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How I Won My Victoria Cross [Illustrated Edition]

by Thomas Henry Kavanagh VC

[Illustrated with over one hundred maps, photos and portraits, of the battles, individuals and places involved in the Indian Mutiny]The siege of Lucknow remains, even after one hundred and fifty years have passed, the most iconic struggle of the Indian Mutiny of 1857; the British, their families and loyal sepoys were surrounded in the rambling buildings of the Residence. Other British forces were on their way to relieve the garrison, which was surrounded by 10,000 furious rebel troops and internally wracked by hunger, filth, cholera, dysentery and small pox. The question remained, would the relieving forces be able to reach the beleaguered men women and children in Lucknow in time?A hero emerged from the unlikeliest source; among the non-combatant civil service men holed up in the residence was an Irishman named Thomas Henry Kavanagh inspired by the chance to win undying glory. "I resolved to die in the struggle," he writes, "rather than survive it with no better fame than I took into it." He engaged in every dirty and dangerous job during the siege; leading a group of fellow civil service volunteers as a mobile reserve around the most embattled parts of the fortifications, manning field mortars, counter-tunnelling against a bomb attempt by the rebels.However, his lasting fame rests on his epic quest to escape the garrison disguised as a sepoy, and guide the relieving forces into the city of Lucknow and past the defences of the mutineers. This journey was as difficult as one can imagine and forms the subject of this famous book; the perilous journey would be recognized as one of the bravest feats of the entire conflict Kavanagh was awarded the coveted Victoria Cross for outstanding bravery, one of only five civilians to ever do so.

History Of India Vol. II

by Mountstuart Elphinstone

"Appointed through family influence to the East India Company, Mountstuart Elphinstone (1779-1859) arrived on the subcontinent in 1796, quickly learning Persian and developing an interest in Indian civilisation. After postings in Benares, Afghanistan and Poona, he became governor in 1819 of the recently acquired territory that became known as the Bombay Presidency, where he remained until his resignation in 1827. On his return to England, he devoted much of his time to writing and was a founder member of the Royal Geographical Society. This two-volume history, based on a range of Indian sources and first published in 1841, is infused with his lifelong understanding of Indian culture, science and philosophy. A scholarly refutation of James Mill's History, it was the most popular work of its kind among the early Victorian public. Volume 1 takes the history of the subcontinent up to the thirteenth century, while Volume 2 continues to the demise of the Mogul empire in the mid-eighteenth century."- Cambridge Library Collection

History Of India Vol. I

by Mountstuart Elphinstone

"Appointed through family influence to the East India Company, Mountstuart Elphinstone (1779-1859) arrived on the subcontinent in 1796, quickly learning Persian and developing an interest in Indian civilisation. After postings in Benares, Afghanistan and Poona, he became governor in 1819 of the recently acquired territory that became known as the Bombay Presidency, where he remained until his resignation in 1827. On his return to England, he devoted much of his time to writing and was a founder member of the Royal Geographical Society. This two-volume history, based on a range of Indian sources and first published in 1841, is infused with his lifelong understanding of Indian culture, science and philosophy. A scholarly refutation of James Mill's History, it was the most popular work of its kind among the early Victorian public. Volume 1 takes the history of the subcontinent up to the thirteenth century, while Volume 2 continues to the demise of the Mogul empire in the mid-eighteenth century."- Cambridge Library Collection

The Other Side Of The Mountain: Mujahideen Tactics In The Soviet-Afghan War [Illustrated Edition]

by Ali Ahmad Jalali Lester K. Grau

Illustrated with over a hundred maps.When the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan in 1979, few experts believed that the fledgling Mujahideen resistance movement had a chance of withstanding the modern, mechanized, technologically-advanced Soviet Army. Most stated that resistance was futile and that the Soviet Union had deliberately expanded their empire to the south. The Soviet Union had come to stay. Although some historians looked at the British experience fighting the Afghan mountain tribesmen, most experts discounted any parallels since the Soviet Union possessed an unprecedented advantage in fire power, technology and military might. Although Arab leaders and the West supplied arms and material to the Mujahideen, they did so with the hope of creating a permanent, bleeding ulcer on the Soviet flank, not defeating the Soviet Union. They did not predict that the Soviet Union would voluntarily withdraw from Afghanistan in 1989.There have been few studies of guerrilla warfare from the guerrilla's perspective. To capture this perspective and the tactical experience of the Mujahideen, the United States Marine Corps commissioned this study and sent two retired combat veterans to interview Mujahideen. The authors were well received and generously assisted by various Mujahideen who willingly talked about their long, bitter war. The authors have produced a unique book which tells the guerrillas' story as interpreted by military professionals. This is a book about small-unit guerrilla combat. This is a book about death and survival, adaptation and perseverance.

