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The study of medical history is interesting in itself and may help to modify the view sometimes expressed that medical students and doctors are lacking in culture of any sort. Moreover, some historical perspective is often advantageous when one is considering the multitude of advances that are now taking place in the theory and practice of medicine. This book, containing a series of collected papers concerning immunology and pathology and vascular biology and angiogenesis, drives us through scientific milestones in the history of medicine in the course of the past two centuries and highlights the contribution of pioneering scientists whose discoveries have paved the way to many researchers working in the fields of cell biology, developmental biology, immunology, pathology, and oncology. This book will serve as a resource for scientists, historians of medicine and philosophers of science and medicine.
The conceptual pair of "Erklären" and "Verstehen" (explanation and understanding) has been an object of philosophical and methodological debates for well over a century. Discussions - to this day - are centered around the question of whether certain objects or issues, such as those dealing with humans or society, require a special approach, different from that of the physical sciences. In the course of such philosophical discussions, we frequently find references to historical predecessors, such as Dilthey's discussion of the relationship between "Geisteswissenschaft" and "Naturwissenschaft", Windelband's distinction between nomothetic and idiographic methods, or Weber's conception of an interpretative sociology. However, these concepts are rarely placed in the historical contexts of their emergence. Nor have the shifting meanings of these terms been analyzed. The present volume considers a variety of intellectual, social, and material factors that contributed to the debate. Far from reducing the debates to their cultural and institutional contexts, however, the volume also offers careful systematic reconstructions of the arguments at hand, thereby enabling the reader to not only appreciate the situatedness of this exciting period of intellectual history, but also to reflect upon the current relevance of the various interpretations of the dichotomy between explanation and understanding.
This volume of the Collected Works edition contains Gurwitsch's magnum opus, which emphasizes how items in the thematic field are relevant to the theme. It is introduced by his student Richard Zaner. This volume also includes the posthumous text, "Marginal Consciousness," the contents of which were merely summarized in The Field of Consciousness. It presents his positions on the body and on ego-less consciousness in detail. Gurwitsch's student, Lester Embree, introduces it. For the full appreciation of their significance, all earlier and later writings by Gurwitsch must be related to the contents of this volume.
This book includes a brief biography of Paul Brandwein, but its most vital contribution are the essays about Paul F. Brandwein's teaching that encouraged a number of the high school students he taught between 1944 and 1954 at Forest Hills High School in New York to become some of America's most important scientists. In addition to the individual essays, there are cross-sectional study of the surveys returned by the 29 "Brandwein alumni," located by Richard Lewontin, James Friend, the late Walter Rosen, and Deborah Fort over the years since Paul Brandwein's death in 1994. Creating Scientists might point the way to a replicable method that teachers (often, in addition, serving as mentors) could follow in encouraging their precollege students with a bent for science to choose to follow that inclination into postsecondary studies and eventually careers in science, mathematics, engineering, medical, and technical fields. "Once again, our nation has a powerful need for a revolution devoted to creating scientists. As we face the challenges of climate change, global competitiveness, biodiversity loss, energy needs, and dwindling food supplies, we find ourselves in a period where both scientific literacy and the pool of next-generation scientists are dwindling. To solve these complex issues and maintain our own national security, we have to rebuild a national ethos based on sound science education for all, from which a new generation of scientists will emerge. The challenge is how to create this transformation. Those shaping national policy today, in 2009, need look no further than what worked a half-century ago. ... Paul F. Brandwein spent his professional life as a scientist, educator, author, and publisher focused on the deep question of how we as a nation can create the scientist within. Through varied contributions from his former students, his colleagues, and his friends, One Legacy of Paul F. Brandwein: Creating Scientists explores how one man's teachings and philosophies on science, education, and environmentalism both laid the groundwork for the first great science education revolution in our nation's history and prepared the way for the one so necessary today. Many of the essays in this book offer firsthand reflections by former students and colleagues of Paul's during the 1950s and beyond that record the impact of, and inspiration that resulted from, their encounters. Paul's insights highlighted in this book illuminate a path forward for us today, as we work to create the second American science education revolution." Keith A. Wheeler, President, The Paul F-Brandwein Institute, Unionville, New York, USA
This short book, geared towards undergraduate students of computer science and mathematics, is specifically designed for a first course in mathematical logic. A proof of Gödel's completeness theorem and its main consequences is given using Robinson's completeness theorem and Gödel's compactness theorem for propositional logic. The reader will familiarize himself with many basic ideas and artifacts of mathematical logic: a non-ambiguous syntax, logical equivalence and consequence relation, the Davis-Putnam procedure, Tarski semantics, Herbrand models, the axioms of identity, Skolem normal forms, nonstandard models and, interestingly enough, proofs and refutations viewed as graphic objects. The mathematical prerequisites are minimal: the book is accessible to anybody having some familiarity with proofs by induction. Many exercises on the relationship between natural language and formal proofs make the book also interesting to a wide range of students of philosophy and linguistics.
