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This study provides an in-depth analysis of the Hong Kong Ship Recycling Convention as adopted in May 2009 and a thorough analysis of the overall status quo of ship recycling regulations. It investigates the lack of sufficient ratifications of the Convention from both a legal and an economic perspective. The first part of the study focuses on the history of the Convention's entry-into-force provision and the rationale behind it. Due to the fact that this provision provides a considerable additional obstacle to the Convention's becoming legally binding, in the second part the focus of the work shifts to unilateral action in this field. An overview of the legal environment of European ship recycling legislation is followed by an analysis and evaluation of a number of proposals by the European Commission attempting to tackle the problems of current ship recycling procedures. With a particular emphasis on (planned) European measures in this regard, the analysis' overall message is one of cautious optimism.
Dr. Wu Dan's Introducing Writing Across the Curriculum into China is an important and provocative research study that is broadly international in scope. Of particular significance for education in China, this book provides a historical analysis of writing instruction in China and an original application of activity theory used to analyze problems and possibilities for Writing Across the Curriculum (WAC) in higher education. Through an examination of important aspects of WAC as it has developed in the United States, Dr. Wu Dan brings together various perspectives in support of developing and sustaining WAC programs in China and by analogy throughout the world. Her work opens new avenues for research in writing and for the teaching of courses throughout the curriculum using a writing-in-the-disciplines approach. A major contribution to international WAC scholarship, Introducing Writing Across the Curriculum into China will be invaluable to English faculty and to all readers interested in educational innovations in China.
This book critically investigates the patent protection of medication in light of the threats posed by HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis epidemics to the citizens of countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (hereinafter "SSA" or "Africa"). The book outlines the systemic problems associated with the prevailing globalized patent regime and the regime's inability to promote access to life-saving medication at affordable prices in SSA. It argues that for pharmaceutical patents to retain their relevance in SSA countries, human development concepts must be integrated into global patent law- and policy-making. An integrative approach implies developing additional public health and human development exceptions/limitations to the exercise of patent rights with the goal of scaling up access to medication that can treat epidemics in SSA. By drawing on multiple perspectives of laws, institutions, practices, and politics, the book suggests that SSA countries adopt an evidence-based approach to implementing global patent standards in domestic jurisdictions. This evidence-based approach would include mechanisms like local need assessments and the use of empirical data to shape domestic patent law-making endeavors. The approach also implies revising patent rules and policies with a pro-poor and pro-health emphasis, so that medication will be more affordable and accessible to the citizens of SSA countries. It also suggests considering the opinions of individuals and pro-access institutions in enacting crucial pieces of health-related statutes in SSA countries. The approach in this book is sensitive to the public health needs of the citizens affected by epidemics and to the imperative of building local manufacturing facilities for pharmaceutical research and development in SSA.
The human ambition to reproduce and improve natural objects and processes has a long history, and ranges from dreams to actual design, from Icarus's wings to modern robotics and bioengineering. This imperative seems to be linked not only to practical utility but also to our deepest psychology. Nevertheless, reproducing something natural is not an easy enterprise, and the actual replication of a natural object or process by means of some technology is impossible. In this book the author uses the term naturoid to designate any real artifact arising from our attempts to reproduce natural instances. He concentrates on activities that involve the reproduction of something existing in nature, and whose reproduction, through construction strategies which differ from natural ones, we consider to be useful, appealing or interesting. The development of naturoids may be viewed as a distinct class of technological activity, and the concept should be useful for methodological research into establishing the common rules, potentialities and constraints that characterize the human effort to reproduce natural objects. The author shows that a naturoid is always the result of a reduction of the complexity of natural objects, due to an unavoidable multiple selection strategy. Nevertheless, the reproduction process implies that naturoids take on their own new complexity, resulting in a transfiguration of the natural exemplars and their performances, and leading to a true innovation explosion. While the core performances of contemporary naturoids improve, paradoxically the more a naturoid develops the further it moves away from its natural counterpart. Therefore, naturoids will more and more affect our relationships with advanced technologies and with nature, but in ways quite beyond our predictive capabilities. The book will be of interest to design scholars and researchers of technology, cultural studies, anthropology and the sociology of science and technology.
