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THE U.S. COMMITMENT TO GLOBAL HEALTH: Recommendations for the New Administration

by Institute of Medicine of the National Academies

At this historic moment, the incoming Obama administration and leaders of the U.S. Congress have the opportunity to advance the welfare and prosperity of people within and beyond the borders of the United States through intensified and sustained attention to better health. The United States can improve the lives of millions around the world, while reflecting America's values and protecting and promoting the nation's interests. The Institute of Medicine-with the support of four U.S. government agencies and five private foundations-formed an independent committee to examine the United States' commitment to global health and to articulate a vision for future U.S. investments and activities in this area.

Great Lakes Shipping, Trade, And Aquatic Invasive Species

by National Research Council of the National Academies

TRB Special Report 291: Great Lakes Shipping, Trade, and Aquatic Invasive Species reviews existing research and efforts to date to reduce aquatic invasive species introductions into the Great Lakes and identifies ways that these efforts could be strengthened toward an effective solution. Since its opening in 1959, the St. Lawrence Seaway has provided a route into the Great Lakes not only for trade, but also unfortunately for aquatic invasive species (AIS) that have had severe economic and environmental impacts on the region. Prevention measures have been introduced by the governments of Canada and the United States, but reports of newly discovered AIS continue, and only time will tell what impacts these species may have. Pressure to solve the problem has even led to proposals that the Seaway be closed. The committee that developed the report recommends that trade should continue on the St. Lawrence Seaway but with a more effective suite of prevention measures to reduce the introduction of aquatic invasive species that evolves over time in response to lessons learned and new technologies.

Potential Impacts of CLIMATE CHANGE on U.S. Transportation

by National Research Council of the National Academies

The National Academies Press (NAP)--publisher for the National Academies--publishes more than 200 books a year offering the most authoritative views, definitive information, and groundbreaking recommendations on a wide range of topics in science, engineering, and health. Our books are unique in that they are authored by the nation's leading experts in every scientific field.

Research Priorities in Emergency Preparedness and Response for Public Health Systems: A Letter Report

by Institute of Medicine of the National Academies

Schools of public health act as a resource by providing expertise to strengthen our nation's emergency response systems. In response to the Pandemic and All Hazards Preparedness Act (PAHPA), there is an immediate and critical need to define research priorities for the Centers for Public Health Preparedness (CPHP) at schools of public health. It is because of this crucial need, that the Institute of Medicine (IOM) convened an ad hoc committee, conducted a fast-track study, and issued the book entitled Research Priorities in Emergency Preparedness and Response for Public Health Systems. The book defines a set of near-term research priorities for emergency preparedness and response in public health systems. These priorities will be used by the Coordinating Office for Terrorism Preparedness and Emergency Response (COPTER) to help develop a research agenda that will in turn be used to inform research funding opportunity announcements. After considering the information presented during the public meeting and workshop and based on its expert judgment, the committee identified four priority areas for research that represent specific important aspects of systems of public health preparedness. The four areas are enhancing the usefulness of training; improving timely emergency communications; creating and maintaining sustainable response systems; and generating effectiveness criteria and metrics.

Commerce and Coalitions: How Trade Affects Domestic Political Alignments

by Ronald Rogowski

Why do countries differ so greatly in their patterns of political cleavage and coalition? Extending some basic findings of economic theories of international trade, Ronald Rogowski suggests a startling new answer. Testing his hypothesis chiefly against the evidence of the last century and a half, but extending it also to the ancient world and the sixteenth century, he finds a surprising degree of confirmation and some intriguing exceptions.

The English Levellers

by Andrew Sharp

The levellers were a crucial component of a radically democratic movement that came together during the English civil wars. Much leveller activity occurred in print and their texts now form an important part of the liberal and social democratic canon. This edition contains an introduction by the editor that sets the leveller ideas in their context and, together with a chronology and short biographies of the leading figures, is essential reading for students of the English civil wars and the history of political thought.