The Decisive Battles Of India From 1746 To 1849 Inclusive

by Colonel George Bruce Malleson

The British Raj at its height measured almost 2 million square miles of territory and counted more than 200 million people among its citizens. This land was truly the 'Jewel' of the British Empire, however the path to this dominance was punctuated by fierce and bloody fighting by the British and her Indian allies against numerous, native Nawabs, Princes and leaders across the patchwork kingdoms of India. These battles most often featured small numbers of British and sepoy troops facing off against huge numbers of Indian troops, where the fate of the Empire hung in the balance. Colonel Malleson uses his expert knowledge of India and his long military career there to survey and recounts the battles that shaped what would become the British Raj.The author obtained a cadetship in the Bengal infantry at the tender age of 17 in 1842, he served in India for over three decades in both military and civil appointments. He wrote many famous volumes on India and the country's history; perhaps most famous of which were History of the Indian Mutiny, 1857-8, Akbar And The Rise Of The Mughals and History of the French in India.

The Tiger Triumphs - The Story Of Three Great Divisions In Italy [Illustrated Edition]

by Lieut Col G R Stevens General Mark Clark

Includes more than 40 illustrations, portraits and photos.The Epic Story of the achievements of the Fourth, Eighth and Tenth Indian Divisions during the Second World War culminates in the battles that they fought and won during brutal hill fighting up the spine of Italy."I have had the distinction of having under my command a trio of great Indian divisions - the fourth, eighth and tenth - whose fighting record in Italy is a splendid one."The achievements in combat of these Indian soldiers are noteworthy. They have carried on successfully in grim and bloody fighting against a tenacious enemy helped by terrain particularly favourable for defence. No obstacle has succeeded in delaying these Indian troops for long or in lowering their high morale or fighting spirit."They are well led, these Three Divisions. Each of the Divisional Commanders at one time commanded a battalion of an Indian Infantry Regiment in combat. These Divisional Commanders came up the hard way."Your 'Jawan' and 'Tommy Atkins' and 'Jock' and other soldiers of this international 15th Army Group have established firm bonds of friendship and respect born in action against a tough enemy. The bravery of Indian troops is attested by the Battle Honours and Decorations awarded."The Fourth, Eighth and Tenth Indian Divisions will forever be associated with the fighting for Cassino, the capture of Rome, the Arno Valley, the liberation of Florence and the breaking of the Gothic Line."I salute the brave soldiers of these Three Great Indian Divisions."- General Mark Clark

Aurangzib And The Decay Of The Mughal Empire

by Professor Stanley Lane-Poole

This is the tale of the last of the great Mughal Emperors of India, Aurangzib or the "world-seizer", his life is traced by expert historian Professor Lane-Poole though the blood, battles and intrigue of his vast wars, rapid expansion, religious piety and fatal over-extension."The greatest of Indian rulers, the Emperor Akbar, died in 1605. Third in the succession of his dynasty, he was first in his genius for government the true founder of the Indian Empire of the Great Moguls. He left a magnificent heritage to his descendants. His realm embraced all the provinces of Hindustan, and included Kabul on the west, Bengal on the east, Kashmir beside the Himalayas, and Khandesh in the Deccan. He had not merely conquered this vast dominion in forty years of warfare, but he had gone far towards welding it into an organic whole. He united under one firm government Hindus and Muhammadans, Shi'a and Sunnis, Rajputs and Afghans, and all the numerous races and tribes of Hindustan, in spite of the centrifugal tendencies of castes and creeds. In dealing with the formidable difficulties presented by the government of a peculiarly heterogeneous empire, he stands absolutely supreme among oriental sovereigns, and may even challenge comparison with the greatest of European kings. He was himself the spring and fount of the sagacious policy of his government, and the proof of the soundness of his system is the duration of his undiminished empire, in spite of the follies and vices of his successors, until it was undone by the puritan reaction of his great-grandson Aurangzib.""Akbar's main difficulties lay in diversity and jealousies of the races and religions with which he had to deal. It was his method of dealing with these difficulties which established the Mughal Empire in all the power and splendour that marked its sway for a hundred years to come. It was Aurangzib's reversal of this method which undid his ancestor's work and prepared the way for the downfall of his dynasty."

