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The income that supports the activities of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) comes from two major sources: program revenue received from sponsors to pay for the myriad studies and other activities undertaken each year by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, and a much smaller sum that is obtained from our endowment under the endowment spending policies adopted by the Council. The goal of the endowment is to provide stable support for the Academy's programs and activities. To achieve this goal, the Council, acting on the recommendations of the Finance Committee, has historically authorized spending from the portfolio at a rate designed to maintain the purchasing power of the endowment over time.
The original charter of the Space Science Board was established in June 1958, 3 months before the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) opened its doors. The Space Science Board and its successor, the Space Studies Board (SSB), have provided expert external and independent scientific and programmatic advice to NASA on a continuous basis from NASA's inception until the present. The SSB has also provided such advice to other executive branch agencies, including the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Science Foundation (NSF), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Department of Defense, as well as to Congress. Space Studies Board Annual Report 2013 covers a message from the chair of the SSB, Charles F. Kennel. This report also explains the origins of the Space Science Board, how the Space Studies Board functions today, the SSB's collaboration with other National Research Council units, assures the quality of the SSB reports, acknowledges the audience and sponsors, and expresses the necessity to enhance the outreach and improve dissemination of SSB reports. This report will be relevant to a full range of government audiences in civilian space research - including NASA, NSF, NOAA, USGS, and the Department of Energy, as well members of the SSB, policy makers, and researchers.
Founded during the Civil War as the Army Medical Museum, the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) amassed the world's largest collection of human pathologic specimens and was considered a premier consultation, education, and research facility by the end of the 20th century. Samples from the AFIP were instrumental in helping to solve public health mysteries, such as the sequence of the genome of the 1918 influenza virus that killed more than 40 million people worldwide. In 2005, the federal Base Realignment and Closure Commission recommended that the AFIP be closed, and its biorepository was transferred to the newly created Joint Pathology Center. During the transition, the Department of Defense asked the IOM to provide advice on operating the biorepository, managing its collection, and determining appropriate future use of specimens for consultation, education, and research. Future Uses of the Department of Defense Joint Pathology Center Biorepository, the IOM proposes a series of protocols, standards, safeguards, and guidelines that could help to ensure that this national treasure continues to be available to researchers in the years to come, while protecting the privacy of the people who provided the materials and maintaining the security of their personal information.
The Growing Gap in Life Expectancy by Income: Implications for Federal Programs and Policy Responsesby Committee on the Long-Run Macroeconomic Effects of the Aging U.S. Population
The U.S. population is aging. Social Security projections suggest that between 2013 and 2050, the population aged 65 and over will almost double, from 45 million to 86 million. One key driver of population aging is ongoing increases in life expectancy. Average U.S. life expectancy was 67 years for males and 73 years for females five decades ago; the averages are now 76 and 81, respectively. It has long been the case that better-educated, higher-income people enjoy longer life expectancies than less-educated, lower-income people. The causes include early life conditions, behavioral factors (such as nutrition, exercise, and smoking behaviors), stress, and access to health care services, all of which can vary across education and income.
The 2013-2014 annual report highlights the establishment and first activities of the Gulf Research Program, an independent, science-based program founded in 2013. Through grants, fellowships, and other activities, the Gulf Research Program seeks to enhance oil system safety and the protection of human health and the environment in the Gulf of Mexico and other regions along the U.S. outer continental shelf with offshore oil and gas operations.
Sharing research data on public health issues can promote expanded scientific inquiry and has the potential to advance improvements in public health. Although sharing data is the norm in some research fields, sharing of data in public health is not as firmly established. In March 2015, the National Research Council organized an international conference in Stellenbosch, South Africa, to explore the benefits of and barriers to sharing research data within the African context. The workshop brought together public health researchers and epidemiologists primarily from the African continent, along with selected international experts, to talk about the benefits and challenges of sharing data to improve public health, and to discuss potential actions to guide future work related to public health research data sharing. Sharing Research Data to Improve Public Health in Africa summarizes the presentations and discussions from this workshop.