All over the world, there is a growing interest in the relationship between law and aging: How does the law influence the lives of older people? Can rights, advocacy and representation advance the social position of the aged and combat ageism? What are the new and cutting-edge frontiers in the field of elder law? Should there be a new international human rights convention in this field? These are only a few of the many questions that arise. This book attempts to answer some of these questions and to set the agenda for the future development of elder law across the globe. Taking into account existing research and knowledge, leading scholars from different continents (North America, Europe, Asia, and Australia) present in this book original and novel ideas regarding the future development of elder law. These ideas touch upon key topics such as elder guardianship, citizenship, mental capacity, elder abuse, human rights and international law, family relationships, age discrimination, and the right to die. This book can thus serve as an important reference work for all those interested in understanding where law and aging are headed, and for those concerned about the future legal rights of older persons.
Humankind's progress has always been driven by two momentums: the pursuit of truth and the creation of value. But our understanding of value, and our ability to reflect on its complexity, has long lagged behind our constant search for truth. This has, in turn limited our grasp of the essence of truth. This book takes philosophical contemplations on value to a new level, while also explicating some contemporary Chinese styles of philosophical thought. Over the past 25 years, this book has been having an increasing impact on Chinese readers and researchers, and it also provides a good platform for international dialogue on several key issues of philosophical studies.
Evolutionary theory addresses the phenomenon of the origin and diversity of plant and animal species that we observe. In recent times, however, it has become a predominant ideology which has gained currency far beyond its original confines. Attempts to understand the origin and historical development of human culture, civilization and language, of the powers of human cognition, and even the origin of the moral and ethical values guiding and constraining everyday life in human societies are now cast in an evolutionary context. In "Evolutionary Theory and the Creation Controversy" the author examines evolutionary theory from a historical perspective, explaining underlying metaphysical backgrounds and fundamental philosophical questions such as the paradoxical problem of change, existence and creation. He introduces the scientists involved, their research results and theories, and discusses the evolution of evolutionary theory against the background of Creationism and Intelligent Design.
This book begins with an account of the evolution of improvised explosive devices using a number of micro case studies to explore how and why actors have initiated IED campaigns; how new and old technologies and expertise have been exploited and how ethical barriers to IED development and deployment have been dealt with. It proceeds to bring the evidence from the case studies together to identify themes and trends in IED development, before looking at what can realistically be done to mitigate the threat of IEDs in the new wars of the twenty first century. The book suggests that the advance and availability of a combination of technological factors, in conjunction with changes in the nature of contemporary conflicts, have led to the emergence of IEDs as the paradigmatic weapons of new wars. However their prevalence in contemporary and future conflicts is not inevitable, but rather depends on the willingness of multiple sets of actors at different levels to build a web of preventative measures to mitigate if not eradicate IED development and deployment. "
This book examines the transformations of epistemic governance in education, the way in which some actors are shaping new knowledge, and how that new knowledge impacts other actors in charge of implementing this knowledge in the context of the decision-making process and practice. The book describes knowledge-based and evidence-based technologies that produce new modes of representation, cognitive categories, and value-based judgements which determine and guide actions and interactions between researchers, experts and policy-makers. It explores several major social theories and concepts, analysing the transformation of the relationship between educational and social sciences and politics. In the light of epistemic governance being linked to transformations of academic capitalism, the book describes the ways in which academics engaged in heterogeneous networks are capable of developing new interactions as well as facing new trials imposed on them by the changing conditions of producing knowledge in their scientific community and within their institutions. Knowledge is power. It is materialized in metrics, policy instruments and embedded in networks. The governance of European higher education, insightfully argues Romuald Normand, is not structured by hierarchical public policies, by governmental exercise of authority or heroic decision making. Normand makes a sophisticated intellectual argument, building upon the work of Foucault, Latour (Sociology of science), and the pragmatic sociology of Boltanski and Thévenot (sociology of justification) in order to precisely analyse Europe's higher education through the circulation of ideas and instruments. Based upon precise research, the book is a major contribution to the understanding of high education in a capitalist Europe, beyond the simple idea of neo liberalism. Normand, provocatively, even suggests the making of a European Homo Academicus. This is an innovative and important book for public policy, European Studies and the sociology of Education. Patrick le Galès, FBA, CNRS Research Professor, Centre d'Etudes Européennes, Sciences Po, Paris, France
This book brings together the research findings of contemporary feminist age studies scholars, shame theorists, and feminist gerontologists in order to unfurl the affective dynamics of gendered ageism. In her analysis of what she calls "embodied shame," J. Brooks Bouson describes older women's shame about the visible signs of aging and the health and appearance of their bodies as they undergo the normal processes of bodily aging. Examining both fictional and nonfiction works by contemporary North American and British women authors, this book offers a sustained analysis of the various ways that ageism devalues and damages the identities of otherwise psychologically healthy women in our graying culture. Shame theory, as Bouson shows, astutely explains why gendered ageism is so deeply entrenched in our culture and why even aging feminists may succumb to this distressing, but sometimes hidden, cultural affliction.
