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Climate - Vegetation:

by M. A. Zahran Francis Gilbert

Deserts are unique ecosystems with their own biotic and abiotic components, and are often rich in renewable natural resources, the appropriate management of which can contribute significantly to the sustainable management of desert regions for the welfare of the people. Yet while there are many books on the flora of the countries fringing the important desert countries of the Mediterranean and Red Seas, there or few books reporting on their ecophysiology and vegetation ecology. This book presents the vegetation types of the African and Asian countries of the Mediterranean and Red Sea coastal regions, and discusses the ecological threats and economic applications of these critical resources. In particular, it examines the relationships between climate and vegetation, and discusses these within the context of desertification, agro-industrial applications, ecotourism and sustainable development. The book will provide a valuable reference for researchers and graduate students involved in plant ecology, biogeography, economic botany and environmental management in the Afro-Asian Mediterranean and Red Sea coastal regions, as well as other desert regions around the world.

Economic Issues Today

by Robert B. Carson Wade L. Thomas Jason Hecht

Written in non-technical, everyday language that is accessible to the undergraduate audience, and requiring no background in economic analysis, this acclaimed text provides a unique approach to understanding what the practice of economics is all about. The authors address fourteen current economic issues, covering both micro- and macro-economics, and offer analyses and proposed solutions for each from Conservative, Liberal, and Radical perspectives. This new edition incorporates critical changes in economic policy since the last edition that affect every issue covered in the text. Tables have been updated throughout to include current economic data, and an all-new section on social policy frames the current debate about the Social Security system. The book's unique approach stimulates critical thinking on everyday issues that traditional texts either ignore or present as "settled" debates. It helps students to understand the dual role that ideology and logical/empirical argumentation play in economics. Issues are presented as stand-alone subjects that can be read in any sequence and used to supplement a wide range of principles of economics texts. An instructor's manual with a test bank and discussion questions is available to professors who adopt the text, and Power Point downloads are available as teaching aids. The text is also available in two separate volumes: Microeconomics Today and Macroeconomics Today.

Strategic Scientific and Medical Writing

by Silvia M. Rogers Pieter H. Joubert

A document may be based on accurate medical and scientific information, follow guidelines precisely, and be well written in clear and correct language, but may still fail to achieve its objectives. The strategic approach described in this book will help you to turn good medical and scientific writing into successful writing. It describes clearly and concisely how to identify the target audience and the desired outcome, and how to construct key messages for a wide spectrum of documents. Irrespective of your level of expertise and your seniority in the pharmaceutical, regulatory, or academic environment, this book is an essential addition to your supporting library. The authors share with you many years of combined experience in the pharmaceutical and academic environment and in the writing of successful outcome-driven documents.

Aspects of Language and Learning

by M.A.K. HallidayJonathan J. Webster

This book is based on a series of lectures, which begin with a look at the history of the language that we use in order to encode our knowledge, particularly our scientific knowledge, i. e. , the history of scientific English. Prof. M. A. K. Halliday poses the question of how a growing child comes to master this kind of language and put it to his or her own use as a means of learning. In subsequent chapters, Halliday explores the relationship between language, education and culture, again taking the language of science as the focal point for the discussion; and finally he draws these various themes together to construct a linguistic interpretation of how we learn and how we learn how to learn.

Disaster Management in China in a Changing Era

by Yi Kang

This book shows how Chinese officials have responded to popular and international pressure, while at the same time seeking to preserve their own careers, in the context of disaster management. Using the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake as a case study, it illustrates how authoritarian regimes are creating new governance mechanisms in response to the changing global environment and what challenges they are confronted with in the process. The book examines both the immediate and long-term effects of a major disaster on China's policy, institutions, and governing practices, and seeks to explain which factors lead to hasty and poorly conceived reconstruction efforts, which in turn reproduce the very same conditions of vulnerability or expose communities to new risks. In short, it tells a "political" story of how intra-governmental interactions, state-society relations, and international engagement can shape the processes and outcomes of recovery and reconstruction.