A Biography Of Warren Hastings

by Sir Alfred Lyall Kcb

An important biography of the first Governor-General of Bengal and architect of the growing dominance of the British in India during the 18th and 19th centuries."The influence of Warren Hastings in laying the foundation of Britain's empire in India is second only to that of Clive. While Clive made his mark primary in the military realm, Hastings' contribution was administrative. One would typically suppose that the life of a military man would involve more danger and drama than that of an executive, but Britain's newly won realm in India was a positive snake-pit, complete with crooks, swindlers, busy-bodies, corrupt officials, corrupt natives, seething discontent, bribery, treachery, looming warfare, and rank depravity."Into this cesspool, Hastings was sent as governor-general, and for twelve years, under nearly impossible conditions, he implemented a great many reforms and fought two major wars. He left the administration of the East India Company in Bengal immeasurably better than the way he found it, and yet on his return to Britain, he was indicted for corruption by people who had no idea of the conditions he worked under. His trial lasted for seven years, nearly bankrupted him, and was largely a vehicle for sanctimonious grand-standing and political theatre. Most sane people would prefer an honorable death in combat to what Hastings endured, or, like Clive, simply blown their own head off. But Hastings endured all, and in the end was roundly vindicated.-

Hodson Of Hodson’s Horse Or Twelve Years Of A Soldier’s Life In India [Illustrated Edition]

by George H. Hodson Major William S. R. Hodson

[Illustrated with over one hundred maps, photos and portraits, of the battles, individuals and places involved in the Indian Mutiny]The Letters and memoirs of the ferocious leader of cavalry Major William Hodson, whose exploits, deeds and misdeeds during the Indian Mutiny have remained the stuff of legend."Hodson, the son of a clergyman, was born on 19 March 1821, near Gloucester, England. A Cambridge graduate, he entered the Company's service in 1845 and saw action in the First Sikh War (1845-46) in the Bengal Grenadiers. As Adjutant of the Guides, he played an important role in the Second Sikh war ( 1848-49 ); he took command by 1852, creating jealousies..."A contemporary described Hodson as tall man with yellow hair, a pale, smooth face, heavy moustache, and large, restless, rather unforgiving eyes. The British General Hugh Gough thought of him a perfect swordsman, nerves like iron, and a quick, intelligent eye. Hodson delighted in fighting and his favourite weapon was the hog-spear. He was a brilliant horseman with the capacity to sleep in the saddle. "On the outbreak of the Indian Mutiny, Hodson was reinstated with a commission and raised a regiment of 2,000 irregular cavalry which became famous as 'Hodson's Horse' and which took part in the siege of Delhi. As well, Hodson was Head of the Intelligence department and his spies reported accurately on rebel troop movements within the city and the damage done by British guns. "After Delhi's capture, Hodson rode to Humayun's tomb where he captured the aged Emperor Bahadur Shah and shot to death the Moghul princes as after the latter had surrendered at the same place. That act, plus his vengeful treatment of Indians during the Mutiny and unproved charges against him of looting, darkened his reputation. He then took part in the fighting before Kanpur, but was killed on 12 March 1858 during the successful British attack at Lucknow."-oldmartinianassociation.

