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The book assesses the adoption of counterterrorism measures in the Netherlands and the United States, which facilitate criminal investigations with a preventive focus (anticipative criminal investigations), from the perspective of rule of law principles. Anticipative criminal investigation has emerged in the legal systems of the Netherlands and the United States as a consequence of counterterrorism approaches where the objective of realizing terrorism prevention is combined with the objective to eventually prosecute and punish terrorists. This book has addressed this new preventive function of criminal justice and identified the rule of law principles limiting the role of criminal investigation in terrorism prevention. The possibilities and limits of criminal investigation in general and of cooperation and the division of responsibilities between law enforcement and intelligence have been addressed in a manner transcending differences between national legal systems. Valuable for academics and practitioners interested in criminal investigation, rule of law and counterterrorism.
Legal theory, political sciences, sociology, philosophy, logic, artificial intelligence: there are many approaches to legal argumentation. Each of them provides specific insights into highly complex phenomena. Different disciplines, but also different traditions in disciplines (e.g. analytical and continental traditions in philosophy) find here a rare occasion to meet. The present book contains contributions, both historical and thematic, from leading researchers in several of the most important approaches to legal rationality. One of the main issues is the relation between logic and law: the way logic is actually used in law, but also the way logic can make law explicit. An outstanding group of philosophers, logicians and jurists try to meet this issue. The book is more than a collection of papers. However different their respective conceptual tools may be, the authors share a common conception: legal argumentation is a specific argumentation context.
An expanded, fully illustrated, and up-to-date edition of the classic cultural history of vampires Vampyres is a comprehensive and generously illustrated history and anthology of vampires in literature, from the folklore of eastern Europe to the Romantics and beyond. It incorporates extracts from a huge range of sources--from Bram Stoker's detailed research notes for Dracula to penny dreadfuls, to Angela Carter's The Bloody Chamber (new to this edition) which is analyzed by the author in a broader cultural context. This revised and expanded edition of the 1978 classic brings Vampyres up to date with twenty-first-century vampire literature, including new text extracts, commentary, and a revised introduction. For the first time, Christopher Frayling also explores the development of the vampire in the visual arts in four color-plate sections, with illustrations ranging from eighteenth-century prints to twenty-first-century film stills, demonstrating the enduring appeal of the vampire from popular press to fine art and, finally, to film.
This important contribution to the scientific understanding of chemical risk regulation offers a coherent, comprehensive and updated multidisciplinary analysis, written by leading experts in toxicology, ecotoxicology, risk analysis, media and communication, law, and political science.
Whereas science, technology, and medicine have all called forth dedicated philosophical investigations, a fourth major contributor to the technoscientific world in which we all live - that is, engineering - has been accorded almost none of the philosophical attention it deserves. This volume thus offers a first characterisation of this important new field, by some of the primary philosophers and ethicists interested in engineering and leading engineers interested in philosophical reflections. The volume deals with such questions as: What is engineering? In what respect does engineering differ from science? What ethical problems does engineering raise? By what ethical principles are engineers guided? How do engineers themselves conceive of their profession? What do they see as the main philosophical challenges confronting them in the 21st century? The authors respond to these and other questions from philosophical and engineering view points and so illustrate how together they can meet the challenges and realize the opportunities present in the necessary encounters between philosophy and engineering - encounters that are ever more important in an increasingly engineered world and its problematic futures.
The book is a ready reckoner aimed at the student community aspiring to take up a career in bioinformatics. The book firstly provides a perspective on the domain and addresses the challenges faced by community namely the attempts to understand data produced by genome sequencing projects. It then brings to light High Performance Computing (HPC) as it helps in interpreting and analyzing genome sequences. The book also dwells on how interactions in a systems (organism), the components that interact with each other and the outcome of such interactions. It then calls for a consensus on the tools like rapid and inexpensive DNA sequencing technologies, HAPMAP projects, Dollar One Genome (DOG), to enable a reader understand how bioinformatics transits from research, to vocation and avocation. Further it extols the virtues of in silico for bioinformatical predictions as it helps wet-lab biologists reduce time for experiments. Also it describes the intricacies of bioinformatics and its usefulness to wet-based biologists and other cross-disciplinarians. The book lists out 10 reasons for taking up bioinformatics as a career, and includes insights from global experts on the domain. It also makes a case for a mediocre student getting into bioinformatics with discipline, determination, dynamism and diligence. The book further describes BioinformaTICKS a tool for emerging as a winner in bioinformatics.
