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The number of megacities worldwide is rapidly increasing and contemporary cities are also expanding fast. As a result, cities and their inhabitants are becoming increasingly vulnerable to the effects of catastrophic natural events such as extreme weather events (recently more frequent and intense as a result of the ongoing climate changes), earthquakes, tsunamis or man-induced events such as terrorist attacks or accidents. Furthermore, due to increasing technological complexity of urban areas, along with increasing population density, cities are becoming more and more risk attractors. The resilience of cities against catastrophic events is a major challenge of today. It requires city transformation processes to be rethought, to mitigate the effects of extreme events on the vital functions of cities and communities. Redundancy and robustness of the components of the urban fabric are essential to restore the full efficiency of the city's vital functions after an extreme event has taken place. These items were addressed by an interdisciplinary and international selection of scientists during the 6th UN-World Urban Forum that was held in Naples, Italy in September 2012. This volume represents in six chapters the views from sociologists, economists and scientists working on natural risk and physical vulnerability on resilience and sustainability for future cities in relation to natural disasters.
This book reports on important nonlinear aspects or deterministic chaos issues in the systems of multi-phase reactors. The reactors treated in the book include gas-liquid bubble columns, gas-liquid-solid fluidized beds and gas-liquid-solid magnetized fluidized beds. The authors take pressure fluctuations in the bubble columns as time series for nonlinear analysis, modeling and forecasting. They present qualitative and quantitative non-linear analysis tools which include attractor phase plane plot, correlation dimension, Kolmogorov entropy and largest Lyapunov exponent calculations and local non-linear short-term prediction.
This volume considers the dynamic relations between the contemporary practices of international criminal tribunals and the ways in which competing histories, politics and discourses are re-imagined and re-constructed in the former Yugoslavia and beyond. There are two innovative aspects of the book - one is the focus on narratives of justice and their production, another is in its comparative perspective. While legal scholars have tended to analyze transitional justice and the international war tribunals in terms of their success or failure in establishing the facts of war crimes, this volume goes beyond mere facts and investigates how the courts create a symbolic space within which competing narratives of crimes, perpetrators and victims are produced, circulated and contested. It analyzes how international criminal law and the courts gather, and in turn produce, knowledge about societies in war, their histories and identities, and their relations to the wider world. Moreover, the volume situates narratives of transitional justice in former Yugoslavia both within specific national spaces - such as Serbia, and Bosnia - and beyond the Yugoslav. In this way it also considers experiences from other countries and other times (post-World War II) to offer a sounding board for re-thinking the meanings of transitional justice and institutions within former Yugoslavia. Included in the volume's coverage is a look at the Rwandan tribunals, the trials of Charles Taylor, Radovan Karadzic, the Srebrenica genocide, and other war crimes and criminals in the Yugoslav. Finally, it frames all of those narratives and experiences within the global dynamics of legal, social and geo-political transformations, making it an excellent resource for social science researchers, human rights activists, those interested in the former Yugoslavia and international relations, and legal scholars.
This brief discusses factors associated with group formation, group maintenance, group population structure, and other events and processes (e. g. , physiology, behavior) related to mammalian social evolution. Within- and between-lineages, features of prehistoric and extant social mammals, patterns and linkages are discussed as components of a possible social "tool-kit". "Top-down" (predators to nutrients), as well as "bottom-up" (nutrients to predators) effects are assessed. The present synthesis also emphasizes outcomes of Hebbian (synaptic) decisions on Malthusian parameters (growth rates of populations) and their consequences for (shifting) mean fitnesses of populations. Ecology and evolution (EcoEvo) are connected via the organism's "norms of reaction" (genotype x environment interactions; life-history tradeoffs of reproduction, survival, and growth) exposed to selection, with the success of genotypes influenced by intensities of selection as well as neutral (e. g. mutation rates) and stochastic effects. At every turn, life history trajectories are assumed to arise from "decisions" made by types responding to competition for limiting resources constrained by Hamilton's rule (inclusive fitness operations).
Welcome to Westmorland. Perhaps the most scenic county in England! Home of the poets! Land of the great artists! District of the Great Lakes! And the scene of a mysterious crime . . . Swanton Morley, the People's Professor, once again sets off in his Lagonda to continue his history of England, The County Guides.Stranded in the market town of Appleby after a tragic rail crash, Morley, his daughter Miriam and his assistant, Stephen Sefton, find themselves drawn into a world of country fairs, gypsy lore and Cumberland and Westmorland wrestling. When a woman's body is discovered at an archaeological dig, for Morley there's only one possible question: could it be murder?Join Morley, Miriam and Sefton as they journey along the Great North road and the Settle-Carlisle Line into the dark heart of 1930s England.