This transdisciplinary volume outlines the development of public health paradigms across the ages in a global context and argues that public health has seemingly lost its raison d'être, that is, a population perspective. The older, philosophical approach in public health involved a holistic, population-based understanding that emphasized historicity and interrelatedness to study health and disease in their larger socio-economic and political moorings. A newer tradition, which developed in the late 19th century following the acceptance of the germ theory in medicine, created positivist transitions in epidemiology. In the form of risk factors, a reductionist model of health and disease became pervasive in clinical and molecular epidemiology. The author shows how positivism and the concept of individualism removed from public health thinking the consideration of historical, social and economic influences that shape disease occurrence and the interventions chosen for a population. He states that the neglect of the multifactorial approach in contemporary public health thought has led to growing health inequalities in both the developed and the developing world. He further suggests that the concept of 'social capital' in public health, which is being hailed as a resurgence of holism, is in reality a sophisticated and extended version of individualism. The author presents the negative public policy consequences and implications of adopting methodological individualism through a discussion on AIDS policies. The book strongly argues for a holistic understanding and the incorporation of a rights perspective in public health to bring elements of social justice and fairness in policy formulations.
This edited volume presents comparative research on how the courts in Southeast Europe apply international law. After the introductory Part I, Part II discusses specific areas of international law, notably the law of Association Agreements between the EU and third countries, the law of the World Trade Organization, and international environmental law (the Aarhus Convention). Part III consists of country reports on how national courts in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Slovenia are currently applying international law.
This book explores how moral factors exert influence on economy from an economic and philosophical point of view. The book takes an in-depth look at topics such as efficiency and coordination, fairness and identification, law and self-discipline and the third distribution, which have long been the focus of public attention. As expounded in this book, in places where regulation by market or government does work, there are still some gaps that the two modes of regulation cannot reach owing to the limitations of their influence. Each does compensate for the other's limitations, but only up to a point. The gap can only be filled by custom and morality. In this sense, regulation by custom and morality can be viewed as a regulatory mode beyond market and government. In a market economy, market regulation of resource allocation as a basic mode can be called "primary regulation" and government regulation, as a high-level mode, "secondary regulation. " Regulation that relies on the force of custom and morality, a regulation beyond market and government, can be called "the third regulation. " A variety of causes can give rise to market failure or government paralysis, rendering regulation by market or government ineffective or extremely limited. But even in such circumstances, custom and morality still exist and continue working as normal. What affects resource allocation, socio-economic operations and living standards is not just the power of market or government, but that of custom and morality. This book is one of the three published writings that best reflect Professor Li Yining's academic standpoint. Although written in economic language, the book also incorporates sociology, history and philosophy and will help the reader make better judgment calls in the face of changing market conditions and economic policies.
On 1 August 2008 the Chinese Anti-Monopoly Law entered into force, introducing a comprehensive framework for competition law to the Chinese market. One set of the new rules pertains to merger control. China's Ministry of Commerce (MOFCOM) was nominated as the authority responsible for enforcing merger control in China and has been actively doing so ever since. Recent years have established China as one of the most important merger filing jurisdictions for cross-border mergers alongside the EU and USA. This work evaluates the Chinese merger control law regime and MOFCOM's decision-making practice after more than five years of application. In particular, it assesses which policy goals (competition policy goals or industrial policy considerations) prevail in the written law and its application and provides suggestions for a further improvement of the law - with the aim to develop a transparent merger control regime that promotes long-term economic growth in China.