Art, Cultural Heritage and the Market

by Valentina Vadi Hildegard E. G. S. Schneider

In the age of economic globalisation, do art and heritage matter? Once the domain of elitist practitioners and scholars, the governance of cultural heritage and the destiny of iconic artefacts have emerged as the new frontier of international law, making headlines and attracting the varied interests of academics and policy-makers, museum curators and collectors, human rights activists and investment lawyers and artists and economists, just to mention a few. The return of cultural artefacts to their legitimate owners, the recovery of underwater cultural heritage and the protection and promotion of artistic expressions are just some of the pressing issues addressed by this book. Contemporary intersections between art, cultural heritage and the market are complicated by a variety of ethical and legal issues, which often describe complex global relations. Should works of art be treated differently from other goods? What happens if a work of art, currently exhibited in a museum, turns out to have originally been looted? What is the relevant legal framework? What should be done with ancient shipwrecks filled with objects from former colonies? Should such objects be kept by the finders? Should they be returned to the country of origin? This book addresses these different questions while highlighting the complex interplay between legal and ethical issues in the context of cultural governance. The approach is mainly legal but interdisciplinary aspects are considered as well.

Who Gets Funds from China's Capital Market?

by Jiazhuo G. Wang Juan Yang

The subject of this book is an analysis of the business models developed or adopted by Chinese small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs), specifically those that are successfully listed on China's capital market; in other words, it is a dissection of those Chinese business models that have "worked. " In China, there are over 10 million companies that are registered with China's State Industrial and Commercial Administration and over 40 million unregistered businesses. Among them, only about 1,000 companies became successfully listed on China's capital market and were able to obtain public funds from equity investors. This book takes a look at who these "lucky ones" were and what business models led to their success in a highly competitive Chinese market, investigations that will certainly be of interest to both Chinese and international readerships. In addition, this book provides a nuanced and micro view of the Chinese economy. As China's economy increasingly receives attention worldwide, the amount of research and publications on China's economy is also growing exponentially. However, the majority of these studies only focus on the macro level of the Chinese economy and aggregate variables such as GDP, growth rate, inflation, etc. , while little research has been done at a micro and company level to analyze the Chinese economy. Thus, this book's focus on the case studies of representative firms may help fill some gaps in the study of business and the economy in China. Furthermore, this book hopes to dispel certain misconceptions about the nature of the Chinese economy. There is currently a stereotypical view about Chinese economy, for example that China, as the workshop of the world, primarily produces low-end products with low prices to be sold in other countries by budget retailers like Wal-Mart or dollar stores. While that is true to some extent, it is certainly not the whole story. The companies analyzed in this book cover a wide spectrum of industries including modern agriculture, alternative energy, resources recycling, mobile games, animation, luxury products, supply chain management, filmmaking and TV series production, displaying to readers the brand-new industrial structure of Chinese companies in the 21st century.

Poverty Alleviation Investment and Private Economy in China

by Lin Wang

This book explores the mechanisms and significance of China's private economy participating in poverty alleviation. By basing its analysis on theories of development economics and public economics, the book stresses practical significance and abandons unreasonable assumptions. It uses a systematic set of statistical analysis tools and descriptive statistics to provide a multidimensional and highly visual format. Beyond the traditional qualitative comparison of countries, it also introduces quantitative comparison. Considering the increasing concern and curiosity about China's booming economy and rising private sector, the book is highly topical, offering readers theoretical insights into China's poverty alleviation mechanisms and essential information on the role played by the private economy in social and economic development.

Hygrothermal Numerical Simulation Tools Applied to Building Physics

by Vasco Peixoto Freitas Eva Barreira Nuno M.M. Ramos João M.P.Q. Delgado

This book presents a critical review on the development and application of hygrothermal analysis methods to simulate the coupled transport processes of Heat, Air, and Moisture (HAM) transfer for one or multidimensional cases. During the past few decades there has been relevant development in this field of study and an increase in the professional use of tools that simulate some of the physical phenomena that are involved in Heat, Air and Moisture conditions in building components or elements. Although there is a significant amount of hygrothermal models referred in the literature, the vast majority of them are not easily available to the public outside the institutions where they were developed, which restricts the analysis of this book to only 14 hygrothermal modelling tools. The special features of this book are (a) a state-of-the-art of numerical simulation tools applied to building physics, (b) the boundary conditions importance, (c) the material properties, namely, experimental methods for the measurement of relevant transport properties, and (d) the numerical investigation and application The main benefit of the book is that it discusses all the topics related to numerical simulation tools in building components (including state-of-the-art and applications) and presents some of the most important theoretical and numerical developments in building physics, providing a self-contained major reference that is appealing to both the scientists and the engineers. At the same time, this book will be going to the encounter of a variety of scientific and engineering disciplines, such as civil and mechanical engineering, architecture, etc... The book is divided in several chapters that intend to be a resume of the current state of knowledge for benefit of professional colleagues.

