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This volume addresses the conditions allowing the transformation of specific children's rights into capabilities in settings as different as children's parliaments, organized leisure activities, contexts of vulnerability, children in care. It addresses theoretical questions linked to children's agency and reflexivity, education, the life cycle perspective, child participation, evolving capabilities and citizenship. The volume highlights important issues that have to be taken into account for the implementation of human rights and the development of peoples' capabilities. The focus on children's capabilities along a rights-based approach is an inspiring perspective that researchers and practitioners in the field of human rights would like to deepen.
This volume conceptualizes caregiving as an emerging sociological issue involving complex and fluctuating roles. The authors contend that caregiving must be considered in the context of the life span with needs that vary according to age, developmental levels, mental health needs and physical health demands of both caregivers and care recipients. As the nature and functions of caregiving evolve it has become a critical and salient issue in the lives of individuals in all demographic, socioeconomic and ethnic categories. This volume frames caregiving as a sociological issue and addresses a number of central concerns, such as: - Caregiving is a life span experience associated with aging and the roles of spouses and adult children. - Caregiving involves a complex of social system variables that influence the social support and services to caregivers and care recipients. - The nature of the relationship among family caregivers, professional caregivers and the care recipient are embedded in their interaction and dynamics influenced by the internal and external variables that inhibit or facilitate the care situation. - How can caregiving be integrated with a public health agenda? - What disparities or inequalities exist in caregiving and what are the barriers that sustain them? - What community-based interventions need to be developed to improve caregiving?
This book proposes that the highest expression of ethics is an aesthetic. It suggests that the quintessential performance of any field of practice is an art that captures an ethic beyond any literal statement of values. This is to advocate for a shift in emphasis, away from current juridical approaches to ethics (ethical codes or regulation), toward ethics as an aesthetic practice--away from ethics as a minimal requirement, toward ethics as an aspiration. The book explores the relationship between art and ethics: a subject that has fascinated philosophers from ancient Greece to the present. It explores this relationship in all the arts: literature, the visual arts, film, the performing arts, and music. It also examines current issues raised by 'hybrid' artists who are working at the ambiguous intersections between art, bio art and bioethics and challenging ethical limits in working with living materials. In considering these issues the book investigates the potential for art and ethics to be mutually challenged and changed in this meeting. The book is aimed at artists and students of the arts, who may be interested in approaching ethics and the arts in a new way. It is also aimed at students and teachers of ethics and philosophy, as well as those working in bioethics and the health professions. It will have appeal to the 'general educated reader' as being current, of considerable interest, and offering a perspective on ethics that goes beyond a professional context to include questions about how one approaches ethics in one's own life and practices.
Arguing that our attachment to Aristotelian modes of discourse makes a revision of their conceptual foundations long overdue, the author proposes the consideration of unacknowledged factors that play a central role in argument itself. These are in particular the subjective imprint and the dynamics of argumentation. Their inclusion in a four-dimensional framework (subjective-objective, structural-procedural) and the focus on thesis validity allow for a more realistic view of our discourse practice. Exhaustive analyses of fascinating historical and contemporary arguments are provided. These range from Columbus's advocacy of the Western Passage to India, over the trial of King Louis XVI during the French Revolution, to today's highly charged controversies surrounding euthanasia and embryo research. Excavating foundational issues such as the purpose of argument itself (assent of an audience or critical examination of validity claims) and the contested role of argument as a generator of knowledge, the book culminates in a discussion of the relationship between rationality and reasonableness and criticizes the restrictions of 'rational' argument relying on fixed logical, economic or cultural criteria that in reality are mutable. Here, a true, open argument requires the infusion of Paul Lorenzen's principle of 'transsubjectivity', which recognizes but transcends the partiality of the individual and which can be seen in the pragmatic and expanding consensus that humanity can control itself to safeguard the future of a fragile, damaged world.
If a global population of 9 billion by 2050 is to be fed adequately, more food must be produced and this in keeping with increasingly stringent standards of quality and with respect for the environment. Not to mention the land that must be set aside for the production of energy resources, industrial goods, carbon storage and the protection of biodiversity.
Thisbook provides readers an extensive overview of recent progress in basicand clinical research on cancer immunotherapy. Thanks to rapid advances inmolecular biology and immunology, it has become increasingly evident thatcancer growth is influenced by host immune responses. With the success of anumber of clinical trials, immunotherapy has become a promising treatmentmodality of cancer. This book covers five major topics, including monoclonalantibodies, biological response modifiers, cancer vaccines, adoptive cellulartherapy and oncolytic viruses. It also examines the combination of differentimmune strategies as well as the combination of immunotherapy with othertreatments to increase anti-tumor effects. Throughthecomprehensive discussion of the topic, the book sheds valuable new light on thetreatment of tumors.