Cornucopia II: A Source Book of Edible Plants

by Stephen Facciola

An encyclopedia of some 3,000 species of edible plants, selecting those cultivars of them that are traditional and well-adapted favorites, family heirlooms, gourmet and specialty market items, and the most promising of the newest releases. The articles include common and scientific names and describe habitat and growing requirements, the part of the plant used, methods of preparation, where it is or has been used traditionally, and sources for obtaining it. The first edition sprouted in 1990. The publisher's address is 1870 Sunrise Dr. Vista, CA 92084. Annotation copyrighted by Book News, Inc. , Portland, OR

Statistical Treatment of Experimental Data

by Hugh D. Young

Dealing with statistical treatment of experimental data, this text covers topics such as errors, probability, the binomial distribution, the Poisson distribution, the Gauss distribution, method of least squares and standard deviation of the mean.

The Structure of Magic (Volume 1)

by Richard Bandler John Grinder

These seminal works in neurolinguistic programming (NLP) help therapists understand how people create inner models of the world to represent their experience and guide their behavior. Volume I describes the Meta Model, a framework for comprehending the structure of language; Volume II applies NLP theory to nonverbal communication.

Upanishads (Volume 1)

by Joseph Campbell Swami Nikhilananda

THIS BOOK is a translation of four Upanishads: Katha, Iśa, Kena, and Mundaka. Written originally in melodious and inspiring Sanskrit verse, they set forth the reality of Brahman, the unsubstantiality of the phenomenal universe, and the ultimate oneness of the jiva, or indi¬vidual soul, and Brahman, or the Supreme Soul. They also teach the unity of existence, the non-duality of the Godhead, and the harmony of religions.

Experimentation And Evaluation Plans For The 2010 Census: Interim Report

by National Research Council of the National Academies

For the past 50 years, the Census Bureau has conducted experiments and evaluations with every decennial census involving field data collection during which alternatives to current census processes are assessed for a subset of the population. An "evaluation" is usually a post hoc analysis of data collected as part of the decennial census processing to determine whether individual steps in the census operated as expected. The 2010 Program for Evaluations and Experiments, known as CPEX, has enormous potential to reduce costs and increase effectiveness of the 2020 census by reducing the initial list of potential research topics from 52 to 6. The panel identified three priority experiments for inclusion in the 2010 census to assist 2020 census planning: (1) an experiment on the use of the Internet for data collection; (2) an experiment on the use of administrative records for various census purposes; and (3) an experiment (or set of experiments) on features of the census questionnaire. They also came up with 11 recommendations to improve efficiency and quality of data collection including allowing use of the Internet for data submission and including one or more alternate questionnaire experiments to examine things such as the representation of race and ethnicity.

Is America Falling Off The Flat Earth?

by National Academy of Engineering National Academy of Science Institute of Medicine of the National Academies

The National Academies Press (NAP)--publisher for the National Academies--publishes more than 200 books a year offering the most authoritative views, definitive information, and groundbreaking recommendations on a wide range of topics in science, engineering, and health. Our books are unique in that they are authored by the nation's leading experts in every scientific field.

METROPOLITAN TRAVEL FORECASTING: Current Practice and Future Direction

by Transportation Research Board of the National Academies

TRB Special Report 288, Metropolitan Travel Forecasting: Current Practice and Future Direction, examines metropolitan travel forecasting models that provide public officials with information to inform decisions on major transportation system investments and policies. The report explores what improvements may be needed to the models and how federal, state, and local agencies can achieve them. According to the committee that produced the report, travel forecasting models in current use are not adequate for many of today's necessary planning and regulatory uses.


by National Research Council of the National Academies

The United States has enduring national and strategic interests in the polar regions, including citizens living above the Arctic circle and three year-round scientific stations in the Antarctic. Polar icebreaking ships are needed to access both regions. Over the past several decades, the U.S. government has supported a fleet of four icebreakers -- three multi-mission U.S. Coast Guard ships (the POLAR SEA, POLAR STAR, and HEALY) and the National Science Foundation’s PALMER, which is dedicated solely to scientific research. Today, the POLAR STAR and the POLAR SEA are at the end of their service lives, and a lack of funds and no plans for an extension of the program has put U.S. icebreaking capability at risk. This report concludes that the United States should continue to support its interests in the Arctic and Antarctic for multiple missions, including maintaining leadership in polar science. The report recommends that the United States immediately program, budget, design, and construct two new polar icebreakers to be operated by the U.S. Coast Guard. The POLAR SEA should remain mission capable and the POLAR STAR should remain available for reactivation until the new polar icebreakers enter service. The U.S. Coast Guard should be provided sufficient operations and maintenance budget to support an increased, regular, and influential presence in the Arctic, with support from other agencies. The report also calls for a Presidential Decision Directive to clearly align agency responsibilities and budgetary authorities.