This monograph opens with an examination of the aid industry and the claims of leading practitioners that the industry is experiencing a crisis of confidence due to an absence of clear moral guidelines. The book then undertakes a critical review of the leading philosophical accounts of the duty to aid, including the narrow, instructive accounts in the writings of John Rawls and Peter Singer, and broad, disruptive accounts in the writings of Onora O'Neill and Amartya Sen. Through an elaboration of the elements of interconnection, responsible action, inclusive engagement, and accumulative duties, the comparative approach developed in the book has the potential to overcome the philosophical tensions between the accounts and provide guidance to aid practitioners, donors and recipients in the complex contemporary circumstances of assistance. Informed by real world examples, this book grapples with complex and multi-dimensional questions concerning practices and the ethics of aid. The author judiciously guides us through the debate between deontological and consequentialist moral theories to arrive at a sophisticated consequentialist account that does justice to the complexity of the problems and facilitates our deliberation in discharging our duty to aid, without yielding, as it should not, a determinate answer for each specific situation. Researchers, students, and practitioners of international aid will all find this book rewarding. Win-chiat Lee, Professor and Chair, Department of Philosophy, Wake Forest University Susan Murphy's book offers us a sophisticated exploration of the philosophical basis for aid. It is grounded in a full understanding of the complexities and pitfalls of the aid industry, but its particular strength lies, mainly through an extensive discussion of Singer, Rawls, O'Neill and Sen, in a comparison of consequentialist and duty-based approaches, eventually endorsing a broad non-idealised, situated consequentialist account in what she calls an interconnected ethical approach to the practice of assistance. For anyone wanting to think carefully about why we should give aid, this book has much to offer. Dr Nigel Dower Honorary Senior Lecturer, University of Aberdeen Author of World Ethics - the New Agenda (2007)
This book provides an overview anddiscussion of the evidence base of effective school inspections; reflecting on issuesof validity and reliability of school inspections in relation to schooleffectiveness research, unintended consequences and emergent roles andresponsibilities of Inspectorates of Education. Chapters include findings from systematicliterature reviews and primary research while also presenting a range ofpractical examples from inspections systems from all over the world. The bookprovides relevant background materials for Inspectorates of Education who aimto improve the effectiveness of their systems and working methods, as well as clearexamples for researchers aiming to analyse and understand the effectiveness ofthese systems. The final chapter reflects on changes in the currenteducation landscape and discusses newer models of school inspections that fitwithin a more decentralized inspection system.
The book focuses on the contagion nature of respiratory ailments, the ways a pulmonary disease is spread. Respiratory infections are surrounded by interrelated circumstances that act upon individual and community and eventually underlie morbidity. Patient's age, vulnerability to infections, immune function and responses, comorbidities, but also medical care and the agility in coping with stress, are just a few basic determinants of a diseased state. Modern medication, like newfangled antibiotics and their unrestrained use, may not guarantee the best solution to patient's condition. A valuable asset of this book is a blend of personal experience and expertise of contributors in pursuit of finding new solutions to old clinical problems. The book will be of interest to clinicians, researchers, health care providers, and other health care professionals, particularly those dealing with contagious diseases.
This, the first book ever written on academic presentations specifically from the perspective of non-native English speakers, is designed to help non-native English speakers to prepare and deliver effective presentations at international conferences.
This book outlines key issues for addressing the grand challenges posed to educators, developers, and researchers interested in the intersection of simulations and science education. To achieve this, the authors explore the use of computer simulations as instructional scaffolds that provide strategies and support when students are faced with the need to acquire new skills or knowledge. The monograph aims to provide insight into what research has reported on navigating the complex process of inquiry- and problem-based science education and whether computer simulations as instructional scaffolds support specific aims of such pedagogical approaches for students.
This brief describes the evolutionary and global impact of the techno-social transformation on learning technologies in terms of emerging pedagogical frameworks and applications. it provides examples of such applications in higher education, K-12, and the workplace, across the globe. The transformation and diffusion of ICT into an ever-present and accessible phenomenon is fundamentally shaping human activity and culture, changing human identity, and redefining globalization. Global activities have widened, intensified, and accelerated as a result of ICT integration generating a new awareness of the world as a techno-social environment. This emergent global environment is introducing unprecedented socio-economic opportunities; however, it is also bringing new risks and challenges, particularly as this relates to learning technologies, most especially in higher education contexts.