This book introduces a process-oriented dynamic capability framework to study both, service innovation and Business Process Management (BPM). Results from applications in several case studies and surveys are reported. They reflect, e. g. , capability development and maturity models. Based on these findings, a method to support service innovation is introduced. This method can help organizations in developing new service business models in a more effective and efficient way. In today's networked service society, service innovation becomes increasingly important. Reasons for this development can be found in the transformation of economies and in the growing importance of product-service systems. The concept of service innovation is related to Business Process Management (BPM) and shares several important traits. They both are process-oriented dynamic capabilities to adapt (service) processes to changing environments.
Public spending on infrastructure plays an important role in promoting economic growth and poverty alleviation. Empirical studies unequivocally show that under-investment in infrastructure limit economic growth. At the same time, numerous other studies have shown that investment in infrastructure can be a highly effective tool in fighting poverty reduction1. In that context, the financing of infrastructure has been a critical element of most economic growth and poverty reduction strategies in developing countries, since the start of this millennium. This book provides a comparative analysis of the aggregate and sectoral implications of higher spending on infrastructure in three very different Asian countries: China, Pakistan, and the Philippines. Particular attention is paid to the role of alternative financing mechanisms for increasing public infrastructure investment, namely distortionary and non-distortionary means of financing. The book will be of interest to scholars and policy-makers concerned with economic growth in developing countries.
Companies have long sought to integrate existing Information Systems (IS) in order to support existing and potentially new business processes spread throughout their "territories" and possibly to collaborating organizations. A variety of designs can be used to this end, ranging from rigid point-to-point electronic data interchange (EDI) interactions to "Web auctions". By updating older technologies, such as "Internet-enabling" EDI-based systems, companies can make their IT systems available to internal or external customers; but the resulting systems have not proven to be flexible enough to meet business demands. A more flexible, standardized architecture is required to better support the connection of various applications and the sharing of data. Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) is one such architecture. It unifies ("orchestrates") business processes by structuring large applications as an ad-hoc collection of smaller modules called "Services". These applications can be used by different groups of people both inside and outside the company, and new applications built from a mix of services (located in a global repository) exhibit greater agility and uniformity. Thus, SOA is a design framework for realizing rapid and low-cost system development and improving total system quality. SOA uses the Web Services standards and technologies and is rapidly becoming a standard approach for enterprise information systems integration. SOA adoption by enterprises has been identified as one of the highest business priorities by a recent Gartner study (Gartner 2007) and enterprises increasingly recognize the requirement for an increased "Service-orientation" and relevant comprehensive frameworks, which will not only help them position themselves and evaluate their SOA initiatives, but also guide them in achieving higher levels of SOA maturity. This in turn, will help enterprises acquire (and retain) competitive advantage over other players in the market who are not (using SOA and thus they are not) so flexibly adjusting themselves to address new business requirements. This book proposes a new SOA Maturity Model (MM) using a Delphi-variant technique and this constitutes one of its distinguishing features because none of the relevant existing works utilized Delphi. Moreover, the fact that the proposed SOA MM supports inter-enterprise setups makes it even more distinct. The newly proposed SOA MM is then used to help the participating organizations position themselves in respect to SOA (current status), guide them to achieve higher levels of SOA maturity, and anticipate their SOA maturity in five years' time. Furthermore, the "local" or "global" nature of the proposed SOA MM is investigated. This is checked firstly against selected expert panel participants and secondly against local business practitioners.
This book analyses the voluminous and meandering case law on gambling of the Court of Justice from an empirical perspective. It offers a comprehensive overview of the legal situation of gambling services in the EU Single Market. Additionally, the book presents the current state of research on gambling addiction. It then seeks to answer the central research question as to what extent the views of the Court of Justice on gambling find support in empirical evidence. The Court of Justice granted exceptionally wide discretion to the Member States due to a so-called 'peculiar nature' of games of chance. With the margin of appreciation having played a key role, the book inquires whether the Court of Justice followed the principles and criteria that normally steer the use of this doctrine. Noting the Court's special approach, the book elaborates on its causes and consequences. Throughout the book, the approach of the Court of Justice is contrasted with that of its sister court, the EFTA Court. Finally, the potential role of the precautionary principle and of EU fundamental rights in the area of gambling law is examined. Situated at the intersection of law and science, this book seeks to bridge the legal and scientific perspectives and the unique vocabularies common to each. It illustrates the direct relevance of science and empirical research for court cases and policy making. And it contrasts science-informed policy making with the on-going morality discourse on gambling.