The Economics of Contemporary Art

by Alessia Zorloni

The book examines the contemporary art system with a broad and systematic approach, through the application of models of microeconomics and industrial organizations. By breaking down the traditional barriers between different academic disciplines such as art and economics, this book offers a unique opportunity to grasp the complexities of the contemporary art world and provides the tools to conduct a structural analysis of that market. The result is an in-depth analysis of the contemporary art market from an interdisciplinary perspective. While it is not a textbook in the strictest sense, the book offers a concise and effective overview of all actors in the art system, and provides supporting data and valuable information, both conceptual and practical. It is therefore a text that can be used by students wishing to better understand the complex dynamics that govern the contemporary art market, but also by cultural managers, collectors, potential art investors or simply art lovers who need a quick reference.

Economics for Environmental Studies: A Strategic Guide to Micro- and Macroeconomics

by Alfred Endres Volker Radke

An understanding of fundamental economic concepts is essential for students in environmental studies programs around the world. The present textbook addresses their needs, providing a concise introduction to micro- and macroeconomics and demonstrating how these economic tools and approaches can be used to analyze environmental issues. Written in an accessible style without compromising depth of the analysis, central issues in the public policy debate on environmental problems and environmental policy are discussed and analyzed from an economics perspective. The book is meant both as an introductory text for undergraduate students in environmental sciences without a background in economics, and as a companion for economists interested in a presentation of the micro and macro foundations of environmental economics, in a nutshell.

Africa and the Deep Seabed Regime: Politics and International Law of the Common Heritage of Mankind

by Edwin Egede

This book seeks to fill a gap in the existing literature by examining the role of African States in the development and establishment of the regime of the deep seabed beyond national jurisdiction (the Area) and the concept of the Common Heritage of Mankind.

The Force Awakens (Star Wars)

by Alan Dean Foster

#1 NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER * The official novelization of Star Wars: The Force Awakens, the blockbuster film directed by J. J. Abrams. More than thirty years ago, Star Wars burst onto the big screen and became a cultural phenomenon. Now the next adventures in this blockbuster saga are poised to captivate old and new fans alike--beginning with the highly anticipated Star Wars: The Force Awakens. And alongside the cinematic debut comes the thrilling novel adaptation by New York Times bestselling science fiction master Alan Dean Foster. Set years after Return of the Jedi, this stunning new action-packed adventure rockets us back into the world of Princess Leia, Han Solo, Chewbacca, C-3PO, R2-D2, and Luke Skywalker, while introducing a host of exciting new characters. Darth Vader may have been redeemed and the Emperor vanquished, but peace can be fleeting, and evil does not easily relent. Yet the simple belief in good can still empower ordinary individuals to rise and meet the greatest challenges. So return to that galaxy far, far away, and prepare yourself for what happens when the Force awakens. . . .Praise for Star Wars: The Force Awakens "Like all the best novelizations, Alan Dean Foster's adaptation of Star Wars: The Force Awakens enriches the movie experience. The novel goes beyond simply giving us insight into the characters' thoughts, with plenty of additional scenes painting a broader picture of the galaxy."--New York Daily News "Fast-moving, atmospheric and raises goose-bumps at just the right moments. [Foster] not only evokes entire onscreen worlds . . . he also gives us glimpses of an even more vast, unseen universe."--The Washington Post "Was my experience of the film enriched by the book? Yes. No question. Is the novelization worth reading? Yes. . . . Foster has written a book that captures the spirit of the film, while presenting additional information that helps answer some of the questions that linger."--Coffee with Kenobi