With Havelock From Allahabad To Lucknow [Illustrated Edition]

by Lieutenant William Tate Groom

[Illustrated with over one hundred maps, photos and portraits, of the battles, individuals and places involved in the Indian Mutiny]The fascinating diary of an officer of the 1st Madras Fusiliers who fought with General Havelock's column to the relief of Lucknow during the Indian Mutiny."A part of the corps [1st Madras Fusiliers] was amongst the first, to arrive at Allahabad...and on the 7th July they started on their perilous march... Fighting their way from day to day, they soon reached and took Cawnpore, and there alas! became aware of the saddest event of those terrible times, viz. the massacre by the insurgents of the European women and children. Anxiety to relieve Lucknow caused General Havelock to hurry Oude they fought several battles, but towards the middle of Aug. the General reluctantly felt obliged to retrace his steps to Cawnpore. Cholera as well as fighting had so reduced his numbers that there was no alternative but to wait for reinforcements. These arrived about the 15th Sep. with General Outram in command, and then the recruited column recrossed the river, and began its final advance on Lucknow, which was entered on the 25th. To that memorable day these letters do not extend, owing to the complete interruption of the usual means of conveying intelligence. Lady Inglis, in her interesting book "The Siege of Lucknow," has given a vivid description of the joy with which the army under Generals Havelock and Outram were welcomed by the beleaguered garrison. Thus reinforced they kept the enemy at bay, until adequate relief arrived under the command of Lord Clyde."Among them was that of my dear husband, who was mortally wounded in a sortie on the 5th Oct."HELEN M. I. GROOM."

With The Indians In France

by General Sir James Willcocks GCB GCMG KCSI DSO

The memoirs of Sir James Willcocks stand apart from other diaries and recountings of senior British Officers on the Western Front during the First World War; although a British Gentleman, his heart had long been taken by charms of India. Willcocks was a long serving officer in the Indian Army and led his men all the way from Nepal, Scinde, the Punjab and Bengal to the mud and blood of the trenches in Northern France and Belgium.The fighting prowess and sacrifice of these brave Indian soldiers has often been forgotten tale, but their commanding General tells of their efforts and victories with justified pride throughout his work which covers the early months of the war until his resignation in late 1915. The Indian Corps was heavily engaged throughout at la Bassée, Messines, Armentières, Neuve Chapelle, Aubers Ridge and Festubert and finally at the brutal blood-letting during the battle of Loos.

From Mons To Loos - The Diary Of A Supply Officer [Illustrated Edition]

by Major Herbert A. Stewart

Includes with 21 illustrations and photos.A member of General French's "Contemptible" little army recounts his tales of the opening two years of the First World War. Under shot and shell in the front lines with the gallant Tommies of the BEF from the first engagements until the bloody battle of Loos."THIS little work does not profess to be a record of historical facts, but merely a series of impressions snap-shotted upon my mind as they occurred, and set down here in simple language; and if these snapshots can bring home to my readers some idea, however faint, of what war and its attendant miseries mean, then my labour will not have been in vain."To those who may imagine that the British fighting man of to-day is not the equal of his forebears, who fought from Crécy and Agincourt to Albuera and Waterloo, I trust the story of Mons, the Aisne, Neuve Chapelle, and Ypres will set all doubts at rest."STEWART, HERBERT ARTHUR, Major, was born 18 May, 1878, and was commissioned from the Militia 4 Jan. 1899, in the Suffolk Regt., from which he was transferred to the Army Service Corps 12 Feb. 1900. Capt. Stewart served in the South African War, 1899-1902, he received the Queen's Medal with three clasps, and the King's Medal with two clasps. He was Adjutant, Territorial Force, 1 Aug. 1911, to 31 July, 1914. He again saw active service in the European War from Aug. 1914, to the conclusion of hostilities, becoming Major the day war broke out. He was one of the very few British officers who entered Mons on Sunday, 23 Aug. 1914. For his services with the 3rd Division during the First Battles of Neuve Chapelle and Ypres in Oct. and Nov. 1914, he received a D.S.O. awarded "for services in connection with operations in the field."

The Harvard Volunteers In Europe Personal Records Of Experience In Military, Ambulance, And Hospital Service

by Anon M. A. DeWolfe Howe

AT the outbreak of the European war, during the season of summer travel in 1914, many Harvard men were in Europe. Not a few of them were attached to the United States embassies and legations in the various capitals. The business of these offices immediately became pressing in the extreme. The labors of those officially connected with them were shared at once by volunteers-the first of the Harvard fellowship to offer a helping hand where it was needed in the sudden disorganization of an orderly world. The call to the colors of the various warring nations quickly drew into the conflict those who owed allegiance to one or another flag. In military service, such as that of the Foreign Legion and Flying Corps of the French Army, others have expressed the allegiance of sympathy if not of birth. But it has been in the organization of hospital service and in the work of ambulance corps engaged in the dangerous task of bringing wounded men with all possible speed to the ministrations of surgeons and nurses that Harvard has had by far the largest numerical representation. In hospital work it has been even an official representation, for the Surgical Units sent in the spring of 1915 to the American Ambulance Hospital in Paris, and in the summer of the same year to equip a British military hospital in France-a service undertaken originally for three months, but continued until the present time-were Units bearing the name and sanction of the University, through its Medical School. From the Medical School also Professor Strong was detached for his service of world-wide importance in combatting, successfully, the plague of typhus in Servia.