This book examines the concept and purpose of joint development agreements of offshore hydrocarbon deposits from the perspective of public international law and the law of the sea, taking into consideration and extensively reviewing State practice concerning seabed activities in disputed maritime areas and when hydrocarbon deposits extend across maritime boundaries. It distinguishes between agreements signed before and after the delimitation of maritime boundaries and analyzes the relevance of natural resources or unitization clauses included in maritime delimitation agreements. It also takes into consideration the relation between these resources and maritime delimitation and analyzes all the relevant international jurisprudence. Another innovative aspect of this book is that it examines the possibility of joint development of resources that lay between the continental shelf and the Area, considering both theoretical and practical problems. As such, the book is a useful tool for scholars and experts on public international law and the law of the sea, but also for national authorities and practitioners of international disputes resolution, as well as public and private entities working in the oil and gas industry.
This book examines the role of psychopharmacological treatment in a range of disorders that may be encountered during pregnancy, including major depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, bipolar affective disorder, schizophrenia, eating disorders and substance abuse. The natural history of each condition pre and post-partum is analyzed and the evidence for the efficacy of drug treatments, evaluated. Special attention is paid to the potential dangers of different treatment options for both mother and fetus, covering risks of malformation, pregnancy and obstetric risks, neonatal risks and possible long-term consequences. The risks of not treating a particular condition are also analyzed. On the basis of the available evidence, management guidelines are provided that additionally take into account non-pharmacological options. Closing chapters consider the value of complementary and alternative medicine and ECT and explore future research directions.
This book is designed to introduce law students, legal actors and human rights activists, particularly participants in human rights dialogues with China, to the process and reality of a newly confident China's participation in the international human rights system, albeit with inherent challenges. From an international and comparative perspective, one of the key findings of the author's research is that progress towards human rights depends more on judges than on legislators. Chinese legislators have enacted a series of reforms in order to better protect human rights. Unfortunately, these reforms have not led to greater adherence to China's international human rights obligations in practice. The reforms failed because they have generally been misunderstood by Chinese judges, who often have a limited understanding of international human rights norms. Specifically, this book will examine how judicial misunderstandings have blocked reforms in one specific area, the use of severe punishments, based on international human rights theory and case studies and data analyses. This examination has several purposes. The first is to suggest that China ratify the ICCPR as the next step for its substantive progress in human rights and as a good preparation for its re-applying to be a member of the UN Human Right Council in the future. The second is to explain how judges could be better educated in international human rights norms so as to greatly reduce the use of severe punishments and better comply with China's human rights obligations. The third is to demonstrate how the international community could better engage with China in a manner that is more conducive to human rights improvements. The author's ultimate goal is to enhance dialogue on human rights in China between judges and the Chinese government, between Chinese judges and their foreign counterparts and between China's government and the international community. Another significant aim of this book is to clarify the controversial question of what obligations China should undertake before its ratification of the ICCPR and to re-examine trends in its developing human rights policy after standing down from the Council in late 2012. The tortuous progress of China's criminal law and criminal justice reforms has confirmed that Chinese judges need further instruction on how to apply severe punishments in a manner consistent with international standards. Judges should be encouraged to exercise more discretion when sentencing so that penalties reflect the intent of relevant domestic laws as well as the international human rights standards enumerated in the ICCPR. In order to better educate and train judges, this book contains introductory chapters that examine the severe punishments currently available to Chinese judges from an international human rights perspective. To illustrate how Chinese justice currently falls short of international norms, this paper also examines several cases that are considered to be indicative of China's progress towards greater respect for human rights and the rule of law. These cases demonstrate that China still has a long way to go to achieve its goals, at least before abolishing the death penalty, forced labor and torture.
