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Adventure-based programs have become prevailing in the schools in Hong Kong. Due to the little empirical examination to the frequent use of experiential education, Chung Kwan Ackie Cheung uses mixed methods to establish its first phenomenal picture, addressing the scale of the use of experiential education and the impact of it on adolescents' development with regard to the globalizing phenomenon of Hong Kong. The findings show that experiential education, esp. adventure-based program, has been widely-spread and there is positive impact in the specified aspects self-concept, self-efficacy, learning climate and spiritual dimension of its adolescent learners.
Pulmonary diseases are the major cause of human morbidity, taxing the health care system due to disease prevalence, chronicity, and social and fiscal costs. This book concentrates on the inflammatory and immunogenic settings of pulmonary disorders and related medical areas. Excessive inflammation causes lung injury and forms a conducive background for pathogenic infections, particularly in immuno-compromised hosts. Bacterial immuno-evasive strategies develop, leading to self-perpetuating pathologies. Inflammation also is an essential component of non-communicable lung diseases, including asthma and respiratory allergies, and smoking-related or granulomatous diseases. The chapters combine a strong grounding in basic science with extensive clinical knowledge and experience. Advances in diagnostics, as well as preventive and therapeutic aspects also are tackled. The book provides useful information to clinicians, researchers, health care and other medical professionals.
Lung ventilation is driven by a complex neural regulatory network, and apart from conditions typically observed during a disease state, it is sensitive to functional dysregulation. This book focuses on a wide variety of pulmonary topics including inflammation, infection, cancerogenesis, hypoxia, and stress. The chapters deal with the pathophysiologic background of processes and mechanisms whereby abnormal or undesired conditions develop and progress. The exemplary topics concern the genotyping of mutations involved in the development of lung cancer, which helps target molecular anticancer therapy, or the advances in computed tomography technology employed in pulmonary diagnostics. Functional cardio-respiratory changes associated with a particular disease or resulting from disease, or dysautonomic state due to affective disorder or hypokinesia of spaceflight microgravity also are tackled. The book is intended for medical researchers and clinicians, notably pulmonologists, internists, family doctors, and all interested in this exciting area of science.
This volume, written by a highly cited author, presents the history of quantum theory together with open questions and remaining problems in terms of the plausibility of quantum chemistry and physics. It also provides insights into the theory of matter-wave mechanics. The content is aimed at students and lecturers in chemistry, physics and the philosophy of science.
This book provides a comprehensive overview of automatic model refinement, which helps readers close the gap between initial textual specification and its desired implementation. The authors enable readers to follow two "directions" for refinement: Vertical refinement, for adding detail and precision to single description for a given model and Horizontal refinement, which considers several views on one level of abstraction, refining the system specification by dedicated descriptions for structure or behavior. The discussion includes several methods which support designers of electronic systems in this refinement process, including verification methods to check automatically whether a refinement has been conducted as intended.
The book analyses the institutions of the European financial market supervision and the challenges of financial markets. The current European supervisory structure for financial markets represents a major development in European supervisory history. Its operation however has to be explored and analysed critically. Has it gone far enough to provide a sufficiently comprehensive and resilient system to reduce or mitigate systemic risks and handle financial crises? Some claim it has gone too far already. Fresh and rigorous critical legal and economic analysis from an independent scholarly perspective are needed to assess whether the institutional design of the European supervisory architecture has proved itself to be an efficient and effective model. This book discusses many dimensions of the structure and workings of the European system from various angles providing different dimensions. The book makes an important contribution to the limited literature on financial market supervision.
This book presents the most recent theoretical insights and practical intervention methods to (re)build trust between management and organized employees in organizations. Offering a multidisciplinary perspective on trust and conflict management in organizations, the book draws from diverse fields such as organizational psychology, business, law, industrial relations and sociology. It examines the often encountered breaches of trust between management and organized workers, and the resulting destructive social conflicts, social actions, strikes or dramatic business decisions. Its focus is on trust and conflict management at the organizational level in an industrial relations context: that of employee representatives and management. The book introduces a new theoretical approach: the Tree of Trust, designed to analyse and mediate the interconnected levels of trust and distrust in industrial relations. It presents case studies and practical recommendations to build trust and constructive conflict management in the organizations, and illustrates these by means of experiences from different countries around the globe.
