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The Services Directive is one of the cornerstones for the realization of the EU internal market and is fundamental to economic and legal experts, as well as to the general public. This book analyses in detail the different steps taken by each of the 27 EU Member States in the implementation process of the Services Directive. It provides not only detailed information about the changes in national law adopted by the Member States, but also facilitates a comparison of the different implementation strategies. It gives an insight in the heterogeneity or homogeneity of implementation concepts and shows how European legislation affects legislation that were originally nationally dominated, such as the law of national administration. Valuable for academics interested in European and administrative law and the transposition of European lawmaking into domestic law, as well as for civil servants in ministries, chambers of commerce, local governments and other comparable institutions having to implement the Directive.
Recently there has been a revival of interest in structuralist approaches to science. Taking their lead from scientific structuralists such as Henri Poincaré, Ernst Cassirer, and Bertrand Russell, some contemporary philosophers and scientists have argued that the most fruitful approach to solving many problems in the philosophy of science lies in focusing on the structural features of our scientific theories. Much of the work in scientific structuralism to date has been focused on the problem of scientific realism, where it has been argued that even in cases of radical theory change the most important structural features of predecessor theories are preserved. These structural realists argue that what our most successful theories get right about the world is these abstract structural features, rather than any particular ontological claims. More recently, philosophers of science have adopted structuralist approaches to many other issues in the philosophy of science, such as scientific explanation and intertheory relations. The nine articles collected in this volume, written by the leading researchers in scientific structuralism, represent some of the most important directions of research in this field. This book will be of particular interest to those philosophers, scientists, and mathematicians who are interested in the foundations of science.
This book challenges the unchallenged methods in medicine, such as "evidence-based medicine," which claim to be, but often are not, scientific. It completes medical care by adding the comprehensive humanistic perspectives and philosophy of medicine. No specific or absolute recommendations are given regarding medical treatment, moral approaches, or legal advice. Given rather is discussion about each issue involved and the strongest arguments indicated. Each argument is subject to further critical analysis. This is the same position as with any philosophical, medical or scientific view. The argument that decision-making in medicine is inadequate unless grounded on a philosophy of medicine is not meant to include all of philosophy and every philosopher. On the contrary, it includes only sound, practical and humanistic philosophy and philosophers who are creative and critical thinkers and who have concerned themselves with the topics relevant to medicine. These would be those philosophers who engage in practical philosophy, such as the pragmatists, humanists, naturalists, and ordinary-language philosophers. A new definition of our own philosophy of life emerges and it is necessary to have one. Good lifestyle no longer means just abstaining from cigarettes, alcohol and getting exercise. It also means living a holistic life, which includes all of one's thinking, personality and actions. This book also includes new ways of thinking. In this regard the "Metaphorical Method" is explained, used, and exemplified in depth, for example in the chapters on care, egoism and altruism, letting die, etc.
This book provides the analysis of a uniquely large, population-based data set evaluating congenital anomalies as a consequence of maternal diseases. The possible adverse birth outcomes of babies born to mothers diagnosed with important diseases have not yet been evaluated in such a material by the same method. The greatest merit of these studies is that by analyzing their data the authors managed to identify some new previously unknown associations between maternal diseases and adverse birth outcomes. The first aim of the authors was to summarize 50 years of experiences in human teratology which may help younger experts to use them. The second objective was to show the methodological weaknesses of previous studies and to recommend the use of up-to-date methods when designing new studies. A surveillance database like the one used in these studies effectively helps to monitor the most important indicators of adverse birth outcomes such as congenital anomalies, preterm births, and low birth weight, to evaluate the efficacy of medical care of pregnant women, and to detect possible causes of adverse birth outcomes in order to help in their prevention. In addition, the analysis of cost-benefit of this database showed that the benefit is much higher than cost. This book may be useful in the daily practice for obstetricians, paediatricians, general practitioners and epidemiologists, moreover it could be used in the training programmes of medical students and residents as well.