This book explores the overlooked but vital theoretical relationships between R. M. Hare, Alan Gewirth, and Jürgen Habermas. The author claims their accounts of value, while failing to address classic virtue-theoretical critiques, bear the seeds of a resolution to the ultimate question "What is most valuable?" These dialectical approaches, as claimed, justify a reinterpretation of value and value judgment according to the Carnapian conception of an empirical-linguistic framework or grammar. Through a further synthesis with the work of Philippa Foot and Thomas Magnell, the author shows that "value" would be literally meaningless without four fundamental phenomena which constitute such a framework: Logical Judgment, Conceptual Synthesis, Conceptual Abstraction, and Freedom. As part of the 'grammar of goodness,' the excellence of these phenomena, in a highly concrete way, constitute the essence of the greatest good, as this book explains.
This volume explores the many different meanings of the notion of the axiomatic method, offering an insightful historical and philosophical discussion about how these notions changed over the millennia. The author, a well-known philosopher and historian of mathematics, first examines Euclid, who is considered the father of the axiomatic method, before moving onto Hilbert and Lawvere. He then presents a deep textual analysis of each writer and describes how their ideas are different and even how their ideas progressed over time. Next, the book explores category theory and details how it has revolutionized the notion of the axiomatic method. It considers the question of identity/equality in mathematics as well as examines the received theories of mathematical structuralism. In the end, Rodin presents a hypothetical New Axiomatic Method, which establishes closer relationships between mathematics and physics. Lawvere's axiomatization of topos theory and Voevodsky's axiomatization of higher homotopy theory exemplify a new way of axiomatic theory building, which goes beyond the classical Hilbert-style Axiomatic Method. The new notion of Axiomatic Method that emerges in categorical logic opens new possibilities for using this method in physics and other natural sciences. This volume offers readers a coherent look at the past, present and anticipated future of the Axiomatic Method.
Did you know that sometimes 2+2 equals 5? That wheels don't always have to be round? That you can mathematically prove there is a hippopotamus in your basement? Or how to spot four-dimensional beings as they pass through your kitchen? If not, then you need to read Math Mutation Classics. This is a collection of Erik Seligman's blog articles from Math Mutation at MathMutation. com. Erik has been creating podcasts and converting them in his blog for many years. We have collected what we believe to be the most interesting among them, and have edited and organized them into a book that is often thought provoking, challenging, and fun. This book is about using math in unique ways; of analyzing things we observe in life and using proof to attain the unexpected. There is quite a wide diversity of topics here and so all age levels and ability levels will enjoy the discussions. Erik's unique viewpoint puts a mathematical spin on everything from politicians to hippos. Along the way, you will enjoy the different point of view and hopefully it will open you up to a slightly more out-of-the-box way of thinking. What you'll learn To look at different problems in a different manner Different ways of viewing the world How mathematics can be applied to things you thought unimaginable How to abstract things that are not taught in school Who this book is for The book is meant for teens to geezers. It is great for teenagers and college level students who can gain from the many different ways of looking at problems and feed their interest in mathematics. Even mathematicians will enjoy the twists of point of view this book projects. Finally, it is for anyone with a bathroom.
Ayurveda is widely considered to be one of the oldest health care traditions still in practice today. Originating in India over 3,000 years ago, it is now increasingly recognized and practiced globally including in many European countries and the United States. Food and nutrition play a crucial role in the health care wisdom of Ayurveda. The Ayurvedic Science of Food and Nutrition discusses the various principles of healthy eating as prescribed by Ayurveda. Divided into three sections, it addresses the fundamentals, the clinical applications, and the future challenges of Ayurveda. Specifically, the book discusses issues such as the concept of diet, the use of food as medicine, especially to treat diabetes and cancer, convalescent food practices, and fasting therapy. The Ayurvedic Science of Food and Nutrition is unique in that it is one of the only books to investigate the scientific rationale behind Ayurveda, enabling this health care tradition to potentially be incorporated into a Western clinical practice model when this latter conventional therapy is found to be ineffective.