This ground-breaking collection provides hours of enjoyment for the general reader and a wealth of materials needed to develop course units on black women; political theory, literary essays on major writers, guidelines for consciousness-raising about racism, and surveys of black women's contributions to the blues. "Important and innovative. "--Feminist Bookstore News
What birth control method is most reliable? Can contraceptives protect me from AIDS? How can I choose the method that's best for me? Finding the answers to these and other questions about birth control can be tough. On the one hand, today's sexually active person has many contraceptive options. On the other hand, each option has pluses and minuses that must be weighed.For teenagers especially, asking questions about birth control can be awkward and difficult. Yet teenagers may be in greatest need of the facts.While there is no #quote#right#quote# method for everyone, The Whole Truth About Contraception is the right book for anyone making decisions about contraception--men and women, from teenagers to middle-agers. It illustrates male and female anatomy and explains how conception occurs. The book carefully describes the birth control methods available today: barrier (such as condoms and diaphragms), hormonal (the Pill and Norplant), intrauterine devices, surgical sterilization, and other approaches such as the #quote#rhythm#quote# method and breastfeeding as a contraceptive.For each method the authors discuss how well it prevents pregnancy, its potential effects on the user's health, and common problems. Illustrated #quote#how to#quote# sections are provided, and the authors comment on how each method typically affects sexual experience. The book also discusses how birth control products can be obtained and their cost.Precautions, tips on usage, and other features throughout the book will help each reader decide what type of contraception is best for his or her age, personal preferences, and situation in life.The Whole Truth About Contraception gives up-to-date information on new products, such as the female condom and the nonlatex male condom. The book provides details about contraception and sexually transmitted diseases, with an emphasis on AIDS.Also offered is an expanded discussion of #quote#emergency#quote# contraception, designed for use after unprotected sex. The book includes a full and factual discussion of abortion.Contraception may be the most important and deeply personal choice anyone has to make. This book provides the straight facts that will make the decision easier--and the results better for everyone.
Extremely hazardous substances (EHSs), as defined in the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986, can be released accidentally as a result of chemical spills, industrial explosions, fires, or accidents involving railroad cars or trucks used in transporting these substances, or intentionally through terrorist activities. It is also feasible that these substance can be released by improper storage and/or handling. Workers and residents in communities surrounding industrial facilities where EHSs are manufactured, used, or stored and in communities along the nation's railways and highways are potentially at risk of being exposed to airborne EHSs during accidental and intentional releases. This report provides technical guidance on establishing community Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) for certain hazardous chemicals. It reviews the scientific validity of AEGLs developed by the national Advisory Committee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances, identifies research priorities, and identifies guidance issues that may require modification or further development based on the toxicological database for the chemicals reviewed. This twelfth interim report offers recommendations for improving AEGLs for the following 15 chemicals: toluene, xylenes, ammonia, bromine, aniline, methyl ethyl ketone, hydrazine, iron pentacarbonyl, phosphine, chlorine, trifluoride, ethyleneimine, propyleneimine, allyl alcohol, ethylene oxide, and nickel carbonyl.
Cardiac arrest can strike a seemingly healthy individual of any age, race, ethnicity, or gender at any time in any location, often without warning. Cardiac arrest is the third leading cause of death in the United States, following cancer and heart disease. Four out of five cardiac arrests occur in the home, and more than 90 percent of individuals with cardiac arrest die before reaching the hospital. First and foremost, cardiac arrest treatment is a community issue - local resources and personnel must provide appropriate, high-quality care to save the life of a community member. Time between onset of arrest and provision of care is fundamental, and shortening this time is one of the best ways to reduce the risk of death and disability from cardiac arrest. Specific actions can be implemented now to decrease this time, and recent advances in science could lead to new discoveries in the causes of, and treatments for, cardiac arrest. However, specific barriers must first be addressed.
TRB Special Report 315: Funding and Managing the U.S. Inland Waterways System: What Policy Makers Need to Knowby Committee on Reinvesting in Inland Waterways: What Policy Makers Need to Know
Major additions to transportation infrastructure, including high-speed rail, are being considered for some of the country's most heavily traveled 100- to 500-mile corridors. The availability and use of the automobile, airplane, and train for interregional travel are reviewed along with the rejuvenated intercity bus. U.S. interregional corridors and transportation options are contrasted with those in Japan and Europe, where substantial investments have been made in passenger rail.