This book presents theoretical examinations of why and how connecting people yields different results from those of the market mechanism alone. With an ever-greater disparity between the world's rich and poor, actions have been taken to remove the imperfections and remedy malfunctions of the market mechanism. An underlying theme of these activities is to connect people and make them directly visible to one another; thus the integrating concept of the "solidarity economy" emerges. This volume analyzes diverse examples and practices of solidarity economy. Adam Smith emphasized the importance of "sympathy" among people and the role of the "impartial spectator" in order to control otherwise reckless markets. These major concepts form the basis of a solidarity economy. The examples and practices in this book are based on this framework. The first is the idea of social business, promoted by Prof. M. Yunus of the Grameen Bank. Although the group of five members in the Grameen Bank organization is considered a system of mutual surveillance by some economists, it is not a system based on distrust but a mechanism for mutual help and encouragement. Also examined in this book is organic agriculture, which adheres to the necessity of face-to-face relationships. It pursues environmental concerns and food safety by bringing together consumers and producers in local areas and by sharing knowledge. When consumers and producers are widely separated, a system of certification assures consumers that no chemical pesticides and fertilizers are used. Connecting consumers and producers through certification systems can be seen as part of fair trade mechanisms. These mechanisms are applied in certified coffee programs, for instance, to reduce poverty, to protect the environment, and to safeguard human rights. This book proposes that all these seemingly different types of activities can be understood as part of the solidarity economy. With this unifying theme, the book will be useful for both theoretical investigations and practical applications.
This book presents new theory and empirical studies on the roles of cognitive workload and fatigue on repeated financial decisions. The mathematical models that are developed here utilize two cusp catastrophe functions for discontinuous changes in performance and integrate objective measures of workload, subjective experiences, and individual differences among the decision makers. Additional nonlinear dynamical processes are examined with regard to persistence and antipersistence in decisions, entropy, further explanations of overall performance, and the identification of risk-optimization profiles for long sequences of decisions.
This book presents the latest topics in ecological and evolutionary research on aquatic biodiversity from bacteria to fishes, with special reference to Lake Biwa, an ancient lake in western Japan. With a geological history of 4 million years, Lake Biwa is the third oldest lake in the world. It is considered a biodiversity hotspot, where 1,769 aquatic species including 61 endemics are recorded, providing a rare opportunity to study the evolutionary diversification of aquatic biota and its ecological consequences. The first chapter introduces the evolutionary history of biodiversity, especially of fish in this lake. In the second chapter, some examples of trophic polymorphism in fish are described. Fish are keystone predators in lake ecosystems, and they can be a major driver for altering biological communities through their top-down trophic cascading effects. An excellent laboratory experiment is presented, demonstrating that functional diversity of fish feeding morphology alters food web properties of plankton prey communities. The third chapter focuses on aquatic microbes, whose abundance and diversity may also be influenced by the diversity of fish through top-down trophic cascades. Aquatic microbes can have a strong impact on ecosystem functioning in lakes, and in this chapter, the latest molecular techniques used to examine genetic and functional diversity of microbial communities are introduced. The final chapter presents theoretical frameworks for predicting how biodiversity has the potential to control the incidence and intensity of human-induced regime shifts. While respecting the precious nature of biodiversity in lakes, it is essential to be aware that modern human activities have brought a crisis of biodiversity loss in lakes worldwide. Throughout this book, readers will learn why biodiversity must be conserved at all levels, from genes to ecosystems.
Total Synthesis of Bioactive Natural Products by Palladium-Catalyzed Domino Cyclization of Allenes and Related Compoundsby Shinsuke Inuki
The author has developed novel methodologies for highly efficient construction of functionalized heterocycles by palladium-catalyzed domino/cascade cyclization of allenes and related compounds containing appropriate nucleophilic group(s). Based on these methodologies, enantioselective total syntheses of bioactive natural products, pachastrissamine (26% overall yield in seven steps), lysergic acid (4.0% overall yield in fifteen steps), lysergol (3.6% overall yield in fifteen steps) and isolysergol (8.2% overall yield in eleven steps) have been achieved. These are more facile synthetic route than those previously reported. These findings would contribute to the development of efficient synthetic methods for biologically active compounds containing a complex structure.