This book provides a comprehensive look atnonhuman primate social inequalities as models for health differences associated with socioeconomic status in humans. The benefit of the socially-housedmonkey model is that it provides the complexity of hierarchical structure andrank affiliation, i. e. both negative and positive aspects of social status. Atthe same time, nonhuman primates are more amenable to controlled experimentsand more invasive studies that can be used inhuman beings toexamine the effects of low status on brain development, neuroendocrinefunction, immunity, and eating behavior. Because all of these biological andbehavioral substrates form the underpinnings of human illness, and are likelyshared among primates, the nonhuman primate model can significantly advance ourunderstanding of the best interventions in humans.
Peter Swirski looks at American crime fiction as an artform that expresses and reflects the social and aesthetic values of its authors and readers. As such he documents the manifold ways in which such authorship and readership are a matter of informed literary choice and not of cultural brainwashing or declining literary standards. Asking, in effect, a series of questions about the nature of genre fiction as art, successive chapters look at American crime writers whose careers throw light on the hazards and rewards of nobrow traffic between popular forms and highbrow aesthetics: Dashiell Hammett, John Grisham, William Faulkner, Ernest Hemingway, Raymond Chandler, Ed McBain, Nelson DeMille, and F. Scott Fitzgerald.
This text is a reliable, validated, anatomically defined, and image-based tool to determine residue location and severity when performing fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES). Based upon research by Drs. Leder and Neubauer, an easily interpreted, readily learned, and hierarchically organized pharyngeal residue severity rating scale was developed for speech-language pathologists, otolaryngologists, and other health care professionals who perform and interpret FEES. The Yale Pharyngeal Residue Severity Rating Scale works equally well for any swallow of interest, whether it is the first, subsequent clearing, or last swallow. The endoscopist simply has to match their chosen swallow with its scale mate. The Yale Pharyngeal Residue Severity Rating Scale can be used for both clinical advantages and research opportunities. Clinically, clinicians can now accurately classify vallecula and pyriform sinus residue severity as none, trace, mild, moderate, or severe for diagnostic purposes, determination of functional therapeutic change, and precise dissemination of shared information. Research uses include tracking outcomes for clinical trials, investigating various swallowing interventions, demonstrating efficacy of specific interventions to reduce pharyngeal residue, determining morbidity and mortality associated with pharyngeal residue in different patient populations, and improving the training and accuracy of FEES interpretation by students and clinicians. The Yale Pharyngeal Residue Severity Rating Scale is an important addition to the deglutologist's tool box.
This work carefully guides the reader through the methodological, policy and ethical challenges facing health economists conducting research in palliative care. It has collected the opinions of many cutting-edge researchers. Those who design and conduct economic evaluations or economics-related research in end of life populations will find this book thought provoking, instructive and informative. The provision of care to individuals with disorders associated with advancing age, such as cancer and dementia, is an increasing concern amongst policy makers and providers of health and social care. Accordingly, the burden on state and private funders in providing care to patients with these complex illnesses is of growing importance to health economists. However, answering the questions raised by the research community on end of life and palliative care health economics has received little attention. The authors shed light on many questions including: Are economic evaluation methods fit for purpose in patients at the end of life? What is the best way to measure and value health outcomes in this population? What are the appropriate societal rules to govern resource allocation for people at the end of life? Are these people more or less deserving of resources than other patients? Does age matter? How can we define a good death for the purposes of resource allocation decision making? What ethics govern research in end of life patients?
This book reports the elements required for implementing Just in Time (JIT) technique in companies. The main reasons for low implementation processes and the main benefits from the successful implementation of them are highlighted in this book. Structural equation models are presented to help identify the essential elements in JIT.
This book provides a comparative perspective on one of the most intriguing developments in law: the influence of basic rights and human rights in private law. It analyzes the application of basic rights and human rights, which are traditionally understood as public law rights, in private law, and discusses the related spillover effects and changing perspectives in legal doctrine and practice. It provides examples where basic rights and human rights influence judicial reasoning and lead to changes of legislation in contract law, tort law, property law, family law, and copyright law. Providing both context and background analysis for any critical examination of the horizontal effect of fundamental rights in private law, the book contributes to the current debate on an important issue that deserves the attention of legal practitioners, scholars, judges and others involved in the developments in a variety of the world's jurisdictions. This book is based on the General Report and national reports commissioned by the International Academy of Comparative Law and written for the XIXth International Congress of Comparative Law in Vienna, Austria, in the summer of 2014.