Within the context of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety (CPB) was established as an implementing agreement. The CPB is an international agreement establishing the rights of recipient countries to be notified of and to approve or reject the domestic import and/or production of living modified organisms (LMOs). Decisions regarding import/production are to be on the basis of a biosafety assessment. Article 26. 1 of the CPB allows for the (optional) inclusion of socio-economic considerations (SECs) into that biosafety assessment process. This book compiles expert assessments of the issues relevant to SEC assessment of LMOs and fundamental for decisions regarding whether to undertake such assessments at all. It includes an overview of the inclusion of SEC assessment in the regulation of LMOs that looks at the rationale for the inclusion of SECs, in the context of the existing science-based risk assessment systems. This book reviews the various factors that can and have been suggested for inclusion in SEC assessment, and provides a meaningful dialogue about the contrasts, benefits and tradeoffs that are, and will, be created by the potential move to the inclusion of SECs in the regulation of LMOs, making it of interest to both academics and policy-makers.
The goal of this monograph is to emphasize with empirical data the complexity of the relationship between climate change and violence. Bioarchaeology is the integration of human skeletal remains from ancient societies with the cultural and environmental context. Information on mortality, disease, diet and other factors provide important data to examine long chronologies of human existence, particularly during periods of droughts and life-threatening climate changes. Case studies are used to reconstruct the responses and short and long-term adaptations made by groups before, during and after dramatic changes in weather and climate. Interpersonal and group violence is also analyzed. The authors find that while in some cases there is an increase in trauma and violence, in other cases there is not. Human groups are capable of avoiding violent altercations and increasing broad networks of cooperation that help to mitigate the effects of climate change. A case study from the U. S. Southwest is provided that shows the variable and surprising ways that ancient farmers in the past dealt with long term droughts.
This book discusses recent developments in several laboratories studying leishmaniasis. Sequencing of the human genome, as well as of the leishmania genome, has led to significant advances in our understanding of host-immune responses against leishmania, and mechanisms of infection-induced pathology, which is responsible for morbidity and mortality. Pathogenesis of Leishmaniasis focuses on the latest basic research into leishmaniasis, but also addresses how advances in understanding can be applied to prevention, control and treatment of what the WHO has classified a neglected tropical disease.
The Art of Transitional Justice examines the relationship between transitional justice and the practices of art associatedwith it. Art, which includes theater, literature, photography, and film, hasbeen integral to the understanding of the issues faced in situations oftransitional justice as well as other issues arising out ofconflict and mass atrocity. The chapters in this volume take up this understandingand its demands of transitional justice in situations in several countries:Afghanistan, Serbia, Srebenica, Rwanda, Northern Ireland, Cambodia, as well asthe experiences of resulting diasporic communities. In doing so, it brings tobear the insights from scholars, civil society groups, and art practitioners,as well as interdisciplinary collaborations.
There are several types of damage that can be found in the male gamete. Genetic damage in spermatozoa can originate during spermatogenesis, or it can originate during transit in both male and female genital tracts. Damage can also be due to ageing, environmental or iatrogenic conditions, as well as to the protocols to cryopreserve and to select spermatozoa in assisted reproduction techniques. The purpose of this book is to provide a comprehensive resource for all possible DNA damages in sperm, the relation to fertility and infertility, and possible transgenerational heritable effects.
Over the past decade, significant advances in research methodology have stimulated dramatic progress in the field of child psychiatry in general, and in pediatric anxiety disorders, more specifically. Pediatric Anxiety Disorders: A Clinical Guide is a comprehensive and vital addition to the literature at an exciting time in the field of psychiatry. This state-of-the-art reference aims to bridge the most up-to-date research findings with relevant clinical perspectives, making it a unique and essential resource for established clinicians and researchers, as well as for students and trainees. The book is organized into four sections, each of which includes chapters on a specific area of interest. The first section reviews the current research regarding etiological mechanisms of pediatric anxiety. The second section provides in-depth descriptions of the anxiety disorders that affect children and adolescents. The third section summarizes the literature on empirically supported assessment tools and evidence based cognitive-behavioral and pharmacological interventions. Of special practical note, the authors of these chapters have included comprehensive summary tables that can serve as quick reference tools. The final section of the text is dedicated to understanding how anxiety manifests in two special populations, children with chronic medical illnesses and those with autism spectrum disorders. Pediatric Anxiety Disorders: A Clinical Guide is an authoritative new volume developed by a renowned collection of clinicians and researchers in the field of childhood anxiety disorders.
