather than formulae, giving students the skills and confidence to estimate and interpret models · Detailed examples and case studies from finance show students how techniques are applied in real research · Sample instructions and output from the popular computer package EViews enable students to implement models themselves and understand how to interpret results · Gives advice on planning and executing a project in empirical finance, preparing students for using econometrics in practice · Covers important modern topics such as time-series forecasting, volatility modelling, switching models and simulation methods · Thoroughly class-tested in leading finance schools
Recent developments in both the EU and the global legal order call for a reassessment of the role of international law within the European Union. International Law as Law of the European Union explores how, and to what extent, international law still forms part of, and plays a role in, the current legal order of the European Union. Recent case law of the European Court of Justice prompted both scholars and practitioners to reconsider the relationship between EU law and international law. This volume reveals the practical development and consequences of this relationship, and places it in a conceptual framework by pointing to key arguments in the current debate. International Law as Law of the European Union thus forms an essential guide for academics, students and practitioners interested in the impact of new case law and conceptual thinking on the relationship between EU and international law.
This book offers a history of literary criticism from Plato to the present, arguing that this history can best be seen as a dialogue among three traditions - the Platonic, Neoplatonic, and the humanistic, originated by Aristotle. There are many histories of literary criticism, but this is the first to clarify our understanding of the many seemingly incommensurable approaches employed over the centuries by reference to the three traditions. Making its case by careful analyses of individual critics, the book argues for the relevance of the humanistic tradition in the twenty-first century and beyond.
This new edition, updated and with additional exercises, equips those who work, travel, and study in Arab countries with an educated form of spoken Arabic that functions flexibly in the face of various regional colloquial variants in the Arab world. Because the Arabic language has a number of very different spoken vernaculars, being able to speak and be understood in all Arab countries has become a challenge for English speakers. Ryding and Mehall have designed a course that teaches a standardized variant of spoken Arabic that is close to, but more natural than, the literary Modern Standard Arabic. With a non-grammar-based approach, this book fosters communicative competence in Arabic on all levels and develops speaking proficiency without abandoning Arabic script. It has proven to be clear, effective, and relevant to the needs of Americans living and working in the Arab East. Task-based lessons feature basic dialogues between Americans and Arabs, explanations of new structures, vocabulary expansion, and exercises; and provide gradual access to the sounds and script of Arabic by emphasizing listening and reading comprehension first, then slowly adding oral exercises and activities until the student has achieved basic proficiency. Not intended for self-instruction for beginners, Formal Spoken Arabic Basic Course with MP3 Files assumes some previous knowledge of Modern Standard Arabic, Arabic script and phonology, and previous or simultaneous instruction in orthography. This new edition includes a CD of MP3 audio exercises that are keyed to the text and drill students on listening and speaking. Lessons cover topics including:Heads of StateCities and CountriesOfficial TitlesGeographySystems of GovernmentLost LuggageGetting AcquaintedEstablishing Common GroundSeeking and Giving InformationPersonal Needs and FamilyHandling ProblemsEating OutBargaining and Buying
Examining the use of satellite data in the retrieval of oceanic physical and biological properties, this study presents examples of the kinds of data that can be acquired and recounts their oceanographic application. It also describes the national and international programs in satellite oceanography of the past two decades, and reviews current and future programs up to 2019. The textbook, designed for graduate and senior undergraduate courses in satellite oceanography, will prepare students and interested scientists to use satellite data in oceanographic research.
This collection of over 90 highly-illustrated case studies explores major and confusing problems in pediatric imaging. All relevant imaging modalities are covered, including ultrasound, conventional radiography, fluoroscopy, CT, MR, Nuclear and Molecular Imaging, and Interventional Radiology. The authors present a strategy for recognizing key information in order to reach an accurate diagnosis, and each case includes differential diagnoses and key teaching points, alerting the reader to common pitfalls in the interpretation of pediatric radiological images. This is a highly valuable resource for trainee pediatric radiologists, and general radiologists who encounter pediatric patients. It will particularly help people preparing for exams, including the core exam, the certifying exam or CAQ exams, as well as pediatric radiologists who want to refresh their knowledge on particular topics. It will also be of interest to pediatricians who wish to improve their diagnostic proficiency and understanding of imaging studies.
First published in 1982, Don Turcotte and Jerry Schubert's Geodynamics became a classic textbook for several generations of students of geophysics and geology. In this second edition, the authors bring this text completely up-to-date. Important additions include a chapter on chemical geodynamics, an updated coverage of comparative planetology based on recent planetary missions, and a variety of other new topics. Geodynamics provides the fundamentals necessary for an understanding of the workings of the solid earth, describing the mechanics of earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and mountain building in the context of the role of mantle convection and plate tectonics. Observations such as the earth's gravity field, surface heat flow, distribution of earthquakes, surface stresses and strains, and distribution of elements are discussed. This new edition will once again prove to be a classic textbook for intermediate to advanced undergraduates and graduate students in geology, geophysics, and earth science.
This book examines the long, complex experience of American involvement in irregular warfare. It begins with the American Revolution in 1776 and chronicles big and small irregular wars for the next two and a half centuries. Examples taken from the American experience reveal that fighting - and, more so, winning - all types of wars is extraordinarily complex, frustrating, controversial and bloody. What is readily apparent in dirty wars is that failure is painfully tangible while success is often amorphous. Successfully fighting these wars often entails striking a critical balance between military victory and politics. America's status as a democracy only serves to make fighting - and, to a greater degree, winning - these irregular wars even harder. Rather than futilely insisting that Americans should not or cannot fight this kind of irregular war, Russell Crandall argues that we would be better served by considering how we can do so as cleanly and successfully as possible.
This volume introduces ancient Israel's Scriptures, or the Hebrew Bible, commonly called the Old Testament. It also traces the legacy of monotheism first found in the pages of the Old Testament. Where pertinent to the message of the Old Testament, the book explores issues of history, comparative religions, and sociology, while striking a balance among these topics by focusing primarily on literary features of the text. In addition, frequent sidebar discussions introduce the reader to contemporary scholarship, especially the results of historical-critical research and archaeology. Along the way, the book explores how the Old Testament conceptualized and gave rise to monotheism, one of the most significant developments in history. - Pays unique attention to the origins of monotheism, the common heritage of Jews, Christians, and Muslims - Includes generous number of illustrations, 20 freshly created maps, and frequent sidebar discussions in each chapter, as well as concise chapter summaries and glossary of terms - Has a web component that includes study guides, flashcards, PowerPoint lecture slides and a test bank
Queen Victoria and Prince Albert, 1840Preparations for the young Queen Victoria's wedding have thrown all of London into a frenzy-but for Lady Emily Sumner, her own marital dilemmas eclipse all the excitement!Forbidden to marry her beloved Lieutenant Richard Lawrence by her strict, status-conscious mama, Emily's chance at wedded bliss seems out of reach. . . But as Maid of Honour to the Queen, Emily discovers she has a secret weapon-royal approval! And with Queen Victoria's blessing, surely Emily's happy ending can't be too far behind. . . ?
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