The AAF In Northwest Africa [Illustrated Edition]

by Anon

The AAF in Northwest Africa focuses on the Allied assault on Northwest Africa and the battle for Tunisia-the critical second front that secured the Mediterranean and increased the enemy's vulnerability to a massive invasion from Britain. From this experience of the Twelfth Air Force and its British counterparts in 1942-43 evolved a spirit of Anglo-American cooperation and important aspects of air doctrine still relevant to today's Air Force.Originally published shortly after key air campaigns, the Wings at War series captures the spirit and tone of America's World War II experience. Eyewitness accounts of Army Air Forces' aviators and details from the official histories enliven the story behind each of six important AAF operations.

The AAF In The Invasion Of Southern France [Illustrated Edition]

by Anon

Illustrated with 6 maps and 11 Illustrations.The AAF in the Invasion of Southern France tells how the Mediterranean Allied Air Forces, under the command of Lt. Gen. Ira Eaker, supported the Allied airborne and amphibious assault designed to undercut German defenses in Occupied France. In this invasion-the fourth major one in three months-American air power overwhelmed the meager enemy forces and diverted attention from the north, helping to topple German control in Vichy. Air operations persistently found, fixed, and fought occupying German forces, preventing their orderly withdrawal, greatly easing the way for Allied invasion forces.Originally published shortly after key air campaigns, the Wings at War series captures the spirit and tone of America's World War II experience. Eyewitness accounts of Army Air Forces' aviators and details from the official histories enliven the story behind each of six important AAF operations.

Air-Ground Teamwork On The Western Front - The Role Of The XIX Tactical Air Command During August 1944: [Illustrated Edition]

by Anon

Illustrated with 6 maps and 1 Illustrations.Air-Ground Teamwork on the Western Front describes close air support and battlefield interdiction in action. A single, month-long campaign-the famous thrust across northern France in August 1944 of Gen. George S. Patton's Third Army and Maj. Gen. O. P. Weyland's XIX Tactical Air Command-became a model for close cooperation between army and aviation forces in future conflicts. This day-by-day, blow-by-blow account shows how the ground forces raced forward, frequently twenty miles per day, because friendly air power protected their flanks, shielded them from the Luftwaffe, and devastated the opposition in front of them.Originally published shortly after key air campaigns, the Wings at War series captures the spirit and tone of America's World War II experience. Eyewitness accounts of Army Air Forces' avia

Airborne Assault On Holland [Illustrated Edition]

by Anon

Illustrated with 4 maps and 2 Illustrations.Airborne Assault on Holland highlights the role of air power as the Allies attempted to penetrate German defenses at the Siegfried Line. The work reflects the circumstances of the time and the desire to find good even in unfortunate circumstances and should be read with this in mind. Allied airborne paratroops and glider-borne units converged on Arnhem. Unfortunately, stiff German resistance forced their eventual withdrawal; Allied tactical air power prevented even heavier friendly losses, but could not turn defeat into victory. This boldly conceived operation involved the Eighth and Ninth Air Forces in a variety of missions: troop transport, fighter escort, flak neutralization, air cover, and resupply of ground forces.