Extraterrestrial Altruism examines a basic assumption of the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI): that extraterrestrials will be transmitting messages to us for our benefit. This question of whether extraterrestrials will be altruistic has become increasingly important in recent years as SETI scientists have begun contemplating transmissions from Earth to make contact. Technological civilizations that transmit signals for the benefit of others, but with no immediate gain for themselves, certainly seem to be altruistic. But does this make biological sense? Should we expect altruism to evolve throughout the cosmos, or is this only wishful thinking? Is it dangerous to send messages to other worlds, as Stephen Hawking has suggested, or might humankind benefit from an exchange with intelligence elsewhere in the galaxy? Would extraterrestrial societies be based on different ethical principles, or would we see commonalities with Earthly notions of morality? Extraterrestrial Altruism explores these and related questions about the motivations of civilizations beyond Earth, providing new insights that are critical for SETI. Chapters are authored by leading scholars from diverse disciplines--anthropology, astronomy, biology, chemistry, computer science, cosmology, engineering, history of science, law, philosophy, psychology, public policy, and sociology. The book is carefully edited by Douglas Vakoch, Director of Interstellar Message Composition at the SETI Institute and professor of clinical psychology at the California Institute of Integral Studies. The Foreword is by Frank Drake. This interdisciplinary book will benefit everybody trying to understand whether evolution and ethics are unique to Earth, or whether they are built into the fabric of the universe.
Heinrich von Stackelberg's book, "Grundlagen einer reinen Kostentheorie", published in 1932 was at the forefront of a growing conceptual revolution in the theory of the firm, a theory which appears more relevant than ever in today's economic climate. In this work, Stackelberg masterfully built a theoretical framework which he later developed in Market Structure and Equilibrium. Foundations of a Pure Cost Theory represents the first translation of the original German version into English. This substantial book offers readers a critical and technical understanding of the firm, how firms function and the environments in which they operate. Fundamental notions of cost production, market economy, optimum position and velocities of production are given prominence. Ultimately, this work, which remains largely unknown, can be seen as a milestone text in our understanding of the strategies adopted by firms as a whole. The book has been meticulously translated from the German into English, retaining the author's examples in their historical context and capturing the spirit of the time with all its subtlety and significance.
At least 40 skin signs are associated with eating disorders (EDs), and some of them are considered guiding signs because they are indicative of an otherwise hidden ED. The role of the dermatologist in this context is to suspect the presence of a hidden ED based on these guiding signs. With this in mind, the most important specialists in the field come together in this book to document all of the dermatological aspects of EDs. General topics such as classification of EDs, epidemiology, and medical complications are first addressed, and skin signs attributable to various causes are then discussed in a series of detailed chapters. Characteristic changes in the hair, nails, and oral cavity are also carefully documented, and the closing chapters address various other related issues of interest. "Eating Disorders and the Skin" will be an invaluable source of up-to-date information for both novice and experienced dermatologists, as well as other practitioners, psychiatrists, and nurses.
This publication is designed to provide Master and PhD students with a concise introduction to conducting research in organisations. The aim is to impart knowledge for making the appropriate methodological choices and to give readers a practical guide to designing and executing a research. Over fifty concrete examples, exercises, discussions and short case studies give a good illustration of the practice of research so to enhance the understanding of the application of methodology in specific research contexts. Another special feature of this book is the extensive comparative Glossary of key methodological terms, ideas and notions that has been incorporated. Also, various checklists are provided to help students structure their research activities and reflect on key issues and choices that need to be made. Finally, more fundamental theoretical, ontological and epistemological issues and debates are touched upon and discussed in the footnotes.
This brief examines the challenges of integrating distributed energy resources and high-power elastic loads into low-voltage distribution grids, as well as the potential for pervasive measurement. It explores the control needed to address these challenges and achieve various system-level and user-level objectives. A mathematical framework is presented for the joint control of active end-nodes at scale, and extensive numerical simulations demonstrate that proper control of active end-nodes can significantly enhance reliable and economical operation of the power grid.
This book highlights the impact of nutrients on early placentation processes and their relevance for fetal growth and pregnancy outcome. The role of maternal nutrition on fetal growth and development has been evidenced in many epidemiological studies that included infamous Dutch famine, Helsinki Birth cohort and others. Fetal programming hypothesis states that the nutritional and other environmental conditions under which an individual develops from pre-conception to birth has a major impact on the future health of the newborn child. The developmental environment of the fetus is primarily dependent on two major factors that are maternal nutritional state (excess/low/imbalance) and placental function. Placentation is characterized by the extensive remodeling of the maternal uterine vasculature producing low-resistance blood vessels that facilitate the exchange of nutrients and wastes between the mother and the fetus. Cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in human placental blood vessel formation, which are now well established, are discussed.