Tires and Passenger Vehicle Fuel Economy: Informing Consumers, Improving Performance

by National Research Council of the National Academies

TRB and the Board on Energy and Environmental Systems, part of the National Academies’ Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences (DEPS), have released Special Report 286, Tires and Passenger Vehicle Fuel Economy: Informing Consumers, Improving Performance. This report examines the contribution of tires to vehicle fuel consumption and the prospects for improving tire energy performance without adversely affecting tire life, traction capability, and retail prices. The report reviews the technical literature and analyzes energy performance data from nearly 200 passenger tires on the market today. National fuel savings from improving the energy efficiency of passenger tires by 10 percent are quantified and the implications for consumer spending on tires, motor vehicle safety, and scrap tire generation are considered. Observing that consumers are given little, if any, information on the fuel economy effects of tires, the report recommends that government and industry cooperate to fill this information gap.


by National Research Council of the National Academies

The chemical sector is a key part of the national economy and has been designated by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) as one of 17 sectors comprising the nation's Critical Infrastructure. Although its products represent only 2 percent of the U.S. gross domestic product, those products underpin most other manufactured goods. To assist DHS in characterizing and mitigating the vulnerabilities faced by the nation from the chemical industry, this study examines classes of chemicals and chemical processes that are critical to the nation's security, economy, and health. It identifies vulnerabilities and points of weakness in the supply chain for these chemicals and chemical processes; assesses the likely impact of a significant disruption in the supply chain; identifies actions to help prevent disruption in the supply chain and mitigate loss and injury should such disruption occur; identifies incentives and disincentives to preventative and mitigating actions; and recommends areas of scientific, engineering, and economic research and development. The report concludes that the consequences of a deliberate attack on the chemical infrastructure would be expected to be similar in nature to the accidents we have already experienced. Under limited circumstances, such an attack could cause catastrophic casualties and loss of life, but it would take several simultaneous events to cause catastrophic economic consequences. Poor communication could amplify societal response. Overall, the recommendations in this report emphasize the benefit of investments to improve emergency preparedness for and response to chemical events. They also highlight the potential to minimize the physical hazards through development of cost-effective, safer processes that reduce the volume, toxicity, or hazardous conditions under which chemicals are processed.


by Transportation Research Board of the National Academies

TRB Special Report 285: The Fuel Tax and Alternatives for Transportation Funding examines the viability of existing revenue sources, the merits of present transportation finance arrangements, and potential directions for reform of transportation finance. According to the report, fuel taxes can remain the primary funding source for the nation's highways for at least another decade, but eventually replacing them with a system for metering road use and charging accordingly could benefit travelers and the public. In addition, the committee that developed the report suggests that while the current funding system helps maintain existing highways and build new ones and ensures that users pay most of these costs, it does not help transportation agencies alleviate congestion or target investment in the most valuable projects.

Going The Distance?: The Safe Transport Of Spent Nuclear Fuel And High-level Radioactive Waste In The United States

by National Research Council of the National Academies

This new report from the National Research Council’s Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board (NRSB) and the Transportation Research Board reviews the risks and technical and societal concerns for the transport of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the United States. Shipments are expected to increase as the U.S. Department of Energy opens a repository for spent fuel and high-level waste at Yucca Mountain, and the commercial nuclear industry considers constructing a facility in Utah for temporary storage of spent fuel from some of its nuclear waste plants. The report concludes that there are no fundamental technical barriers to the safe transport of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive and the radiological risks of transport are well understood and generally low. However, there are a number of challenges that must be addressed before large-quantity shipping programs can be implemented successfully. Among these are managing "social" risks. The report does not provide an examination of the security of shipments against malevolent acts but recommends that such an examination be carried out.

Extending the Effective Lifetimes of Earth Observing Research Missions

by National Research Council of the National Academies

While NASA Earth Science missions are planned on the basis of a specified lifetime, often they are able to function beyond the end of that period. Until recently NASA had no formal mechanism for determining whether those missions should be extended or whether the resources necessary for the extension should be applied to new missions. In August 2004, when NASA merged Earth and space sciences, the agency began using the Science Review process to make those extension determinations. NASA had asked the NRC to assess extension review processes, and after the merger, this study focused on the Science Review process. This report presents an assessment of that process and provides recommendations for adapting it to Earth Science missions.