This book was conceived in response to the increasing recognition of the central role of communication in effective healthcare delivery, particularly in high-stress contexts. Over a three-year period, the research team investigated communication between patients and clinicians in five representative emergency departments (EDs). The book describes the communicative complexity and intensity of work in the ED and identifies the features of successful patient-clinician interactions. Drawing on authentic examples of communication within the ED, the book provides comprehensive communication strategies for healthcare professionals that can be readily integrated into everyday practice. 'Professor Diana Slade and her colleagues have written an innovative and practical book on communication and relationships in emergency departments and their effects on the patient experience. Rarely does one find a book that so seamlessly translates research findings into practical action strategies. The book is an invaluable resource for the training of physicians, nurses, hospital administrators and others in healthcare. ' - Elizabeth A. Rider, MSW, MD, FAAP, Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School 'My participation in the UTS Emergency Communication project provided extraordinary insights into the complexities and subtleties of communication encounters during a patient's emergency department journey. This project has made a lasting impact on my daily work, and I hope will improve emergency patient care into the future. ' - Dr Nick Taylor, Emergency Medicine Specialist, The Canberra Hospital 'The captured clinical conversations between doctors, nurses and patients are fascinating. . . The discussion and conclusions provide a rare insight into an integral and critical component of Emergency Medicine practice. The team, led by Professor Slade, was truly unobtrusive, professional and personable. ' - Dr Marian Lee, Emergency Physician, Director of Emergency Medicine Training
Medicinal chemistry is both science and art. The science of medicinal chemistry offers mankind one of its best hopes for improving the quality of life. The art of medicinal chemistry continues to challenge its practitioners with the need for both intuition and experience to discover new drugs. Hence sharing the experience of drug research is uniquely beneficial to the field of medicinal chemistry. Drug research requires interdisciplinary team-work at the interface between chemistry, biology and medicine. Therefore, the topic-related series Topics in Medicinal Chemistry covers all relevant aspects of drug research, e. g. pathobiochemistry of diseases, identification and validation of (emerging) drug targets, structural biology, drugability of targets, drug design approaches, chemogenomics, synthetic chemistry including combinatorial methods, bioorganic chemistry, natural compounds, high-throughput screening, pharmacological in vitro and in vivo investigations, drug-receptor interactions on the molecular level, structure-activity relationships, drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, toxicology and pharmacogenomics. In general, special volumes are edited by well known guest editors.
China's trade surplus is an essential question, but there are many popular misconceptions about it, a fact that prompted the creation of this book, On China's Trade Surplus. It will help readers to understand the manner in which China's foreign trade and China's role in global trade have developed, and to how to benefit from trade with China. In this book, many hot topics are analyzed, such as: What promotes China's trade surplus? Why doesn't it have a trade deficit? What are the relations between trade frictions and China's trade surplus, and how can trade frictions be reduced? What is the deeper meaning of the U.S. trade deficit with China?
The book aims to dispel some of the myths surrounding the place of oral and written error correction in language education by providing an exhaustive and up-to-date account of issues involved in this area, taking the stance that the provision of corrective feedback constitutes an integral part of form-focused instruction. This account places an equal emphasis on the relevant theoretical claims, the most recent research findings and everyday pedagogical concerns, particularly as they apply to the teaching of additional languages in the foreign language setting. The book will be of relevance and significance not only to specialists in the field of second language acquisition, but also to graduate and doctoral students carrying out research in the area of form-focused instruction and error correction. Many parts of the volume will also be of considerable interest and utility to teachers of foreign languages at different educational levels.
The financial crisis prompted financial supervisors to take a critical look at their own performance. The "toolkit" available to supervisors is considerably more varied than it was a few years ago. Supervision has become more forward-looking, taking into account also soft controls, such as 'conduct and culture', corporate governance, and business models of financial institutions. This collection of essays discusses several significant changes in supervision methods and supervisory organisations and examines what methods contribute to 'good supervision' and what can reasonably be expected of supervisors. The authors are experts in the field and most of them are affiliated to organisations responsible for financial supervision.
Seeing a total solar eclipse is often described as a once-in-a-lifetime experience. However, for many who have experienced totality, once-in-a-lifetime is simply not enough. They want more, and are willing to go to great lengths often at great expense to repeat the experience. What is it like to experience totality? What is it about the experience that motivates these eclipse chasers? Is there an eclipse chaser personality? Can eclipse chasing actually be described as an addiction? This book describes the people who dedicate their lives to chasing their dream.