This book examines changes of citizenship in the light of dislocated habitations. It highlights the ways in which the membership in a local community is shifting away from national frameworks, and explores the dislocations brought about by transnational and cosmopolitan forms of belonging. Containing theoretical, methodological and political contributions, the volume takes part in the social political and cultural discussion around migration, transnationalism, multiculturalism, multiple citizenship and cosmopolitan civic activities. It presents dislocation as a covering concept and a metaphor for describing circumstances in which the conventional ways and frames of conducting social scientific analysis, social policies, or politics no longer suffice. The book shows how scientific and political projects, educational curricula and policy institutions still lean mainly on the logics of mono-cultural nation-states and citizenships, without recognizing the dislocated nature of contemporary citizenship and civil society. Offering solutions, the book proposes new ways of collecting data and conducting analyses, explains the new logics of citizenship and civic activities, and offers tools for developing civic and citizenship policies that consider the transnational reality of people's everyday lives and life histories.
This book examines matters of religious freedom in Europe, considers the work of the European Court of Human Rights in this area, explores issues of multiculturalism and secularism in France, of women in Islam, and of Muslims in the West. The work presents legal analysis and ethnographic fieldwork, focusing on concepts such as laïcité, submission, equality and the role of the state in public education, amongst others. Through this book, the reader can visit inside a French public school located in a low-income neighborhood just south of Paris and learn about the complex dynamics that led up to the passing of the 2004 law banning Muslim headscarves. The chapters bring to light the actors and cultures within the school that set the stage for the passing of the law and the political philosophy that supports it. School culture and philosophy are compared and contrasted to the thoughts and opinions of the teachers, administrators and students to gage how religious freedom and identity are understood. The book goes on to explore the issue of religious freedom at the European Court of Human Rights. The author argues that the right to religious freedom has been too narrowly understood and is being fenced in by static visions of Islam. This jeopardizes the idea of religious freedom more broadly. By becoming entangled with regional and domestic politics, the Court is neglecting important nuances and is jeopardizing secularism, pluralism and democracy. This is a highly readable and accessible book that will appeal to students and scholars of law, anthropology, religious studies and philosophy of religion.
This forward-looking volume examines the role of social influence--including social media--in creating and fostering sustainable consumer behavior. Using the concepts behind social influence theory as a launching point, it describes humans' need for social networks and identifies the core components of buying, such as consumer goals and the gathering of opinions. From here, chapters examine ways social influence can encourage and support sustainable consumption, from buying green products to recycling packaging materials to supporting environmentally responsible brands. Real-world examples, critical thinking questions, a breakdown of strategies for influencing behavior, and pertinent references give the book extra dimensions of value. Among the featured topics: Social influence: why it matters. Values, attitudes, opinions, goals, and motivation. What we buy and who we listen to: the science and art of consumption. Decision making and problem solving. Households: productivity and consumption. Sustainably managing resources in the built environment. Between its nuanced understanding of social connections and its up-to-date lens on technology, Social Influence and Sustainable Consumption is must reading for researchers in the fields of consumer psychology, consumer behavior, and consumer sustainability.
The current challenges and potential future of peacekeeping in an increasingly complex world take center stage in this far-reaching collection. Contributors advance a nuanced picture of post-conflict environments across different areas of the globe while considering possible deployments of peacekeeping, traditional military and UN forces in semi-autonomous complementary roles. Longstanding debate topics such as the need for a standing UN army and the field implementation of global right-to-protect concepts are discussed, as are emerging ideas in civilian protection, atrocity prevention and balancing triage operations with long-term peacebuilding efforts. Other dispatches chronicle key issues and concerns regarding peacekeeping operations in Brazil, China and diverse regions of Africa. Included in the coverage: Protecting strangers: reflections on a cosmopolitan peacekeeping capacity. Towards a standing UN force for peacekeeping. Challenges posed by intervention brigades and other coercive measures in support of the protection of civilians. Addressing the criminal accountability of peacekeepers. The evolution of China's role in peacekeeping and atrocity crime prevention. Businesses and investors as stakeholders in atrocity crime prevention. Multiple viewpoints, a global scope and real-world clarity make Perspectives on Peacekeeping and Atrocity Prevention an invaluable resource to advance the work of humanitarians, criminologists and students of and professionals in international relations. "This collection of articles effectively points to the challenges, complexities and sensitivities of preventing and halting mass atrocity crimes in part through the use of UN peacekeeping operations. The volume also inspires further efforts, including the integration of new and younger stakeholders, to mitigate massive human rights crimes and fully implement the Responsibility to Protect. " Dr. György Tatár Chair, Budapest Centre for the International Prevention of Genocide and Mass Atrocities "In a refreshing and engaging manner, this edited volume represents a much-needed contribution to the debate on how best to address current security threats given the limitations and the possibilities of peacekeeping and atrocity prevention. A compelling feature of the book is its exploration of often-neglected stakeholder perspectives alongside first-hand knowledge of the UN system and astute academic observations of key peacekeeping concepts, mandates and practices. Each chapter's concluding recommendations invite scholars and policy makers to critically interrogate their own beliefs, assumptions and preferred solutions for keeping the peace and preventing mass atrocity violence. " Dr. Maria Stern Professor in Peace and Development Studies, School of Global Studies University of Gothenburg