ANZIO BEACHHEAD (22 January-25 May 1944) [Illustrated Edition]

by Anon

Includes with 25 maps and 36 Illustrations.The story of Anzio must be read against the background of the preceding phase of the Italian campaign. The winter months of 1943-44 found the Allied forces in Italy slowly battering their way through the rugged mountain barriers blocking the roads to Rome. After the Allied landings in southern Italy, German forces had fought a delaying action while preparing defensive lines to their rear. The main defensive barrier guarding the approaches to Rome was the Gustav Line, extending across the Italian peninsula from Minturno to Ortona. Enemy engineers had reinforced the natural mountain defenses with an elaborate network of pillboxes, bunkers, and mine fields. The Germans had also reorganized their forces to resist the Allied advance. On 21 Nov. 1943, Field Marshal Albert Kesselring took over the command of the entire Italian theater; Army Group C, under his command, was divided into two armies, the Tenth facing the southern front and also holding the Rome area, and the Fourteenth guarding central and northern Italy. In a year otherwise filled with defeat, Hitler was determined to gain the prestige of holding the Allies south of Rome.In the early morning hours of 22 Jan. 1944, VI Corps of Lt. Gen. Mark Clark's Fifth Army landed on the Italian coast below Rome and established a beachhead far behind the enemy lines. In the four months between this landing and Fifth Army's May offensive, the short stretch of coast known as the Anzio beachhead was the scene of one of the most courageous and bloody dramas of the war. The Germans threw attack after attack against the beachhead in an effort to drive the landing force into the sea. Fifth Army troops, put fully on the defensive for the first time, rose to the test. Hemmed in by numerically superior enemy forces, they held their beachhead, fought off every enemy attack, and then built up a powerful striking force which spearheaded Fifth Army's triumphant entry into Rome in June.

From Volturno To The Winter Line: 6 October - 15 November 1943 [Illustrated Edition]

by Anon

Illustrated with 30 maps and 36 Illustrations.BEFORE DAWN ON THE MORNING OF 13 Oct. 1943, American and British assault troops of the Fifth Army waded the rain-swollen Volturno River in the face of withering fire from German riflemen and machine gunners dug in along the northern bank. This crossing of the Volturno opened the second phase of the Allied campaign in Italy. Five weeks earlier the Fifth Army had landed on the hostile beaches of the Gulf of Salerno. Now it was attacking a well-defended river line.Along the Volturno the Germans had entrenched themselves in the first good defensive position north of Naples. Under pressure from the Fifth Army, commanded by Lt. Gen. Mark W. Clark, their rearguards had relinquished the great port of Naples with its surrounding airfields, providing us with the base necessary for large-scale operations west of the rugged Apennine mountain range, backbone of the Italian peninsula. East of the Apennines the British Eighth Army, under General Sir Bernard L. Montgomery, had reached the mouth of the Biferno River during the first week of Oct.. The Eighth and Fifth Armies now held a line across the peninsula running south from Torre Petacciato on the Adriatic Sea for some sixty-five miles, then west to a point on the Tyrrhenian Sea just south of the Volturno. Along this line of rivers and mountains the Germans clearly intended to make a stubborn stand, hoping to delay, perhaps to stop, our northward advance.Within six weeks, Fifth Army troops had driven the Germans back to the Volturno, had executed a difficult river crossing in the face of a well-entrenched enemy, had gone on to cross the river a second and a third time, and had forced Kesselring's hard-pressed army back into the chain of mountains which formed his next strong defensive position. Whether fighting across rivers, through valleys, or up steep mountain slopes, our men had everywhere proved their ability to defeat Hitler's vaunted master race.

FIFTH ARMY AT THE WINTER LINE 15 November 1943 - 15 January 1944 [Illustrated Edition]

by Anon

Illustrated with 28 maps and 35 Illustrations.THE WINTER LINE operations, lasting from 15 November 1943 to 15 January 1944, continued the Allied campaign to drive the Germans out of southern Italy. The underlying plan was to keep pressure on the enemy and, if possible, to break through toward Rome. Both the terrain and the season reduced the chances for effecting a breakthrough. By maintaining pressure, however, the Allies would prevent the Germans from, resting and refitting the tired and depleted divisions which they might hold as a mobile reserve for the close defense of Rome in the event of a new Allied landing on the west coast or for use in a possible counteroffensive in the opening months of 1944. Then too, the fighting in Italy had its effects on the over-all military situation in Europe. As long as the Germans were actively engaged on the Italian front, they would be forced to feed in men and supplies which would otherwise be available for the war in Russia or for strengthening their Atlantic Wall against an expected Allied invasion in 1944. Continuation of the Italian campaign was not in question; the problem was how best to carry it on.The Allied effort was therefore maintained in an offensive planned to break the enemy's Winter Line, a series of well-prepared positions along the shortest possible line across the waist of Italy-from the Garigliano River on the west through mountains in the center to the Sangro River on the east. For the individual soldiers of the Fifth Army, the attack resolved itself into the familiar pattern of bitter fighting from hill to hill.