The main focus of this book is on the interconnection of two unorthodox scientific ideas, the varying-gravity hypothesis and the expanding-earth hypothesis. As such, it provides a fascinating insight into a nearly forgotten chapter in both the history of cosmology and the history of the earth sciences. The hypothesis that the force of gravity decreases over cosmic time was first proposed by Paul Dirac in 1937. In this book the author examines in detail the historical development of Dirac's hypothesis and its consequences for the structure and history of the earth, the most important of which was that the earth must have been smaller in the past.
This textbook introduces students to the basic concepts and methods used to measure and compare the expected benefits, risks and cost of preventive and therapeutic medical interventions. It provides an easily accessible overview of comparative effectiveness and its practical applications to daily medical decisions. The book includes learning objectives for each topic, definitions of key terms and topic summaries. Each chapter is written by a highly regarded academic and extensive reference is made throughout to other sources of literature where the interested reader can find further details. The book considers, among other topics, evidence based medicine and the role of comparative effectiveness research in the development of medical guidelines, bias and confounding, quality of life, randomized controlled trials, analyses of retrospective databases, screening and economic evaluation. The book is intended to serve as a "what is it?", "why do we need it?" and "how does it or could it effect positive change in health care?" rather than just a "how to?" technical overview. As such, it provides an essential resource for both under- and post-graduate students in health sciences.
The people who inhabited Southwest Europe from 30,000 to 13,000 years ago are often portrayed as big game hunters - and indeed, in some locations (Cantabrian Spain, the Pyrenees, the Dordogne) the archaeological record supports this interpretation. But in other places, notably Mediterranean Iberia, the inhabitants focused their hunting efforts on smaller game, such as rabbits, fish, and birds. Were they less effective hunters? Were these environments depleted of red deer and other large game? Or is this evidence of Paleolithic people's adaptability? This volume explores these questions, along the way delving into the history of the "bigger equals better" assumption; optimal foraging theory and niche construction theory; and patterns of environmental and subsistence change across the Pleistocene-Holocene transition.
This book deals with the transformation of the Arctic from an isolated or a distant region to a member of the global community, vulnerable to global changes, and an area frequently in the very center of the world's attention. Increased global interest is a potential source of tensions between the need for exploration or exploitation, and the requirements of protection. This context calls for new data, knowledge and information vital for a better understanding of interactions between different systems, as well as developing awareness about the current and potential changes in the future. The objective of the book is to help develop a strategy of adaptation to climate change based on the knowledge and experience of the extremely effective mechanisms which for centuries made survival possible in this region.
This book takes stock of the lessons to be learned from the experiences of different countries on their way to a transition into a unified Europe. It demonstrates how the project of a unified Europe is a social pilot project that is unique in human history, both with respect to the sheer number of people involved and with respect to the cultural diversity it aims to turn into a progressive advantage. With no historical experience at hand, the transition into a unified Europe is an exploratory process, often risky but sometimes also surprisingly successful. To improve the chances of establishing a successful unification it is particularly important that we learn from the mistakes made so far; and that we learn rapidly, since the forces working against the pilot project of Europe will gain power very fast if the unification success slows down. And as the recent developments in Greece show, the vision of the final goal itself can well change during this exciting quest. Apart from providing the pieces of a mosaic on which a more general theory can be built, this book can be read as a collection of experiences - mistakes as well as triumphs - which should help the European learning process. The structure of the book mirrors Europe's diversity: specific country studies are combined with more general chapters, and quantitatively oriented econometric work is combined with qualitatively oriented sociological studies.
This book is a compilation of perspectives provided by several winners of the ASQ Feigenbaum Medal, which is awarded each year to an individual under the age of 35 who has made a significant contribution to the field of Quality. As such, it serves as a valuable reference book in this area. It is primarily based on the medalists' vision to "refresh" and "re-think" the quality concepts that have been used over the past century and the future development of the topic. Maximizing readers' understanding of the ways in which Quality is created, it provides insights from pioneers in this field from around the globe and anticipates how and what Quality will be in the future, as well as how people and organizations can benefit from it today.
This book examines democratizing media reforms in Latin America. The author explains why some countries have recently passed such reforms in the broadcasting sector, while others have not. By offering a civil society perspective, the author moves beyond conventional accounts that perceive media reforms primarily as a form of government repression to punish oppositional media. Instead, he highlights the pioneering role of civil society coalitions, which have managed to revitalize the debate on communication rights and translated them into specific regulatory outcomes such as the promotion of community radio stations. The book provides an in-depth, comparative analysis of media reform debates in Argentina and Brazil (analyzing Chile and Uruguay as complementary cases), supported by original qualitative research. As such, it advances our understanding of how shifting power relations and social forces are affecting policymaking in Latin America and beyond.