This book proposes a new interpretative key for reading and overcoming the binary of idealism and realism. It takes as its central issue for exploration the way in which human consciousness unfolds, i. e. , through the relationship between the I and the world--a field of phenomenological investigation that cannot and must not remain closed within the limits of its own disciplinary borders. The book focuses on the question of realism in contemporary debates, ultimately dismantling prejudices and automatisms that one finds therein. It shows that at the root of the controversy between realism and idealism there often lie equivocations of a semantic nature and by going back to the origins of modern phenomenology it puts into play a discussion of the Husserlian concept of transcendental idealism. Following this path and neutralizing the extreme positions of a critical idealism and a naïve realism, the book proposes a "transcendental realism": the horizon of a dynamic unity that embraces the process of cognition and that grounds the relation, and not the subordination, of subject and object. The investigation of this reciprocity allows the surpassing of the limits of the domain of knowing, leading to fundamental questions surrounding the ultimate sense of things and their origin.
This book analyzes the different topics which highlight the relevance of communication within markets. In using and reformulating concepts of Arrow, Commons, Williamson, North, Becker and others, the author shows the hidden implications of these authors for a new approach in economics: communication matters. Markets are systems of allocation, which are governed by communication networks. In Economics, so far, communication processes play a minor role. During the last century, there was a tendency of using 'communication' as a tool for reintroducing the diversity of rational actions. Yet, communication is a governance-structure of its own, which cannot be used as a tool, since communication is disturbing the expectations of the economics actors and changing the actor's preferences as well as their belief-systems. By using examples such as Kenneth Arrow's economics actor theory and Douglas North's emphasis on communication being a process of building 'shared mental models', this book argues that if communication matters, we have to reinterpret the basics of economic methodology and integrate network-processing and discourse theories.
Cancer-related fatigue (CrF) is increasingly recognized as a signiﬁcant problem for patients with cancer at all stages, including those undergoing therapy and in remission. In fact, studies have shown that CrF causes patients more distress than pain, nausea, or vomiting and yet fatigue is still often undertreated and rarely studied. However, several new treatments such as are being investigated to determine the most effective ways to manage this debilitating symptom and improve patient quality of life. Cancer-Related Fatigue will provide a concise overview of this condition, with an evidence-based discussion of diagnosis, treatment, and long-term management.
This book serves as an up-to-date Rorschach primer and elaborates on the various applications of Rorschach assessment for adolescents with respect to differential diagnosis, forensic consultation, and therapeutic assessment. It opens with three chapters that provide readers with a basic overview and introduction to the topics integrated throughout the text. The first reviews the development and foundations of the Rorschach Inkblot Method; the second discusses key issues in the assessment of adolescents, with particular attention to differentiating patterns of psychopathology from normal developmental variations; and the third presents general considerations in using performance-based assessment instruments in the assessment of personality functioning in adolescence. Later chapters explore the current status of the Rorschach Inkblot Method with respect to theoretical formulations, research findings, and practice guidelines. The final chapter draws on information in the preceding chapters to present a model for Rorschach assessment of adolescents. This model is designed to facilitate accurate and useful formulations of personality functioning that contribute substantially to advancing responsible adolescent development.
This book is intended for anyone whose job involves writing formal documentation. It is aimed at non-native speakers of English, but should also be of use for native speakers who have no training in technical writing. Technical writing is a skill that you can learn and this book outlines some simple ideas for writing clear documentation that will reflect well on your company, its image and its brand. The book has four parts: Structure and Content: Through examples, you will learn best practices in writing the various sections of a manual and what content to include. Clear Unambiguous English: You will learn how to write short clear sentences and paragraphs whose meaning will be immediately clear to the reader. Layout and Order Information: Here you will find guidelines on style issues, e. g. , headings, bullets, punctuation and capitalization. Typical Grammar and Vocabulary Mistakes: This section is divided alphabetically and covers grammatical and vocabulary issues that are typical of user manuals.