Staff Ride Guide - The Battle Of First Bull Run [Illustrated Edition]

by Ted Ballard

Illustrated with 12 maps and 15 Illustrations.On 16 July 1861, the largest army ever assembled on the North American continent up to that time marched from the vicinity of Washington, D.C., toward Manassas Junction, thirty miles to the southwest. Commanded by newly promoted Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell, the Union force consisted of partly trained militia with ninety-day enlistments (almost untrained volunteers) and three newly organized battalions of Regulars. Many soldiers, unaccustomed to military discipline or road marches, left the ranks to obtain water, gather blackberries, or simply to rest as the march progressed.Near Manassas, along a meandering stream known as Bull Run, waited the similarly untrained Confederate army commanded by Brig. Gen. Pierre G. T. Beauregard. This army would soon be joined by another Confederate force, commanded by General Joseph E. Johnston.After a minor clash of arms on 18 July, McDowell launched the first major land battle of the Civil War by attempting to turn the Confederate left flank on 21 July. A series of uncoordinated and sometimes confusing attacks and counterattacks by both sides finally ended in a defeat for the Union Army and its withdrawal to Washington.The Battle of First Bull Run highlighted many of the problems and deficiencies that were typical of the first year of the war. Units were committed piecemeal, attacks were frontal, infantry failed to protect exposed artillery, tactical intelligence was nil, and neither commander was able to employ his whole force effectively. McDowell, with 35,000 men, was only able to commit about 18,000, and the combined Confederate forces, with about 32,000 men, committed only 18,000.

TO BIZERTE WITH THE II CORPS - 23 April - 13 May 1943 [Illustrated Edition]

by Anon

With 18 maps & 24 Illustrations.A DELEGATION OF GERMAN OFFICERS arrived at American Headquarters south of Ferryville at 0926 on 9 May 1943. Their mission was to surrender the remnants of a once proud unit of the Wehrmacht, the formidable Fifth Panzer Army...Marshal Giovanni Messe, commanding the Italian First Army, surrendered unconditionally to the British Eighth Army on 13 May. The long battle for North Africa was ended.Troops of the II Corps, U. S. A., who had entered the fight for Africa with the invasion on 8 Nov. 1942, played a prominent role in the decisive final battle which opened on 23 April...Within 2 weeks of the Nov. landings in Northwest Africa, British and American forces under General Dwight D. Eisenhower were driving from Algeria into western Tunisia in an effort to seize the great ports of Tunis and Bizerte. German reinforcements, rushed into Africa in the nick of time, stopped the advance just short of the Tunis plain. With operations now made difficult by the rainy winter season, the Allied Army fought bitter engagements in the mountains from Sedjenane Station to Medjez el Bab. To the south, American units in hard fighting stopped savage German drives through Kasserine Pass toward the Allied base at Tebessa and kept pressure on the long Axis communications between Field Marshal Rommel and Tunis.In late March, Rommel's forces were driven from the Mareth Line toward the north. Protecting his line of retreat, the enemy fought a stubborn delaying action against the Americans and the British in the El Guettar-Gafsa area. By 22 April the equivalent of 5 Italian and 9 German divisions were at bay for what they planned to be a protracted defense of Tunis and Bizerte. But the Axis was not allowed a breathing space to strengthen its defenses. The Allied forces, united under General Sir Harold R. Alexander as the Eighteenth Army Group, were already preparing the blow that was to destroy the enemy forces in a battle lasting 21 days.