This book provides a comprehensive review of the latestadvances in translational pain and itch research, and presents the cutting-edgedevelopments in the study of our two principal, yet most mysteries sensations. Despitethe slow progress in the discovery of effective therapies for chronic pain andpruritus, scientists around the globe now have a better understanding of whyand how these conditions occur. Based on these findings, a series of noveltreatment strategies are currently under development, and hopefully in a fewyears, medical practitioners will become more confident and optimistic whenfacing patients with these annoying and sometimes severe disorders. Thecontributing authors are world-renowned research scientists, who have madesignificant discoveries. The book is ofinterest to neuroscientists, neurologists and pharmacologists
This fourteenth volume of the series provides comprehensive, current information on the diagnosis, therapy and prognosis of brain tumors and spinal tumors. For the readers' convenience, contributions are organized into three categories of Pineal Tumors, Pituitary Tumors, and Spinal Tumors. Readers will find discussion of various aspects of a number of tumor types, including angiocentric glioma, pilomyxoid astrocytoma, pituicytoma, pediatric low-grade gliomas, meningiomas and spinal cord tumors. Expert oncologists, neurosurgeons, physicians, research scientists and pathologists from around the world have contributed to this extensive publication. Their chapters highlight practical experience and provide exceptional insight into the nature of cancer. The authors cover topics ranging from the use of molecular criteria in diagnosis and targeting of medicine, through evidence-based approaches, to in-depth discussion of long-term follow-up after surgery. This handbook, as earlier volumes in the series, will appeal to professionals involved in the treatment of cancer, as well as to researchers. The series crosses subjects of diagnosis, drug development, therapy and its assessment and prognosis of tumors of the central nervous system, cancer recurrence and resistance to chemotherapy.
Biology and history are often viewed as closely related disciplines, with biology informed by history, especially in its task of charting our evolutionary past. Maximizing the opportunities for cross-fertilization in these two fields requires an accurate reckoning of their commonalities and differences--precisely what this volume sets out to achieve. Specially commissioned essays by a team of recognized international researchers cover the full panoply of topics in these fields and include notable contributions on the correlativity of evolutionary and historical explanations, applying to history the latest causal-mechanical approach in the philosophy of biology, and the question of generalized laws that might pertain across the two subjects. The collection opens with a vital interrogation of general issues on explanation that apart from potentially fruitful areas of interaction (could the etiology of the causal-mechanical perspective in biology account for the historical trajectory of the Roman Empire?) this volume also seeks to chart relative certainties distinguishing explanations in biology and history. It also assesses techniques such as the use of probabilities in biological reconstruction, deployed to overcome the inevitable gaps in physical evidence on early evolution. Methodologies such as causal graphs and semantic explanation receive in-depth analysis. Contributions from a host of prominent and widely read philosophers ensure that this new volume has the stature of a major addition to the literature.
This book shows how Systemic Functional Linguistics may be used to explore and explain the grammar of scientific examination questions. The author outlines the key elements of this theory and identifies problematical structures that affect the linguistic validity of such education assessment questions. This book also shows how examination questions may provide insight into the relationship between teaching and language in science. Do candidates give an incorrect answer because they do not understand the topic or because they do not understand the language by which the question is framed? This book shows how the analysis of scientific examination questions can answer this question. These chapters show how contemporary linguistics can inform the assessment of science and address topics including: the role of images, lexicography, the morphology of sentences, semantic discontinuity and the active reader. An example question is used throughout the text to illustrate the theories and each chapter has its own useful summary, making it a very readable work.
Agroecology not only encompasses aspects of ecology, but the ecology of sustainable food production systems, and related societal and cultural values. To provide effective communication regarding status and advances in this field, connections must be established with many disciplines such as sociology, anthropology, environmental sciences, ethics, agriculture, economics, ecology, rural development, sustainability, policy and education, or integrations of these general themes so as to provide integrated points of view that will help lead to a sustainable construction of values. Such designs are inherently complex and dynamic, and go beyond the individual farm to include landscapes, communities, and biogeographic regions by emphasizing their unique agricultural and ecological values, and their biological, societal, and cultural components and processes.