My Name Is Lucy Barton: A Novel

by Elizabeth Strout

#1 NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER * LONGLISTED FOR THE MAN BOOKER PRIZE * A simple hospital visit becomes a portal to the tender relationship between mother and daughter in this extraordinary novel by the Pulitzer Prize-winning author of Olive Kitteridge and The Burgess Boys. Lucy Barton is recovering slowly from what should have been a simple operation. Her mother, to whom she hasn't spoken for many years, comes to see her. Gentle gossip about people from Lucy's childhood in Amgash, Illinois, seems to reconnect them, but just below the surface lie the tension and longing that have informed every aspect of Lucy's life: her escape from her troubled family, her desire to become a writer, her marriage, her love for her two daughters. Knitting this powerful narrative together is the brilliant storytelling voice of Lucy herself: keenly observant, deeply human, and truly unforgettable.Praise for My Name Is Lucy Barton "There is not a scintilla of sentimentality in this exquisite novel. Instead, in its careful words and vibrating silences, My Name Is Lucy Barton offers us a rare wealth of emotion, from darkest suffering to--'I was so happy. Oh, I was happy'--simple joy."--Claire Messud, The New York Times Book Review "Spectacular . . . Smart and cagey in every way. It is both a book of withholdings and a book of great openness and wisdom. . . . [Strout] is in supreme and magnificent command of this novel at all times."--Lily King, The Washington Post "A short novel about love, particularly the complicated love between mothers and daughters, but also simpler, more sudden bonds . . . It evokes these connections in a style so spare, so pure and so profound the book almost seems to be a kind of scripture or sutra, if a very down-to-earth and unpretentious one."--Marion Winik, Newsday "Potent with distilled emotion. Without a hint of self-pity, Strout captures the ache of loneliness we all feel sometimes."--Time "An aching, illuminating look at mother-daughter devotion."--People "A quiet, sublimely merciful contemporary novel about love, yearning, and resilience in a family damaged beyond words."--The Boston Globe "Sensitive, deceptively simple . . . It is Lucy's gentle honesty, complex relationship with her husband, and nuanced response to her mother's shortcomings that make this novel so subtly powerful. . . . [It's] more complex than it first appears, and all the more emotionally persuasive for it."--San Francisco Chronicle "Strout maps the complex terrain of human relationships by focusing on that which is often unspoken and only implied. . . . A powerful addition to Strout's body of work."--The Seattle Times "Impressionistic and haunting . . . [Strout] reminds us of the power of our stories--and our ability to transcend our troubled narratives."--Miami Herald "Writing of this quality comes from a commitment to listening, from a perfect attunement to the human condition, from an attention to reality so exact that it goes beyond a skill and becomes a virtue."--Hilary Mantel "Magnificent."--Ann PatchettFrom the Hardcover edition.

Ashley Bell: A Novel

by Dean Koontz

#1 NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER * NAMED ONE OF THE BEST BOOKS OF THE YEAR BY BOOKPAGE * The must-read thriller of the year, for readers of dark psychological suspense and modern classics of mystery and adventure The girl who said no to death. Bibi Blair is a fierce, funny, dauntless young woman--whose doctor says she has one year to live. She replies, "We'll see." Her sudden recovery astonishes medical science. An enigmatic woman convinces Bibi that she escaped death so that she can save someone else. Someone named Ashley Bell. But save her from what, from whom? And who is Ashley Bell? Where is she? Bibi's obsession with finding Ashley sends her on the run from threats both mystical and worldly, including a rich and charismatic cult leader with terrifying ambitions. Here is an eloquent, riveting, brilliantly paced story with an exhilarating heroine and a twisting, ingenious plot filled with staggering surprises. Ashley Bell is a new milestone in literary suspense from the long-acclaimed master.Praise for Ashley Bell"A mind-bender filled with satisfying surprises."--People (book of the week) "[With] lyrical writing and compelling characters . . . Koontz stands alone, and this novel is a prime example of literary suspense. . . . One of his best."--Associated Press "Grabs you on page one and keeps you enthralled with ever widening loops of intrigue, spine-tingling plot twists, absorbing characters and emotional involvement . . . extraordinary."--Bookreporter "Heart-pounding and mind boggling . . . a rarity of a thriller--one that asks big questions about life and destiny while succeeding in creating [an] eerie sense of reality."--Shelf Awareness "Strap in and hold on. . . . When a writer has managed to catch this kind of lightning in a bottle, every reader should experience the full jolt."--BookPageFrom the Hardcover edition.