Cybersecurity Dilemmas: Technology, Policy, and Incentives: Summary of Discussions at the 2014 Raymond and Beverly Sackler U.S.-U.K. Scientific Forumby National Academy Of Sciences
Individuals, businesses, governments, and society at large have tied their future to information technologies, and activities carried out in cyberspace have become integral to daily life. Yet these activities - many of them drivers of economic development - are under constant attack from vandals, criminals, terrorists, hostile states, and other malevolent actors. In addition, a variety of legitimate actors, including businesses and governments, have an interest in collecting, analyzing, and storing information from and about individuals and organizations, potentially creating security and privacy risks. Cybersecurity is made extremely difficult by the incredible complexity and scale of cyberspace. The challenges to achieving cybersecurity constantly change as technologies advance, new applications of information technologies emerge, and societal norms evolve.
The light-duty vehicle fleet is expected to undergo substantial technological changes over the next several decades. New powertrain designs, alternative fuels, advanced materials and significant changes to the vehicle body are being driven by increasingly stringent fuel economy and greenhouse gas emission standards. By the end of the next decade, cars and light-duty trucks will be more fuel efficient, weigh less, emit less air pollutants, have more safety features, and will be more expensive to purchase relative to current vehicles. Though the gasoline-powered spark ignition engine will continue to be the dominant powertrain configuration even through 2030, such vehicles will be equipped with advanced technologies, materials, electronics and controls, and aerodynamics. And by 2030, the deployment of alternative methods to propel and fuel vehicles and alternative modes of transportation, including autonomous vehicles, will be well underway. What are these new technologies - how will they work, and will some technologies be more effective than others?
Considerations for the Design of a Systemic Review of Interventions for Preventing Clinical Alzheimer's-Type Dementia, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Age-Related Cognitive Decline: Letter Reportby Committee on Decreasing the Risk of Alzheimer's-Type Dementia Mild Cognitive Impairment Age-Related Cognitive Impairment
The National Institutes of Health - and many other organizations and individuals worldwide - are interested in the state of the science on preventing Alzheimer's disease, mild cognitive impairment, and age-related cognitive decline. This letter report reviews the evidence on interventions to decrease the risk of developing clinical Alzheimer's-type dementia and mild cognitive impairment, and delay or slow age-related cognitive decline. It also makes recommendations that inform public health messaging on preventative interventions and recommendations for future research.
Considerations for Designing an Epidemiologic Study for Multiple Sclerosis and Other Neurologic Disorders in Pre and Post 9/11 Gulf War Veteransby Committee on Designing Epidemiologic Study for Multiple Sclerosis Other Neurologic Disorders in Veterans of the Persian Gulf Post 9/11 Wars
During and after a disaster, text messages, tweets, Smartphone apps, and social networks, along with 24-hour cable news and other media, deliver relevant information to emergency responders, decision-makers, and the general public. Participants in the workshop "How Communities Can Use Risk Assessment Results: Making Ends Meet" identified ways to use these technologies to communicate the risk associated with an emergency or disaster event, identify and assess real-time conditions in impacted areas, and inform the efforts of responders. This workshop was one session in the World Bank's conference on "Understanding Risk: Innovation in Disaster Risk Assessment." Workshop participants emphasized three core messages: (1) the need to integrate bottom-up communications from citizens to keep emergency responders and managers informed of changing conditions; (2) the need to prepare people for disaster and emergency situations, including expected emotional reactions, developing and practicing emergency plans, and improving communications and preparedness; and (3) the importance of virtual and personal social networks in increasing resilience and connecting the technological risk assessments with increased resilience to emergency and disaster events.
Financial Incentives to Encourage Development of Therapies That Address Unmet Medical Needs for Nervous System Disorders: Workshop Summaryby Sheena M. Posey Norris
The Institute of Medicine (IOM) Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders, in collaboration with the IOM Forum on Drug Discovery, Development, and Translation, convened a workshop on January 20-21, 2015, to explore policy changes that might increase private sector investment in research and development innovation that fills unmet medical needs for central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Workshop participants strategized about how to incentivize companies to fortify their CNS drug development programs, shrinking obstacles that currently deter ventures. Representatives from academia, government agencies, patient groups, and industry gathered to share information and viewpoints, and to brainstorm about budget-neutral policy changes that could help widen the pipeline toward drugs that address unmet needs for CNS disorders. This report summarizes the presentations and discussion of the workshop.