This book describes the techniques, strategies, and drugs that have been demonstrated by at least one paper published in a peer-reviewed journal to significantly influence survival in patients with or at risk for acute kidney injury. Each chapter focuses on a specific intervention. The scope is accordingly wide, with coverage of topics as diverse as the type, timing, and dose of renal replacement therapy (RRT), anticoagulation and specific indications for RRT, perioperative hemodynamic optimization, fluid balance, diuretics, colloids, fenoldopam, terlipressin, N-acetylcysteine, and vasopressin. A variety of settings are considered, including critically ill patients, cardiac surgery, and hepatic and hematologic disorders. The topic selection was made using a democracy-based approach in which hundreds of specialists from dozens of countries expressed, via the web, whether they agreed with these topics and whether they used the techniques in their daily clinical practice. The clear text is supported by "how to do" sections and "key point" boxes that provide easily accessible practical information. The book will be of interest for a wide variety of specialists, including intensivists, nephrologists, emergency doctors, and anesthesiologists.
From ostracism on the playground to romantic rejection, bullying at work, and social disregard for the aged, individuals are at constant risk of experiencing instances of social exclusion, including ostracism, rejection, dehumanization, and discrimination. These phenomena have a powerful impact as testified by their immediate influence on people's thoughts, emotions, and behaviors. Social Exclusion: Psychological Approaches to Understanding and Reducing Its Impact investigates different psychological approaches, across multiple psychological subdisciplines, to understanding the causes and consequences of social exclusion and possible ways to reduce or buffer against its negative effects. The purpose of this volume is threefold. First, it lays the groundwork for the understanding of social exclusion research; reviewing the different instances of social exclusion in everyday life and methods to experimentally investigate them. Second, this volume brings together different psychological approaches to the topic of social exclusion. Leading scholars from around the world contribute perspectives from social psychology, social neuroscience, developmental psychology, educational psychology, work and organizational psychology, clinical psychology, and social gerontology to provide a comprehensive overview of social exclusion research in different psychological subdisciplines. Taken together, these chapters are conducive to the important development of new and more integrative research models on social exclusion. Finally, this volume discusses psychological strategies such as emotion regulation, psychological resources, and brain mechanisms that can reduce or buffer against the negative consequences of social exclusion. From school shootings to domestic violence, from cognitive impairment to suicide attempts, the negative impact of social exclusion has been widely documented. Thus, from an applied perspective, knowing potential ways to mitigate the negative effects of social exclusion can have a significant positive influence on people's--and society's--well-being. Overall, this book provides the reader with the knowledge to understand the impact of social exclusion and with tools to address it across many different contexts. Importantly, Social Exclusion: Psychological Approaches to Understanding and Reducing Its Impact aims to bridge the gap between the approaches of different psychological subdisciplines to this topic, working towards a comprehensive, integrative model of social exclusion.
Facilitating the collaboration between the basic, translational, and clinical sciences, this book provides an overview of the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms underlying the formation and progression of gynecological cancers. Gynecological Cancers: Genetic and Epigenetic Targets and Drug Development gathers all of the molecular and cellular aspects of gynecological cancer together within one volume, providing detailed and up-to-date information on the etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of gynecological cancers. Gynecological Cancers: Genetic and Epigenetic Targets and Drug Development also discusses the racial and ethnic disparities in the treatment of gynecological cancers through cost effective modalities like single visit screening and diagnosis, well women clinics, and mobile clinics. Written and edited by leaders in the field, this volume within the Current Clinical Oncology series is an indispensable resource for today's practicing oncologist.