Future Viability, Business Models, and Values

by Friedrich Glauner

This book challenges the traditional models of modern economy, business education and management, which are devoted to the concepts of scarcity, competition, growth and yield. It deconstructs the spiral of acceleration in which technological shifts concerning global markets and enterprises produce a dynamic of unbridled disruption, concentration and erosion of human and natural resources. The book analyzes how, in the face of this dynamic, once successful business models increasingly lead to existential jeopardy. The book embeds its argument in the impact of technological change on strategy in general. It subsequently analyzes the degree of rationality in the strategy building process to juxtapose revenue and responsibility as the fundamental principles of diverging strategic concepts. In its central chapters the book explores the benefits of consciousness-driven business models and value-added strategies for the awareness markets of the future and their impact on team excellence and resource handling. It develops an understanding of how corporations can function as ecosystems fostering the growth and development of the resources they operate on, rather than being based on their exploitation. Understanding this structure of viable future business models is the overall theme of this pioneering book. " This book endeavors to set out yet another paradigm for a viable economics, the paradigm of ethicology. It seeks to replace the concepts of competition, scarcity and growth with strategies and business models based on resource creation, added values cycles, enrichment and symbiosis in line with the awareness economy it describes. "Hunter Lovins, President and Founder of Natural Capitalism Solutions " . . . a very basic paradigm shift in our future strategies " Henner Klein, Chairman Emeritus A. T. Kearney " The book stands right on the tectonic fault line between our old and our new reality. It manages to do both: analyze the shifting paradigms and provoke new thinking. " Dr. Martin R. Stuchtey, Director of the McKinsey Center for Business & Environment " This book is raising the bar. His vision dares to rethink the principles of the liberal and social market economy in a globalized business world. " Prof. Dr. Rene Schmidpeter, CBS Koln " A book worth reading and reflecting on. Onwards to an economy that works for 100% of humanity. " Michael Pirson, Associate Professor, Director Center for Humanistic Management, Fordham University and Research Fellow, Harvard University " powerful arguments and practical guidance on how companies can become sustainable and live up to the realities of global enterprise " Michael Hilti, Hilti AG " " "

Social Video Content Delivery

by Zhi Wang Jiangchuan Liu Wenwu Zhu

This brief presents new architecture and strategies for distribution of social video content. A primary framework for socially-aware video delivery and a thorough overview of the possible approaches is provided. The book identifies the unique characteristics of socially-aware video access and social content propagation, revealing the design and integration of individual modules that are aimed at enhancing user experience in the social network context. The change in video content generation, propagation, and consumption for online social networks, has significantly challenged the traditional video delivery paradigm. Given the massive amount of user-generated content shared in online social networks, users are now engaged as active participants in the social ecosystem rather than as passive receivers of media content. This revolution is being driven further by the deep penetration of 3G/4G wireless networks and smart mobile devices that are seamlessly integrated with online social networking and media-sharing services. Despite increasingly abundant bandwidth and computational resources, the ever-increasing volume of data created by user-generated video content--along with the boundless coverage of socialized sharing--presents unprecedented challenges.

Private Communities and Urban Governance

by Amnon Lehavi

This book offers an interdisciplinary and comparative study of the complex interplay between private versus public forms of organization and governance in urban residential developments. Bringing together top experts from numerous disciplines, including law, economics, geography, political science, sociology, and planning, this book identifies the current trends in constructing the physical, economic, and social infrastructure of residential communities across the world. It challenges much of the conventional wisdom about the division of labor between market-driven private action and public policy in regulating residential developments and the urban space, and offers a new research agenda for dealing with the future of cities in the twenty-first century. It represents a unique ongoing academic dialogue between the members of an exceptional group of scholars, underscoring the essentially of an interdisciplinary and comparative approach to the study of private communities and urban governance. As such, the book will appeal to a broad audience consisting of policy-makers, practitioners, scholars, and students across the world, especially in developing countries and transitional and emerging economies.

The European Emission Trading System and Its Followers

by Simone Borghesi Massimiliano Montini Alessandra Barreca

Given the rapid spread of ETSs in an increasing number of countries and the important role that they are likely to play for the success or failure of the environmental policy in the years to come, this book provides an interdisciplinary analysis of the EU ETS from both the legal and economic perspectives comparing it with the other main ETSs existing worldwide, in order to assess whether the EU ETS has truly represented a prototype for the other ETSs established around the world and to investigate the current perspectives for linking them in the future. Through the years, the EU ETS has progressively gained a paramount position within the EU environmental policy and climate change legislation and currently represents the most striking flagship in this sector, with more than 11. 000 installations covered by the scheme. In parallel, the EU ETS has paved the way for the establishment of many other ETSs in several other jurisdictions. Such schemes are now recognized worldwide as the "cornerstones" of the climate change policy.

Coastal Geography in Northeast Brazil

by Eustogio Wanderley Correia Dantas

This book studies the transformation of modern maritimity practices in coastal areas (such as swimming, navigation and tourism) and their implications to the development of Brazilian coastal cities, with an emphasis on the Northeast part of the country. It is a reflection on coastal geography in the tropics and the contemporary valorization of coastal cities from a socioeconomic, technological and symbolical point of view. The book highlights local fluxes on a regional and local scale, showing the incorporation of beach zones to spaces which were previously associated with so called traditional coastal practices (fishing activities and as harboring points). This book is dedicated to geography researchers and students.