This volume addresses how we can find happiness and well-being in the material world. It builds on previous works that find that materialism is associated with lowered well-being (materialists are less happy) and that consumerism, in all its profusion, is harmful to environmental well-being. How can we use the money and possessions in our lives in the service of well-being? Apparently not by being materialistic. Can we benefit from the many wonders of the marketplace -- in technology, convenience and aesthetics -- without falling prey to the lures and dangers of excessive material preoccupation? Can we meet our material needs in ways that nourish growth and well-being? The authors of the chapters in this volume are on-going researchers into such questions. Herein you can learn about the hedonic benefits of thrift and of spending on experiences; how possessions can be beneficial; how different types of consumers spend money; cultural variations in conceptions of the "good life;" how we might reconcile environmental and consumer well-being; and how to measure the whole of human, economic, and environmental well-being. Taken all together, this collection finds grounds for compatibility between what's good for the consumer and what's good for the environment. This volume appeals to academics, professionals, students and others interested in materialism and consumer well-being.
This book honors the academic trajectory and global impact of Philip G. Altbach, one of the most important education comparativists worldwide for over forty years. From his early writings on India and student activism to his recent work on research universities, Altbach has served as a key developer of the expansion of the field to include comparative higher education. His capacity to find, support, and gather the best minds around the world, to organize research teams in order to explore the most relevant issues on comparative higher education has earned him international recognition. His service to the field of comparative higher education is invaluable and incomparable. This festschrift contains original pieces from colleagues and former students following a twofold discussion: the most relevant topics on comparative higher education and particular Altbach's contributions to this field of work.
Hoping to help transform engineering into a more socially just field of practice, this book offers various perspectives and strategies while highlighting key concepts and themes that help readers understand the complex relationship between engineering education and social justice. This volume tackles topics and scopes ranging from the role of Buddhism in socially just engineering to the blinding effects of ideologies in engineering to case studies on the implications of engineered systems for social justice. This book aims to serve as a framework for interventions or strategies to make social justice more visible in engineering education and enhance scholarship in the emerging field of Engineering and Social Justice (ESJ). This creates a 'toolbox' for engineering educators and students to make social justice a central theme in engineering education.
Methods of proteomics have been shown to be powerful tools in search of target proteins - proteins that respond in cells to an internal or an external stimulus. Proteomics is widely used in biomedical research. However, in radiation biology research, following exposures of living matter to low doses of either ionizing or non-ionizing radiation, proteomics approach is only very slowly gaining support. This book, by presenting the current status of the use of proteomics in radiation biology, will help to attract attention to the field of radiation proteomics.
Presenting cutting-edge studies from various countries into the theoretical and practical issues surrounding the literacy acquisition of at-risk children, this volume focuses specifically on the utility of technology in supporting and advancing literacy among the relevant populations. These include a range of at-risk groups such as those with learning disabilities, low socioeconomic status, and minority ethnicity. Arguing that literacy is a key requirement for integration into any modern society, the book outlines new ways in which educators and researchers can overcome the difficulties faced by children in these at-risk groups. It also reflects the rapid development of technology in this field, which in turn necessitates the accumulation of fresh research evidence.
Today, problems such as deforestation, biodiversity loss and illegal logging have provoked various policy responses that are often referred to as forest and nature governance. In its broadest interpretation, governance is about the many ways in which public and private actors from the state, market and/or civil society govern public issues at multiple scales. This book takes a fresh perspective on the study of forest and nature governance. Departing from 'practice theory', and building upon scholars like Giddens, Bourdieu, Reckwitz, Schatzki and Callon, it seeks to move beyond established understandings of institutions, actors, and knowledge. In so doing, it not only presents an innovative conceptual and methodological framework for a practice based approach, but also rich case studies and ethnographies. Finally, this book is about how actors involved in governance talk about and work with trees, forests, biodiversity, wildlife, and so on, while acting upon forest policies, environmental discourses, codes of conduct, or scientific insights.