This brief, accessible treatise harnesses the neurophysiological processes of learning to create an innovative and powerful approach to therapy. It sets out a non-pathologizing alternative not only to the current medicalized conception of diagnosis and treatment but also to the labeling of relatively normal reactions to stressors and upsets as illnesses. Rooted in the neurobiology of human learning, the book's approach to treatment, Neuro-Cognitive Learning Therapy, characterizes maladaptive behavior patterns as learned responses to upsetting conditions--processes which can be unlearned. In addition, the coverage includes a clinical teaching guide for bringing NCLT theoryand methods into the training curriculum. This groundbreaking volume: Proposes a non-stigmatizinglearning model for therapy, Neuro-Cognitive Learning Therapy. Introduces the concept of the connectome and explains its criticalrole in mental health and illness. Differentiates between theunconscious and automaticity in cognition and behavior. Addresses theapplicability of NCLT to biologically-based mental disorders. Offers case studies illustrating NCLT in contrast with commonly-used approaches. Includes a chapter-by-chapter clinical teaching guide with therapeutic principles and discussion questions. Provides a comprehensivetherapeutic framework for practitioners of all orientations. Depathologizing Psychopathology gives neuropsychologists, psychiatrists, clinical social workers, and child and school psychologists new ways of thinking about mental illness and learning about learning for a bold new step in the evolution of mind/brain knowledge.
This book thoroughly covers each subfield of respiratory mechanics: pulmonary mechanics, the respiratory pump, and flow. It presents the current understanding of the field and serves as a guide to the scientific literature from the golden age of respiratory mechanics, 1960 - 2010. Specific topics covered include the contributions of surface tension and tissue forces to lung recoil, the gravitational deformation of the lung, and the interdependence forces that act on pulmonary airways and blood vessels. The geometry and kinematics of the ribs is also covered in detail, as well as the respiratory action of the external and internal intercostal muscles, the mechanics of the diaphragm, and the quantitative compartmental models of the chest wall is also described. Additionally, flow in the airways is covered thoroughly, including the wave-speed and viscous expiratory flow-limiting mechanisms; convection, diffusion and the stationary front; and the distribution of ventilation. This is an ideal book for respiratory physiologists, pneumologists, exercise physiologists, and critical care physicians. This book also: Maximizes reader insights into current and landmark respiratory mechanics research Concisely yet thoroughly explores the current research on pulmonary mechanics, the respiratory pump, and flow Serves as an invaluable guide for those entering the field, or those seeking to expand their knowledge of it
This landmark volume introduces the new series ofproceedings from the Viktor Frankl Institute, dedicated to preserving the past,disseminating the present, and anticipating the future of Franklian existentialpsychology and psychotherapy, i. e. logotherapy and existentialanalysis . Wide-rangingcontents keep readers abreast of current ideas, findings, and developments inthe field while also presenting rarely-seen selections from Frankl's work. Established contributors report on new applications of existential therapies inspecific (OCD, cancer, end-of-life issues) and universal (the search formeaning) contexts as well as intriguing possibilities for opening up dialogue withother schools of psychology. And this initial offering establishes the tenor ofthe series by presenting varied materials across the field, including: Archival and unpublished articles and lectures by Frankl. Peer-reviewed studies on logotherapy process, measures, and research. New case studies using logotherapy and existential analysis in diverse settings. Papers advocating cross-disciplinary collaboration. Philosophical applications of existential psychology. Critical reviews of logotherapy-related books. Volume 1 of Logotherapyand Existential Analysis willattract a wide audience, including psychologists (clinical, social,personality, positive), psychotherapists of different schools, psychiatrists inprivate practice, and researchers in these fields. Practitioners in counseling,pastoral psychology, coaching, and medical care will also welcome this newsource of ideas and inspiration.
This volume looks forward and re-examines present day education and pedagogical practices in music and dance in the diverse cultural environments found in Oceania. The book also identifies a key issue of how teachers face the prospect of taking a reflexive view of their own cultural legacy in music and dance education as they work from and alongside different cultural worldviews. This key issue, amongst other debates that arise, positions Intersecting Cultures as an innovative text that fills a gap in the current market with highly appropriate and fresh ideas from primary sources. The book offers commentaries that underpin and inform current pedagogy and bigger picture policy for the performing arts in education in Oceania, and in parallel ways in other countries.
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