Wound Management in Urgent Care

by Brittany Busse

This text outlines, from a surgeon's standpoint, how wounds can be expeditiously and effectively managed in the Urgent Care setting by physicians and mid-level providers with Primary Care training. The main topics addressed include the principles of wound healing, wound types, types of primary repair, healing by secondary intention, wound complications, and special circumstances. Under each of these subheadings, proper evaluation of the wound, techniques to facilitate healing, specific patient home care (aftercare) instructions, and pitfalls to be avoided are addressed. In addition, a brief list of specific do's and don'ts for each type of wound and tips for effective transfer of care when necessary is included. This text provides a concise reference manual that can be used to provide quick yet structured information to improve patient outcomes. As Urgent Care is a clinical setting that is growing in popularity across the United States, Wound Management in Urgent Care will provide a useful resource for providers in the Urgent Care setting.

Building Secure Defenses Against Code-Reuse Attacks

by Lucas Davi Ahmad-Reza Sadeghi

This book provides an in-depth look at return-oriented programming attacks. It explores several conventional return-oriented programming attacks and analyzes the effectiveness of defense techniques including address space layout randomization (ASLR) and the control-flow restrictions implemented in security watchdogs such as Microsoft EMET. Chapters also explain the principle of control-flow integrity (CFI), highlight the benefits of CFI and discuss its current weaknesses. Several improved and sophisticated return-oriented programming attack techniques such as just-in-time return-oriented programming are presented. Building Secure Defenses against Code-Reuse Attacks is an excellent reference tool for researchers, programmers and professionals working in the security field. It provides advanced-level students studying computer science with a comprehensive overview and clear understanding of important runtime attacks.

Improving Patient Treatment with Attachment Theory

by Robert Maunder Jonathan Hunter

This book emphasizes interpersonal relationships as a frequently overlooked, yet crucial element in today's healthcare system and describes the utility of attachment theory in understanding and managing patients with medical and surgical illness. Sections on the fundamentals of attachment theory, specific patient populations, attachment-based interventions, and future directions comprehensively reflect our current knowledge. The summarized research demonstrates the value of attachment theory in approaching such common issues as non-adherence, strain in the healthcare worker-patient relationship, and somatoform complaints, as well as in modelling maladaptive stress responses and subsequent illness vulnerability. The contributing authors are internationally recognized researchers and teachers who have sought to make this volume accessible to anyone interested in using the positive aspects of interpersonal relationships to maximum advantage in the practice of healthcare.

Mindfulness and Buddhist-Derived Approaches in Mental Health and Addiction

by Edo Shonin William Van Gordon Mark D. Griffiths

This book provides a timely synthesis and discussion of recent developments in mindfulness research and practice within mental health and addiction domains. The book also discusses other Buddhist-derived interventions - such as loving-kindness meditation and compassion meditation - that are gaining momentum in clinical settings. It will be an essential text for researchers and mental health practitioners wishing to keep up-to-date with developments in mindfulness clinical research, as well as any professionals wishing to equip themselves with the necessary theoretical and practical tools to effectively utilize mindfulness in mental health and addiction settings.

The Accusation Model Before the International Criminal Court

by Hanna Kuczyńska

This book examines how the functioning of the International Criminal Court has become a forum of convergence between the common law and civil law criminal justice systems. Four countries were selected as primary examples of these two legal traditions: the United States, England and Wales, Germany and Poland. The first layer of analysis focuses on selected elements of the model of accusation that are crucial to the model adopted by the ICC. These are: development of the notion of the prosecutor's independence in view of their ties to the countries and the Security Council; the nature and limits of the prosecutor's discretional powers to initiate proceedings before the ICC; the reasons behind the prosecutor's choice of both defendants and charges; the role the prosecutor plays in the procedure of disclosure of evidence and consensual termination of proceedings; and the determinants of the model of accusation used during trial and appeal proceedings. The second layer of the book consists in an analysis of the motives behind applying particular solutions to create the model of accusation before the ICC. It also shows how the model of accusation gradually evolved in proceedings before the military and ad hoc tribunals: ICTY and ICTR. Moreover, the question of compatibility of procedural institutions is addressed: In what ways does adopting a certain element of criminal procedure, e. g. discretional powers of the prosecutor to initiate criminal proceedings, influence the remaining procedural elements, e. g. the existence of the dossier of a case or the powers of a judge to change the legal classification of the criminal behavior appearing in the indictment?

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