This invaluable addition to Springer's Explorations of Educational Purpose series is a revelatory ethnographic account of the visual material culture of contemporary youths in North America. The author's detailed study follows apparently dissimilar groups (black and Latino/a in a New York City after-school club, and white and Indigenous in a small Canadian community) as they inflect their nascent identities with a sophisticated sense of visual material culture in today's globalized world. It provides detailed proof of how much ethnography can add to what we know about young people's development, in addition to its potential as a model to explore new and significant avenues in pedagogy. Supported by a wealth of ethnographic evidence, the analysis tracks its subjects' responses to strikingly diverse material ranging from autobiographical accounts by rap artists to the built environment. It shows how young people from the world's cultural epicenter, just like their counterparts in the sub-Arctic, construct racial, geographic and gender identities in ways that are subtly responsive to what they see around them, blending localized characteristics with more widely shared visual references that are now universally accessible through the Web. The work makes a persuasive case that youthful engagement with visual material culture is a relational and productive activity that is simultaneously local and global, at once constrained and enhanced by geography, and possesses a potent and life-affirming authenticity. Densely interwoven with young people's perspectives, the author's account sets out an innovative and interdisciplinary conceptual framework affording fresh insights into how today's youth assimilate what they perceive to be significant. Supported by a wealth of ethnographic evidence, the analysis tracks its subjects' responses to strikingly diverse material ranging from autobiographical accounts by rap artists to the built environment. It shows how young people from the world's cultural epicenter, just like their counterparts in the sub-Arctic, construct racial, geographic and gender identities in ways that are subtly responsive to what they see around them, blending localized characteristics with more widely shared visual references that are now universally accessible through the Web. The work makes a persuasive case that youthful engagement with visual material culture is a relational and productive activity that is simultaneously local and global, at once constrained and enhanced by geography, and possesses a potent and life-affirming authenticity. Densely interwoven with young people's perspectives, the author's account sets out an innovative and interdisciplinary conceptual framework affording fresh insights into how today's youth assimilate what they perceive to be significant. Supported by a wealth of ethnographic evidence, the analysis tracks its subjects' responses to strikingly diverse material ranging from autobiographical accounts by rap artists to the built environment. It shows how young people from the world's cultural epicenter, just like their counterparts in the sub-Arctic, construct racial, geographic and gender identities in ways that are subtly responsive to what they see around them, blending localized characteristics with more widely shared visual references that are now universally accessible through the Web. The work makes a persuasive case that youthful engagement with visual material culture is a relational and productive activity that is simultaneously local and global, at once constrained and enhanced by geography, and possesses a potent and life-affirming authenticity. Densely interwoven with young people's perspectives, the author's account sets out an innovative and interdisciplinary conceptual framework affording fresh insights into how today's youth assimilate what they perceive to be significant.
The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is an important part of the OECD's Indicator Programme. It collects data and provides comparative indicators of education systems in OECD member and partner countries. PISA provides datasets of outstanding quality regarding samples, instruments and analyses. In addition to its important function for educational monitoring, the PISA datasets are the basis of a wide range of secondary analyses from a number of different scientific perspectives and disciplines. The aim of this book is to make some of the outstanding PISA related research results available for a wider audience. Specifically four research areas will be focused: (1) Content related research; (2) Methodological research; (3) Context related research; (4) Research on trends in PISA. Each part of the book is devoted to one of these areas and will start with an introduction from a leading expert in the field followed by chapters covering research conducted in this field.
Learning in informal settings is attracting growing attention from policymakers and researchers, yet there remains, at the moment, a dearth of literature on the topic. Thus this volume, which examines how science and mathematics are experienced in everyday and out-of-school-time (OST) settings, makes an important contribution to the field of the learning sciences. Conducting research on OST learning requires us to broaden and deepen our conceptions of learning as well as to better identify the unique and common qualities of different learning settings. We must also find better ways to analyze the interplay between OST and school-based learning. In this volume, scholars develop theoretical structures that are useful not only for understanding learning processes, but also for helping to create and support new opportunities for learning, whether they are in or out of school, or bridging a range of settings. The chapters in this volume include studies of everyday and 'situated' processes that facilitate science and mathematics learning. They also feature new theoretical and empirical frameworks for studying learning pathways that span both in- and out-of-school time and settings. Contributors also examine structured OST programs in which everyday and situated modes of learning are leveraged in support of more disciplined practices and conceptions of science and mathematics. Fortifying much of this work is a leading focus on educational equity--a desire to foster more socially supportive and intellectually engaging science and mathematics learning opportunities for youth from historically non-dominant communities. Full of compelling examples and revealing analysis, this book is a vital addition to the literature on a subject with a fast-rising profile.