Nanotechnology has been the subject of extensive 'assessment hype,' unlike any previous field of research and development. A multiplicity of stakeholders have started to analyze the implications of nanotechnology: Technology assessment institutions around the world, non-governmental organizations, think tanks, re-insurance companies, and academics from science and technology studies and applied ethics have turned their attention to this growing field's implications. In the course of these assessment efforts, a social phenomenon has emerged - a phenomenon the editors define as assessment regime. Despite the variety of organizations, methods, and actors involved in the evaluation and regulation of emerging nanotechnologies, the assessment activities comply with an overarching scientific and political imperative: Innovations are only welcome if they are assessed against the criteria of safety, sustainability, desirability, and acceptability. So far, such deliberations and reflections have played only a subordinate role. This book argues that with the rise of the nanotechnology assessment regime, however, things have changed dramatically: Situated at the crossroads of democratizing science and technology, good governance, and the quest for sustainable innovations, the assessment regime has become constitutive for technological development. The contributions in this book explore and critically analyse nanotechnology's assessment regime: To what extent is it constitutive for technology in general, for nanotechnology in particular? What social conditions render the regime a phenomenon sui generis? And what are its implications for science and society?
This book provides a comprehensive overview of current standards of anesthesia and intensive care in neonates and children, with a view to promoting standardization in clinical practice. The first part of the book, devoted to issues in intensive care, opens by considering scoring systems for the assessment of sick children. The diagnosis, prevention, and management of ventilator-associated pneumonia are then discussed, and the roles of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation and noninvasive respiratory support are reviewed. Further chapters address procedural sedation and analgesia in children, the progress toward 'open' ICUs with liberal visiting policies, and advances in long-term home mechanical ventilation. In the second part of the book, a range of important topics in anesthesia and perioperative medicine are discussed. After a review of safety issues, current trends in pediatric regional and locoregional anesthesia are described and a synopsis is provided on current knowledge regarding the use of central blocks in infants and children. Subsequent chapters are devoted to awareness monitoring, single-lung ventilation techniques, anesthesia in the context of severe prematurity, and emergence delirium. Pediatric Anesthesia, Intensive Care and Pain: Standardization in Clinical Practice will be an extremely useful source of information for both novices and more experienced practitioners in the field.
Poor adherence to therapy is one of the main obstacles to treatment effectiveness in schizophrenia. It is the main determinant of relapse, hospitalization, symptom persistence, and poor psychosocial functioning and outcome. Adherence to treatment is affected by various factors related to the disease characteristics, to the patient him- or herself, to the treatment, and to the therapeutic relationship. Some of these factors are modifiable, and both pharmacological and non-pharmacological strategies have been developed for this purpose. This book addresses the different aspects of adherence to treatment in schizophrenia and related disorders in a systematic but easy-to-use manual format. Chapters focus on a full range of issues, including pharmacological and non-pharmacological strategies to enhance adherence and continuity of care, relevant psychological factors, the importance of the patient-doctor relationship, and the need for an alliance with other care-givers. Adherence to Antipsychotics in Schizophrenia will be an invaluable asset for all who are involved in the care of patients with schizophrenia.
In this book, the functions and dynamics of enterprises are explained with the use of anthropological methods. The chapters are based on anthropological research that has continued mainly as an inter-university research project, which is named Keiei Jinruigaku, of the National Museum of Ethnology (Japan) since 1993. These studies have a twofold aim: to clarify that enterprises are not only actors in economic activity but also actors that create culture and civilization; and to find the raison d'être of enterprises in a global society. Business anthropology is an approach to the investigation of various phenomena in enterprises and management using anthropological methodology (e. g. , participant observations and interviews). Historically, its origin goes back to the 1920s-30s. In the Hawthorne experiments, the research group organized by Elton Mayo recruited an anthropologist, Lloyd W. Warner, and conducted research on human relations in the workplace by observation of participants. Since then, similar studies have been carried out in the United States and the United Kingdom. In Japan, however, such research is quite rare. Now, in addition to anthropological methods, the authors have employed multidisciplinary methods drawn from management, economics, and sociology. The research contained here can be characterized in these ways: (1) Research methods adopt interpretative approaches such as hermeneutic and/or narrative approaches rather than causal and functional explanations such as "cause-consequence" relationships. (2) Multidisciplinary approaches including qualitative research techniques are employed to investigate the total entity of enterprises, with their own cosmology. In this book, the totality of activities by enterprises are shown, including the relationship between religion and enterprise, corporate funerals, corporate museums, and the sacred space and/or mythology of enterprises. Part I provides introductions to Keiei Jinruigaku and Part II explains the theoretical characteristics of Keiei Jinruigaku. In addition, research topics and cases of Keiei Jinruigaku are presented in Part III.