Bayesian Networks in R with Applications in Systems Biology is unique as it introduces the reader to the essential concepts in Bayesian network modeling and inference in conjunction with examples in the open-source statistical environment R. The level of sophistication is also gradually increased across the chapters with exercises and solutions for enhanced understanding for hands-on experimentation of the theory and concepts. The application focuses on systems biology with emphasis on modeling pathways and signaling mechanisms from high-throughput molecular data. Bayesian networks have proven to be especially useful abstractions in this regard. Their usefulness is especially exemplified by their ability to discover new associations in addition to validating known ones across the molecules of interest. It is also expected that the prevalence of publicly available high-throughput biological data sets may encourage the audience to explore investigating novel paradigms using the approaches presented in the book.
While this book contains numerous facts and empirical findings and touches on policy issues, its main contribution to the existing literature lies in the theoretical perspective it offers. The core of this book is a general equilibrium theory of labor and marriage presented in Chapter 2, which provides the conceptual framework for the rest of the chapters. Two major implications of the theory are sex ratio effects and compensating differentials in marriage. The book demonstrates how a few core concepts, linked via economic analysis, help explain a multitude of findings based on statistical analyses of data from a wide variety of cultures. It is hoped that readers of this book will improve their understanding of how marriage works to help us design better economic and social policies as well as help people live better and happier lives, making the book of interest to not only economists but sociologists and anthropologists as well.
Psychosocial problems appear within a medical context worldwide, and are a major burden to health. Psychosomatic Medicine: An International Primer for the Primary Care Setting takes a uniquely global approach in laying the foundations of bio psychosocial basic care (such as recognizing psychosocial and psychosomatic problems, basic counseling and collaboration with mental health specialists) and provides relevant information about the most common mental and psychosomatic problems and disorders. The scope of the book is intercultural--it addresses global cultures, subcultures living in a single country and strengthening the care given by physicians working abroad. This clinically useful book outlines best practices for diagnosing the most common bio psychosocial problems and mastering the most common communication challenges (e. g. doctor-patient conversation, breaking bad news, dealing with difficult patients, family and health systems communication and collaboration). Every chapter integrates basic theoretical background and practical skills and includes trans-culturally sensitive material, important for work with patients from different cultures. Psychosomatic Medicine: An International Primer for the Primary Care Setting serves as an excellent resource for clinicians hoping to gain and develop knowledge and skills in psychosomatic medicine.
Securing privacy in the current environment is one of the great challenges of today's democracies. Privacy vs. Security explores the issues of privacy and security and their complicated interplay, from a legal and a technical point of view. Sophie Stalla-Bourdillon provides a thorough account of the legal underpinnings of the European approach to privacy and examines their implementation through privacy, data protection and data retention laws. Joshua Philips and Mark D. Ryan focus on the technological aspects of privacy, in particular, on today's attacks on privacy by the simple use of today's technology, like web services and e-payment technologies and by State-level surveillance activities.
Behavioral Operations Management has been identified in the last years as one of the most promising emerging fields in Operations Management. Behavioral Issues in Operations Management explains and examines up-to-date research in this field, which works to analyze the impact of human behavior on the management of complex operating systems. A collection of studies from leading scholars presents different methodologies and approaches, supported by real data and case studies. Issues such as building trust and strong cooperative relationships with suppliers, enhancing motivation and designing proper incentives for stimulating more effective decision maker behaviours are considered. The main decision-making processes affected by behavioral issues are also analyzed with a focus on new product development, logistics, and supply chain integration. The broad coverage of methodologies and practical implications makes Behavioral Issues in Operations Management an ideal reference for both researchers developing new topics such as NK fitness landscapes and managers with an interest in behavioral management operations.
At a time when clinicians are bombarded with masses of clinical information from numerous sources, and the wide variety of changes/advances in diabetes management, there is a need for a concise, easy-to-read book that provides an up-to-date review of the major advances in management of diabetes, with an evidence-based approach. This book is a collection of short chapters, each focused on a subject related to the management of diabetes and its complications. The chapters are written by acknowledged experts in the field, who are also clinicians dealing with diabetes on a day-to-day basis. The text is highly evidence based and well referenced with reviews of relevant trials. It includes the latest developments in diabetes management, prospects for future therapies and avenues of research, as well as therapies currently undergoing clinical trial. In order to facilitate ease of reading, it has a user-friendly appearance, with multiple headings, illustrations and summary boxes. The primary audience is clinical, including all healthcare professionals involved in the management of diabetes and its complications. This encompasses diabetologists and endocrinologists, family practitioners with an interest in diabetes, specialist nurses, dietitians and podiatrists.
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