This book presents an attempt to understand the nature of technical artefacts and the way they come into being. Its primary focus is the kind of technical artefacts designed and produced by modern engineering. In spite of their pervasive influence on human thinking and doing, and therefore on the modern human condition, a philosophical analysis of technical artefacts and engineering design is lacking. Among the questions addressed are: How do technical artefacts fit into the furniture of the universe? In what sense are they different from objects from the natural world, or from the social world? What kind of activity is engineering design and what does it mean to say that technical artefacts are the embodiment of a design? Does it make sense to consider technical artefacts to be morally good or bad by themselves because of the way they influence human life? The book advances the thesis that technical artefacts, conceived of as physical constructions with a technical function, have a dual nature; they are hybrid objects combining physical and intentional features. It proposes a theory of technical functions and technical artefact kinds that does justice to this dual nature, analyses engineering design from the dual nature point of view, and argues that technical artefacts, because of their dual nature, have inherent moral significance.
This book analyzes heroin users and the drug subculture on the Shetland Islands, an area known for its geographical remoteness, rural character and relative wealth. It fills the scientific gap created by the conventional research in heroin research, which is usually conducted in urban areas and relies on treatment and prison populations. Based on qualitative, in-depth interviews with twenty-four heroin users, this book depicts and analyzes the nature and historical development of the local heroin scene. It illustrates the features and internal structures of the subculture, and it examines the manner in which both are influenced by the location-specific geographical, cultural and socio-economic conditions. It thus reveals complex causal associations that are hard to recognize in urban environments. Complete with a list of references used and recommendations for future research, this book is a vital tool for progressive and pragmatic approaches to policy, intervention and research in the field of illicit drug use.
This volume brings together a range of interdisciplinary perspectives on a topic of central importance, but which has otherwise tended to be approached from within just one or another disciplinary framework. Most of the essays contained here incorporate some degree of interdisciplinarity in their own approach, but the volume nevertheless divides into three main sections: Philosophical considerations; Humanities approaches; Legal, medical, and therapeutic contexts. The volume includes essays by philosophers, medical practitioners and researchers, historians, lawyers, literary, Classical, and Judaic scholars. The essays are united by a common concern with the question of the human character of suffering, and the demands that suffering, and the recognition of suffering, make upon us.
Based on the concept of a physical system, this book offers a new philosophical interpretation of classical mechanics and the Special Theory of Relativity. According to Belkind's view the role of physical theory is to describe the motions of the parts of a physical system in relation to the motions of the whole. This approach provides a new perspective into the foundations of physical theory, where motions of parts and wholes of physical systems are taken to be fundamental, prior to spacetime, material properties and laws of motion. He defends this claim with a constructive project, deriving basic aspects of classical theories from the motions of parts and wholes. This exciting project will challenge readers to reevaluate how they understand the structure of the physical world in which we live.
This companion provides a collection of frequently needed numerical data as a convenient desk-top or pocket reference for atmospheric scientists as well as a concise source of information for others interested in this matter. The material contained in this book was extracted from the recent and the past scientific literature; it covers essentially all aspects of atmospheric chemistry. The data are presented primarily in the form of annotated tables while any explanatory text is kept to a minimum. In this condensed form of presentation, the volume may serve also as a supplement to many textbooks used in teaching the subject at various universities. Peter Warneck, a physical chemist specializing in atmospheric chemistry, received the diploma in 1954 and the doctorate in 1956 at the university in Bonn, Germany. In 1959, following several postdoctoral assignments, he joined the GCA Corporation in Bedford, Massachusetts, where he explored elementary processes in the atmospheres of the earth and other planets. He returned to Germany in 1970 to head the chemical kinetics group in the Air Chemistry Division of the Max-Planck-Institute for Chemistry in Mainz. In 1974 he also became professor of physical chemistry at the university in Mainz. In 1991, following German reunification, Warneck was appointed the founding director of the new Institute for Tropospheric Research in Leipzig. He served in this position parallel to his activities in Mainz until official retirement. Warneck's research included laboratory studies of chemical mechanisms and photochemistry as well as the development of analytical techniques for field measurements. Since 1990, his interests are focused on chemical reactions in clouds. Jonathan Williams is an atmospheric chemist. He received his BSc in Chemistry and French and his Ph.D. in Environmental Science from the University of East Anglia, England. Between 1995-1997 he worked as a postdoctoral researcher at the NOAA Aeronomy laboratory in Boulder, USA, and from 1998 to present as a member of staff at the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany. He has participated in many international field measurement campaigns on aircraft, ships and at ground stations. Dr Williams is currently an editor on three atmospheric chemistry journals. His present research involves investigating the chemistry of reactive organic species in the atmosphere, in particular over forested ecosystems and in the marine boundary layer. Dr Williams leads a research group focussed specifically on Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) at the Max Planck Institute and in 2008 he was made an honorary Reader at the University of East Anglia, UK.