Predictions are that sustainability becomes the next big topic for Human Resource Management after internationalization and globalization. This book gives new answers to these questions: - How can HRM contribute to attracting, developing and retaining highly qualified human resources over time? - How can a paradox perspective contribute to understanding and coping with paradoxical tensions? - How can sustainability be used as a 'deliberate strategy' for HRM? The conceptual part of the book looks at the notion of sustainability, opens it up for Strategic HRM and identifies blind spots in Strategic HRM theory. Paradox theory is introduced as an analytical framework for Sustainable HRM. Initial suggestions are made for sustainability strategies and for coping with paradoxes and tensions. The exploratory part examines how 50 European Multinationals communicate their understanding of sustainability and HRM and which HR issues and practices they are linking to the topic.
A Clinician's Guide to Systemic Effects of Periodontal Diseases will serve as an ideal, easy-to-use reference for the practicing health professional. It summarizes the latest research on the systemic effects of periodontal diseases, discusses how the results of this research will impact on clinical practice, and aims to help the clinician to answer questions that may be posed by patients, medical colleagues, and the media. A central theme is the contribution of periodontal diseases to systemic inflammation but other mechanisms, such as systemic dissemination of oral pathogens, are also covered. A collaborative approach involving noted investigators in each field and medical colleagues ensures that all chapters are of clinical relevance from both a dental and a medical perspective. The book is also visually engaging, with numerous summary figures and graphics, bullet point tables, and highlight boxes identifying the most clinically significant points.
This book investigates, compares and contrasts the experience of entering into and engaging in modernity and the modern era in many parts of the Asian continent. It focuses on the coming into being, development, and transformation of major urban centers from Tokyo to Mumbai from the late 19th century to the present, providing a broad overview of this crucial period of transition in Asia, not only from diverse geographical and historical perspectives, but also incorporating a broad range of further disciplines.
This book studies the organizational influences on judicial discretion within Adjudicative Committee (AC) proceedings in China. It argues that institutional reforms and practice have mainly reduced judicial discretion within AC proceedings through the rationalization of organizational processes. This central argument will be of particular interest to the readers, as previous studies offer little insight into the overall impacts of judicial institution reforms. This book is the first that uses the bounded rationality theory developed in economics and related disciplines to formulate an analytic framework for a systematic and comprehensive examination of the impacts of organizational factors on discretion within Adjudicative Committees' decision-making processes. Readers will gain a practical and fresh understanding of the Chinese judicial reforms.
This publication focuses on the conditions for promising collaboration. Collaboration is becoming a dominant instrument in today's economy and society and manifests itself in many shapes and forms. It is a challenging instrument which still isn't very well understood and poses the business community in front of a number of challenging dilemma's. We position collaboration as a multidisciplinary phenomenon and - based on years of research and as reflective practitioners - offer a comprehensive model for analyzing and designing collaborative processes that is both scientifically rooted and applicable in practice. A better understanding of collaborative processes will enhance the success of alliances, networks, chains and strategic partnerships. In addition to this we look to the future of organizing from a collaborative perspective and address the challenges ahead.
Bank foundations serve an important purpose in the Italian nonprofit sector. This book presents the legal grounds, areas of intervention, and basic tools involved in the asset management and grant-making activities that such organizations undertake. A special emphasis focuses on the analyses of the organizational structure of bank foundations and the relevant aspects of governance, particularly with regard to the composition, roles, and responsibilities of bank foundation boards. The general reduction in the resources to which they have access requires a new strategy that clearly defines long-term goals and the necessary procedures to achieve them. The topic of strategic planning is therefore also central to this text, which examines its peculiarities, content and governing bodies. The analysis of some case studies provides a better understanding of the manner in which foundations interpret strategic planning and reveals strengths and weaknesses that demand careful attention.