This wide-ranging volume combines the current findings and frontline knowledge working practitioners need to know about forensic interviewing of children in sexual abuse cases. Coverage begins with the basics: legal and ethical principles, interview planning and procedure, psychometric and cultural issues, pitfalls and how to avoid them. Perspectives from a trial lawyer and a district attorney lend real-life details on criminal court procedure, interview procedure, legal standards, and what is expected of expert witnesses. Not only is developmental understanding of salient issues concerning children's competency and suggestibility offered here, but also vital guidance on the controversies surrounding false memories and untrue accusations. Included in the coverage: Working with the multidisciplinary team. Childhood memory: an update from cognitive neuroscience. Disclosure failures: statistics, characteristics, and strategies to address them. Child abusers' threats and grooming techniques. Review of psychometrics of forensic interview protocols with children. Assessing the quality of forensic interviews with child witnesses. Forensic Interviews Regarding Child Sexual Abuse brings a wealth of robust practical information to professionals working with children, including clinical and child psychologists, psychiatrists, and social workers.
This book presents emerging research on the effectiveness of mindfulness methods in reducing behavior problems associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in children. The volume synthesizes current research and theories on the therapeutic uses of mindfulness, specifically for people living with developmental disabilities. In addition, it examines a promising new study in which mothers of children with ASD learn mindfulness techniques for their own use and are then trained to teach the methods to their children. The book concludes with a report of poststudy findings and a discussion of practical and methodological issues regarding mindfulness interventions for ASD. Featured topics include: A genealogy of mindfulness, from original Buddhist texts to modern health applications. Implications for further research and advancement. Appendices of basic mindfulness exercises and activities. A Mindfulness Intervention for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders is a concise resource for researchers, clinicians and other scientist-practitioners, and graduate students in developmental psychology, social work, education, and related disciplines.
This book generates a comprehensive account of ways in which practice-based learning has been conceptualized in the Francophone context. Learning for occupations, and the educational and practice-based experiences supporting it are the subject of increased interest and attention globally. Governments, professional bodies, workplaces and workers are now looking for experiences that support the initial and ongoing development of occupational capacities. Consequently, more attention is being given to workplaces as sites for this learning. This focus on learning through work has long been emphasised in the Francophone world, which has developed distinct traditions and conceptions of associations between work and learning. These include ergonomics and professional didactics. Yet, whilst being accepted and of long standing in the Francophone world, these conceptions and traditions, and the practices supporting them are little known about or understood in the Anglophone world, which is the dominant medium for scientific and educational discussion. This book addresses this problem through drawing on accounts from France, Switzerland and Canada that make accessible and elaborate these traditions, conceptions and practices through examples of their applications to occupationally related learning. These accounts offer variations and culturally-specific developments of these traditions, but collectively emphasize a preoccupation with how both work and learning need to be understood through situated considerations of persons enacting their work practice. In this way, they offer noteworthy and worthwhile contributions to contemporary global considerations of learning through work.
This work is a collection of Carl Wenicke's lectures on neuropsychiatry translated into English for the first time. Beginning with basic concepts about normal brain function, the book moves to clinical topics, dealing first with chronic mental disorders and 'paranoid states', and then to the more complex area of acute mental disorders. Many of the featured topics are still clinically relevant, and matters of contemporary debate. Carl Wernicke is one of the pioneers of neurology and psychiatry; clinicians, researchers and historians will find this of great interest.
Otitis media (OM) is the most common diagnosis at medical visits in preschool-age children, and the literature suggests that as many as 80% of children will suffer from at least one episode. Written by acknowledged experts, this is a state of the art reference on the disesase and controversies in the field. Recent important advances in our understanding of predisposition to the disease and vaccine development are described and diagnostic best practices are presented. Otitis Media: State of the Art Concepts and Treatment is for any health care provider who works with children, and their ability to diagnose and appropriately manage OM is therefore an essential skill. The roles of antibiotics, tympanostomy, and surgery in the treatment of OM are carefully examined, with discussion of the impact of guidelines and future directions. Otitis Media: State of the Art Concepts and Treatment is an invaluable source of up-to-date information for all involved in research into OM and its management.
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