Electronic Scientific, Technical, And Medical Journal Publishing And Its Implications: Report Of A Symposiumby The National Academies
The Symposium on Electronic Scientific, Technical, and Medical (STM) Journals and Its Implications addressed five key areas. The first two areas addressed--costs of publication and publication business models and revenue--focused on the STM publishing enterprise as it exists today and, in particular, how it has evolved since the advent of electronic publishing. The following section reviewed copyright and licensing issues of concern to the authors and to universities. The final two sessions looked toward the future, specifically, at what publishing may be in the future and what constitutes a publication in the digital environment.
From its very beginning, neuroscience has been fundamentally interdisciplinary. As a result of rapid technological advances and the advent of large collaborative projects, however, neuroscience is expanding well beyond traditional subdisciplines and intellectual boundaries to rely on expertise from many other fields, such as engineering, computer science, and applied mathematics. This raises important questions about to how to develop and train the next generation of neuroscientists to ensure innovation in research and technology in the neurosciences. In addition, the advent of new types of data and the growing importance of large datasets raise additional questions about how to train students in approaches to data analysis and sharing. These concerns dovetail with the need to teach improved scientific practices ranging from experimental design (e.g., powering of studies and appropriate blinding) to improved sophistication in statistics. Of equal importance is the increasing need not only for basic researchers and teams that will develop the next generation of tools, but also for investigators who are able to bridge the translational gap between basic and clinical neuroscience.
The U.S. Air Force has experienced many acquisition program failures - cost overruns, schedule delays, system performance problems, and sustainability concerns - over program lifetimes. A key contributing factor is the lack of sufficient technical knowledge within the Air Force concerning the systems being acquired to ensure success.
Summary: Diplomacy for the 21st Century: Embedding a Culture of Science and Technology Throughout the Department of Stateby David E. Liddle
Diplomacy for the 21st Century recommends steps that the department should embrace in order to take full advantage of the leading science and technology (S&T) capabilities of the United States. These capabilities provide the department with many opportunities to promote a variety of the interests of the United States and its allies in a rapidly changing world wherein S&T are important drivers of economic development at home and abroad and help ensure international security. This summary version highlights the main ideas and key messages of the full report.
In the Coast Guard Authorization Act of 1996, the United States Coast Guard (USCG) was directed to assess the risk of spills for oils that may sink or be negatively buoyant, to examine and evaluate existing cleanup technologies, and to identify and appraise technological and financial barriers that could impede a prompt response to such spills. The USCG requested that the National Research Council (NRC) perform these tasks. In response to this request, the NRC established the Committee on the Marine Transportation of Heavy Oils.
Review of NASA's Evidence Reports on Human Health Risks 2014 Letter Report is the second in a series of five reports from the Institute of Medicine that will independently review more than 30 evidence reports that the National Aeronautics and Space Administration has compiled on human health risks for long-duration and exploration space flights. This report builds on the 2008 IOM report Review of NASA's Human Research Program Evidence Books: A Letter Report, which provided an initial and brief review of the evidence reports.
In 2010, NASA and the National Science Foundation asked the National Research Council to assemble a committee of experts to develop an integrated national strategy that would guide agency investments in solar and space physics for the years 2013-2022. That strategy, the result of nearly 2 years of effort by the survey committee, which worked with more than 100 scientists and engineers on eight supporting study panels, is presented in the 2013 publication, Solar and Space Physics: A Science for a Technological Society. This booklet, designed to be accessible to a broader audience of policymakers and the interested public, summarizes the content of that report.
The National Academies Press (NAP)--publisher for the National Academies--publishes more than 200 books a year offering the most authoritative views, definitive information, and groundbreaking recommendations on a wide range of topics in science, engineering, and health. Our books are unique in that they are authored by the nation's leading experts in every scientific field.