DEFENDING THE DRINIUMOR: Covering Force Operations in New Guinea, 1944 [Illustrated Edition]

by Dr Edward J. Drea

Illustrated with 32 maps, 8 Illustrations and 4 charts.On the night of 10-11 July 1944, several thousand Japanese infantrymen attacked and broke through U.S. Army covering force units defending the Driniumor River about twenty miles east of Aitape, New Guinea. For the next month U.S. Army troops were locked in a battle of attrition with the Japanese, as the Americans fought to restore the breakthrough line and destroy the Japanese attackers. This Leavenworth Paper describes the events leading up to the Japanese breakthrough and the subsequent American counterattacks to restore the original defensive positions.This Leavenworth Paper provides a day-by-day account of the course of the battle. Naturally not every moment was spent fighting, so commensurate attention is given to tactical planning, logistics, combat support-those oft-times overlooked functions that are only noticeable by their absence. There is sufficient detail for an in-depth analysis of both combatants' doctrine, effectiveness of training, tactics, leadership, and unit cohesion...The combatants created their doctrine and applied it in combat isolated from the "Big Picture." Their concern was more basic, to survive. Training, previous combat experience, and leadership seem to have been the ingredients that most contributed to unit cohesion in the struggle. Those naturally developed unit bonds provided the underpinning for morale factors essential in protracted battle in a harsh natural environment. By the same token, one should not infer that tactics were therefore flawless and leadership bold and imaginative. In most cases, the opposite appears true. The reasons for this apparent contradiction unfold with the developing battle. By approaching these questions from the small unit perspective, one gains a fresh insight into the U.S. Army's historic jungle warfare campaigns as well as a tactical appreciation of the enormous difficulties both sides experienced in the jungled terrain.

THE ADMIRALTIES - Operations Of The 1st Cavalry Division 29 February - 18 May 1944 [Illustrated Edition]

by Anon

Illustrated with 16 maps and 39 IllustrationsThe Admiralty Islands campaign (Operation Brewer) was a series of battles in the New Guinea campaign of World War II in which the United States Army's 1st Cavalry Division occupied the Japanese-held Admiralty Islands.Acting on reports from airmen that there were no signs of enemy activity and the islands may have been evacuated, General Douglas MacArthur accelerated his timetable for capturing the Admiralties and ordered an immediate reconnaissance in force. The campaign began on 29 February 1944 when a force landed on Los Negros, the third-largest island in the group. By using a small, isolated beach where the Japanese had not anticipated an assault, the force achieved tactical surprise, but the islands proved to be far from unoccupied. A furious battle over the islands ensued.In the end, air superiority and command of the sea allowed the Allies to heavily reinforce their position on Los Negros. The 1st Cavalry Division could then overrun the islands. The campaign officially ended on 18 May 1944. The Allied victory completed the isolation of the major Japanese base at Rabaul that was the ultimate objective of the Allied campaigns of 1942 and 1943. A major air and naval base was developed in the Admiralty Islands that became an important launching point for the campaigns of 1944 in the Pacific.

Salerno: 9 September - 6 October 1943

by Anon

Illustrated with 18 maps and 24 IllustrationsEARLY IN SEPTEMBER 1943, British and American armies invaded southern Italy, striking at the heart of a major Axis nation and breaching Hitler's "Fortress Europe." Behind the invasion lay long months of hard-won Allied victories. The Axis was cleared out of Africa in May, when British and American armies annihilated the German and Italian forces cornered in Tunisia. Sicily, the stepping stone from Africa to Europe, was next conquered in a 38-day battle, and on 17 August the last of its German garrison fled across the Strait of Messina to the Italian mainland. On 3 September the British Eighth Army crossed the Strait in pursuit and drove up the Calabrian Peninsula. Coordinated with the Eighth Army's attack, Allied landings at Salerno by the United States Fifth Army and at Taranto by the British 1 Airborne Division were made on 9 September. In the Salerno landings, strong American forces were fighting on the continent of Europe for the first time since 1918.Even before the beginnings of the Sicilian operations, the staffs of Allied land, naval, and air forces had been planning an invasion of Italy. Once established on the Italian mainland, we might hope to secure complete naval and aerial domination of the Mediterranean and to obtain strategic ports and airfields for future operations against continental Europe. If we could knock Italy out of the war, we would force the Germans to retreat north of the Alps or to use in Italy armies which might be fighting on the Russian front.Under the command of Lt. Gen. Mark W. Clark, the Fifth Army, a great Allied force composed of the British 10 Corps and the United States VI Corps, carried out the first large scale invasion of the European mainland and secured a firm base for future operations in Italy. Salerno: The American Operations from the Beaches to the Volturno is an account of the American forces who landed on the beaches in the Gulf of Salerno.

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