This book is designed to introduce doctoral and other higher-degree research students to the process of scientific research in the fields of Information Systems as well as fields of Information Technology, Business Process Management and other related disciplines within the social sciences. It guides research students in their process of learning the life of a researcher. In doing so, it provides an understanding of the essential elements, concepts and challenges of the journey into research studies. It also provides a gateway for the student to inquire deeper about each element covered . Comprehensive and broad but also succinct and compact, the book is focusing on the key principles and challenges for a novice doctoral student.
The health of the proteome depends upon protein quality control to regulate the proper synthesis, folding, translocation, and clearance of proteins. The cell is challenged constantly by environmental and physiological stress, aging, and the chronic expressions of disease associated misfolded proteins. Substantial evidence supports the hypothesis that the expression of damaged proteins initiates a cascade of molecular events that leads to Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington's disease, and other diseases of protein conformation.
The 2005 UNESCO Convention on Cultural Diversity is a landmark agreement in modern international law of culture. It reflects the diverse and pluralist understanding of culture, as well as its growing commercial dimension. Thirty diplomats, practitioners and academics explain and assess this important agreement in a commentary style. Article by article, the evolution, concepts, contents and implications of the Convention are analysed in depth and are complemented by valuable recommendations for implementation. In an unprecedented way, the book draws on the first-hand insights of negotiators and on the experience of practitioners in implementation, including international cooperation, and combines this with a good deal of critical academic reflection. It is a valuable guide for those who deal with the Convention and its implementation in governments, diplomacy, international organizations, cultural institutions and non-governmental organizations and will also serve as an important resource for academic work in such fields as international law and international relations.
This literature study presents an overview of underwater acoustic networking. It provides a background and describes the state of the art of all networking facets that are relevant for underwater applications. This report serves both as an introduction to the subject and as a summary of existing protocols, providing support and inspiration for the development of network architectures.
Quantum theory presents a strange picture of the world, offering no real account of physical properties apart from observation. Neils Bohr felt that this reflected a core truth of nature: "There is no quantum world. There is only an abstract mathematical description." Among the most significant developments since Bohr's day has been the theorem of John S. Bell. It is important to consider whether Bell's analysis supports such a denial of microrealism. In this book, we evaluate the situation in terms of an early work of Erwin Schrödinger. Doing so, we see how Bell's theorem is conceptually related to the Conway and Kochen Free Will theorem and also to all the major anti-realism efforts. It is easy to show that none of these analyses imply the impossibility of objective realism. We find that Schrödinger's work leads to the derivation of a new series of theoretical proofs and potential experiments, each involving "entanglement," the link between particles in some quantum systems. .
Meet Greg Kenton, billionaire in the making. Greg Kenton has two obsessions -- making money and his long-standing competition with his annoying neighbor, Maura Shaw. So when Greg discovers that Maura is cutting into his booming Chunky Comics business with her own original illustrated minibooks, he's ready to declare war. The problem is, Greg has to admit that Maura's books are good, and soon the longtime enemies become unlikely business partners. But their budding partnership is threatened when the principal bans the sale of their comics in school. Suddenly, the two former rivals find themselves united against an adversary tougher than they ever were to each other. Will their enterprise -- and their friendship -- prevail?
This book describes a laboratory experiment designed to test the causes and properties of bubbles in financial markets and explores the question whether it is possible to design markets which avoid such bubbles and crashes. In the experiment, subjects were given the opportunity to trade in a stock market modeled after the seminal work of Smith et al. (1988). To account for the increasing importance of online betting sites, subjects were also allowed to trade in a digital option market. The outcomes shed new light on how subjects form and update their expectations, placing special emphasis on the bounded rationality of investors. Various analytical bubble measures found in the literature are collected, calculated, classified and presented for the first time. The very interesting new bubble measures "Dispersion Ratio", "Overpriced Transactions" and "Underpriced Transactions" are developed, making the book an important step towards the research goal of preventing bubbles and crashes in financial markets.
This SpringerBrief provides state-of-the-art technical reviews on self-organizing and optimization in 5G systems. It covers the latest research results from physical-layer channel modeling to software defined network (SDN) architecture. This book focuses on the cutting-edge wireless technologies such as heterogeneous networks (HetNets), self-organizing network (SON), smart low power node (LPN), 3D-MIMO, and more. It will help researchers from both the academic and industrial worlds to better understand the technical momentum of 5G key technologies.