This book brings together a unique range of case studies focusing on networks in the context of business regulation. The case studies form the basis for an interdisciplinary dialogue on the meaning, value and the limits of the 'network concept' as a tool for understanding and critically evaluating the emergent transnational legal order.
The primary purpose of a patent law system should be to enhance economic efficiency, in particular by providing incentives for making inventions. The conventional wisdom is that patents should therefore be strictly exclusive rights. Moreover, in practice patent owners are almost never forced to give up their right to exclude others and receive only a certain amount of remuneration with, for instance, compulsory licensing. Other economically interesting patent-law objectives, however, include the transfer and dissemination of knowledge. Mechanisms exist by which the patent owner decides if he or she would prefer exclusive or non-exclusive rights, for instance the opportunity to declare the willingness to license and create patent pools. But it is questionable whether these mechanisms are sufficient and efficient enough in view of the existence of patent trolls and other problems. This work challenges the conventional wisdom to a certain extent and makes proposals for improvements.
This book maps the latest developments in public procurement of innovation policy in various contexts and analyzes the evolution and development of the various policy solutions in broader institutional contexts. In doing so, it addresses significant theoretical and practical gaps: On the one hand, there is an emerging interest in public procurement as a policy tool for spurring innovation; yet on the other hand, the current theory, with some notable exceptions, is guided and often constrained by historical applications, above all in the defence industries. By carefully examining the cases of eleven countries, the book points to the existence of much more nuanced public procurement on the innovation policy landscape than has been acknowledged in the academic and policy debates to date.
The thymus is an evolutionarily ancient primary lymphoid organ common to all vertebrates in which T cell development takes place. Failing thymus function is associated with immunodeficiency and/or autoimmunity. In this volume, leading experts provide a comprehensive overview of recent advances in thymopoiesis research. The chapters cover the development of the thymic epithelial microenvironment, address the formation of a diverse and self-tolerant repertoire of T cell receptors as the basis for cellular immunity, discuss the mechanisms by which progenitor cells colonize the thymus and detail the molecular basis for T lineage decisions. The reviews illustrate the important role of the multifaceted process of thymopoiesis for adaptive immunity.
Conflict is inherent in virtually every aspect of human relations, from sport to parliamentary democracy, from fashion in the arts to paradigmatic challenges in the sciences, and from economic activity to intimate relationships. Yet, it can become among the most serious social problems humans face when it loses its constructive features and becomes protracted over time with no obvious means of resolution. This book addresses the subject of intractable social conflict from a new vantage point. Here, these types of conflict represent self-organizing phenomena, emerging quite naturally from the ongoing dynamics in human interaction at any scale--from the interpersonal to the international. Using the universal language and computational framework of nonlinear dynamical systems theory in combination with recent insights from social psychology, intractable conflict is understood as a system locked in special attractor states that constrain the thoughts and actions of the parties to the conflict. The emergence and maintenance of attractors for conflict can be described by means of formal models that incorporate the results of computer simulations, experiments, field research, and archival analyses. Multi-disciplinary research reflecting these approaches provides encouraging support for the dynamical systems perspective. Importantly, this text presents new views on conflict resolution. In contrast to traditional approaches that tend to focus on basic, short-lived cause-effect relations, the dynamical perspective emphasizes the temporal patterns and potential for emergence in destructive relations. Attractor deconstruction entails restoring complexity to a conflict scenario by isolating elements or changing the feedback loops among them. The creation of a latent attractor trades on the tendency toward multi-stability in dynamical systems and entails the consolidation of incongruent (positive) elements into a coherent structure. In the bifurcation scenario, factors are identified that can change the number and types of attractors in a conflict scenario. The implementation of these strategies may hold the key to unlocking intractable conflict, creating the potential for constructive social relations.