A Vision For The International Polar Year 2007-2008

by National Research Council of the National Academies

In 2007-2008, many nations around the world will host an intense, coordinated field campaign of polar observations, research, and analysis called the "International Polar Year." This report presents an overview of potential science themes, enabling technologies, and public outreach opportunities that can be used to focus International Polar Year on societal needs. The committee recommends that the U.S. scientific community and participating agencies use this opportunity to better understand environmental change and variability in the polar regions; explore new scientific frontiers ranging from the molecular to the planetary scales; and engage the public through varied educations and outreach activities.

SCHRÖDINGER'S RABBITS: the many worlds of quantum

by Colin Bruce

For the better part of a century, attempts to explain what was really going on in the quantum world seemed doomed to failure. But recent technological advances have made the question both practical and urgent. A brilliantly imaginative group of physicists at Oxford University have risen to the challenge. This is their story. At long last, there is a sensible way to think about quantum mechanics. The new view abolishes the need to believe in randomness, long-range spooky forces, or conscious observers with mysterious powers to collapse cats into a state of life or death. But the new understanding comes at a price: we must accept that we live in a multiverse wherein countless versions of reality unfold side-by-side. The philosophical and personal consequences of this are awe-inspiring. The new interpretation has allowed imaginative physicists to conceive of wonderful new technologies: measuring devices that effectively share information between worlds and computers that can borrow the power of other worlds to perform calculations. Step by step, the problems initially associated with the original many-worlds formulation have been addressed and answered so that a clear but startling new picture has emerged. Just as Copenhagen was the centre of quantum discussion a lifetime ago, so Oxford has been the epicenter of the modern debate, with such figures as Roger Penrose and Anton Zeilinger fighting for single-world views, and David Deutsch, Lev Vaidman and a host of others for many-worlds. An independent physicist living in Oxford, Bruce has had a ringside seat to the debate. In his capable hands, we understand why the initially fantastic sounding many-worlds view is not only a useful way to look at things, but logically compelling. Parallel worlds are as real as the distant galaxies detected by the Hubble Space Telescope, even though the evidence for their existence may consist only of a few photons.

Development and Deployment of Standards for Intelligent Transportation Systems: Review of the Federal Program

by Transportation Research Board of the National Academies

TRB Special Report 280 – Development and Deployment of Standards for Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS): Review of the Federal Program presents recommendations for future management of the Federal Highway Administration’s ITS Standards Program.

Where The Weather Meets The Road: A Research Agenda For Improving Road Weather Services

by National Research Council of the National Academies

Weather has broad and significant effects on the roadway environment. Snow, rain, fog, ice, freezing rain, and other weather conditions can impair the ability of drivers to operate their vehicles safely, significantly reduce roadway capacity, and dramatically increase travel times.<P><P> Multiple roadway activities, from roadway maintenance and construction to shipping, transit, and police operations, are directly affected by inclement weather.

The Marine Transportation System and the Federal Role: Measuring Performance, Targeting Improvement

by Transportation Research Board of the National Academies

TRB Special Report 279 - The Marine Transportation System and the Federal Role: Measuring Performance, Targeting Improvement calls upon the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) to take the lead in assessing the performance of and improving the nation's entire marine transportation system. In particular, the report recommends that the DOT should begin immediately to develop reports on the condition, performance, and use of the marine transportation system and seek a mandate from Congress to produce such reports on a regular basis, as it already does for the nation's highway and transit systems.

Measuring Personal Travel and Goods Movement: A Review of the Bureau of Transportation Statistics' Surveys

by National Research Council of the National Academies

TRB Special Report 277 - Measuring Personal Travel and Goods Movement recommends a series of actions the U.S. Department of Transportation&rsquo;s Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) should take to render its flagship surveys -- the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) and the Commodity Flow Survey (CFS) -- more effective in meeting the needs of a broad spectrum of data users. The report also recommends approaches BTS and its survey partners should adopt to develop more effective survey methods and address institutional issues affecting survey stability and quality." target="view the report summaryReport Summary published in the October-September 2004 issue of the TR News.

Showing 5,151 through 5,175 of 9,127 results


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