Since the 1960s the environment has become an issue of increasing public concern in North America and elsewhere. Triggered by the Second Indochina War (Vietnam Conflict) of 1961-1975, and further encouraged by the International Conference on the Human Environment, held in Stockholm in 1972, the environmental impact of war emerged and grew as a topic of research in the natural and the social sciences. And in the late 1980s this led additionally to a focus and debate on environmental security. Arthur Westing, a forest ecologist, was a major pioneer contributing and framing both of those debates conceptually, theoretically, and empirically, starting with Harvest of Death: Chemical Warfare in Vietnam and Cambodia (1972) (co-authored with wildlife biologist E.W. Pfeiffer and others). As a Senior Researcher at the Stockholm and Oslo International Peace Research Institutes (SIPRI and PRIO), and as a Professor of Ecology at Windham and Hampshire Colleges, Westing authored and edited books on Ecological Consequences of the Second Indochina War (1976), Weapons of Mass Destruction and the Environment (1977), Warfare in a Fragile World: Military Impact on the Human Environment (1980), Herbicides in War: the Long-term Ecological and Human Consequences (1984), Environmental Warfare: a Technical, Legal and Policy Appraisal (1984), Explosive Remnants of War: Mitigating the Environmental Effects (1985), Global Resources and International Conflict: Environmental Factors in Strategic Policy and Action (1986), Cultural Norms, War and the Environment (1988), Comprehensive Security for the Baltic: an Environmental Approach (1989), and Environmental Hazards of War: Releasing Dangerous Forces in an Industrialized World (1990) --- as well as authoring numerous UN reports, book chapters, and journal articles. This volume combines six of his pioneering contributions on the environmental consequences of warfare in Viet Nam and in Kuwait, on the environmental impact of nuclear war, and on legal constraints and military guidelines for protecting the environment in wartime
The book is based on the author's life time experience in exploring and researching the genus Avena. It describes some great events in oat research and minor stories along the way. It will be of interest and value to all those working with oats and to students and scientists of crop evolution, including those dealing with collecting and conserving wild genetic resources. A first part deals with the morphology and taxonomy of the genus and a classification based on the biological species concept is presented. A further part is devoted to the author's research accomplishments in this genus. It describes morphological characters distinguishing between diploids and tetraploids of series Eubarbatae, the genetic relationships between them, and the mode of origin of the tetraploid form. The section Denticulatae, to which the common oat belongs, is extensively treated. Further, oat domestication and the newly domesticated protein rich A. magna are described. A third part deals with wild genetic resources of oat.
Today, veterinary science experiences major development in all its fields as a consequence of continuous technological advances in diagnostic tools and breakthrough in applied genomics and biology. This book contains 33 proceedings that were selected among those presented at the 64th Italian Veterinary Science Congress held at ASTI in 2010. It provides a timely overview of the current progress made by Italian researchers and would be of great value to anyone interested in the field of veterinary science, from animal health and care to food hygiene, and from basic to applied disciplines.
The book contains a selection of papers focusing on the idea of crossing boundaries in literary and cultural texts composed in English. The authors come from different methodological schools and analyse texts coming from different periods and cultures, trying to find common ground (the theme of the volume) between the apparently generically and temporarily varied works and phenomena. In this way, a plethora of perspectives is offered, perspectives which represent a high standard both in terms of theoretical reflection and in-depth analysis of selected texts. Consequently, the volume is addressed to a wide scope of both scholars and students working in the field of English and American literary and cultural studies; furthermore, it will be of interest also to students interested in theoretical issues linked with investigations into literature and culture.
The availability of spatial databases and widespread use of geographic information systems has stimulated increasing interest in the analysis and modelling of spatial data. Spatial data analysis focuses on detecting patterns, and on exploring and modelling relationships between them in order to understand the processes responsible for their emergence. In this way, the role of space is emphasised , and our understanding of the working and representation of space, spatial patterns, and processes is enhanced. In applied research, the recognition of the spatial dimension often yields different and more meaningful results and helps to avoid erroneous conclusions. This book aims to provide an introduction into spatial data analysis to graduates interested in applied statistical research. The text has been structured from a data-driven rather than a theory-based perspective, and focuses on those models, methods and techniques which are both accessible and of practical use for graduate students. Exploratory techniques as well as more formal model-based approaches are presented, and both area data and origin-destination flow data are considered.