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Fountas and Pinnell Leveled Literacy Intervention Green System -- 1st Grade
How do we forget? Why do we need to forget? This book intends to answer to these and other questions. It aims to demonstrate that each one is who it is due to their own memories. Thus, distinguish between the information we should keep from those we should forget is an difficult art. In this book, the author discusses about the different types of memory, the main types of forgetting (avoidance, extinction and repression), their brain areas and their mechanisms. In this sense, the art of forgetting, or the art of do not saturate our memory mechanisms, is something innate, that benefits us anonymously, keeping us from sinking amidst our own memories. The essays that compose this book go through several aspects, since individuals to societies' memory. By the end of the book, the reader will be able to understand that we forget to be able to think, to live and to survive.
This book offers an analytic history of Britannia (first England and Wales and then Great Britain) over eight hundred years of political turmoil, intermingled with economic stagnation, followed by the engine of the industrial revolution. The book draws on economics, political science, public choice, philosophy and the law to probe in depth into the evolution of Britannia from an impoverished feudal and then post-feudal autocracy into a constitutional monarchy with limited suffrage that provided the fulcrum for industrial and commercial success, making Britannia, by 1884, the richest nation, per capita, on the planet. The book challenges head-on the Whiggist liberal notion of Macaulay and Trevelyan that the path from oppression to freedom was one of unimpeded progress. Among its novel features, the book draws upon the dictator's handbook, as modeled by Bueno de Mesquita and Alistair Smith to evaluate the period of varying autocracy, 1066-1688. The book draws upon modern public choice theory and legal history to evaluate the fragile, corrupt constitutional monarchy that oversaw the initial phase of post-Glorious Revolution Britannia, 1689-1775. At each stage, the philosophical battle between those who sought order and unity and those who sought individual liberty is meticulously outlined. The book draws on the contributions of the Scottish Enlightenment (Hume, Ferguson and Smith) and of classical liberal philosophy (John Stuart Mill) to explain the final vault of Britannia from a weak and corrupt to a robust and admired constitutional monarchy grounded on the rule of law, over the period 1776-1884.
The book explains the reasons for the recent economic success of Turkey by examining the transformation of the private sector and the development policies implemented by the Turkish government. Further concrete insights are provided by professionals working for institutional and business players such as SACE, the first Italian insurance group in the field of export credit, and ABIGEM, a business center supporting SMEs in Turkey. Turkish Airlines, winner of the Best Airline in Europe award in 2012, also contributed to the volume through useful information provided by its press office. Turkey's strategic role in the energy market is then analyzed, with discussion of the limits and opportunities of the oil, gas, and renewable sectors. In addition, careful attention is paid to the difficult relations between Turkey and the European Union and to Turkey's application for EU membership. Turkey is one of the most important emerging countries in the world thanks to the booming economic growth that has been achieved there during the past decade. This book analyzes the increasingly key role played by Turkey within the international community by focusing on two main issues: the economic scenario and the energy market.
Operative Dictations in Orthopedic Surgery is a valuable resource for teaching orthopedic surgical trainees and practicing orthopedic surgeons how to document their operative procedures. The book includes the majority of the commonly performed orthopedic procedures. For each procedure, a list of common indications is given, covering 95% of the situations in which particular procedures will be used, as well as a list of essential steps. This is then followed by a list intended to prompt the surgeon for particular details to note and dictate within the template, a list of possible complications that are typically associated with a particular surgical procedure, and templates of operative dictation that allow the surgeon to individualize their dictations. Ample space is also provided to allow each surgeon to add notes. Concise and easy to use, Operative Dictations in Orthopedic Surgery is a unique tool for orthopedics surgical residents and residents in practice that better prepares them to participate actively and learn as much as possible in the operating room.
With the leadership of the North Korean political regime in flux, the political and economic relationship between North Korea and South Korea, and between the Korean peninsula and the world, is uncertain. What would be the implications if the current North Korean government were to fall? This timely book provides a thorough analysis of the complexities of regime change that goes far beyond the usual media discussion of this topic. The book traces the historical roots of the existence of the two Koreas and their ideological divide. It goes on to review the consequences of South Korea's alternating policies of "sternness and sunshine" toward North Korea since World War II, and presents an analysis of their likely relative efficacy in achieving re-unification. The book then examines the effect of international affairs on the prospects for stability and reunification on the Korean peninsula and assesses the relevance of reunification experiences in Germany and Vietnam to Korea's situation. Finally, it suggests how to proceed if the opportunity for reunification arises, tackling the issue of how South Korea can respond to other nations' interests in the outcome on the Korean Peninsula and the need for a multinational body to supervise a North Korean transition replacing the present regime. This comprehensive book will be invaluable to any researcher, student, or decision maker interested in the future of the Korean peninsula, East Asian political economy, and international diplomacy.
This book explores what it is like to be involved incontemporary open adoption, characterised by varying forms of contact withbirth relatives, from an adoptive parent point of view. The author's fine-grained interpretative phenomenologicalanalysis of adopters' accounts reveals the complexity of kinship for thosewhose most significant relationships are made, unmade and permanently alteredthrough adoption. MacDonald distinctively connects adoption to widersociological theories of relatedness and personal life, and focuses on domesticnon-kin adoption of children from state care, including compulsory adoption. Thebook also addresses current child welfare concerns, and suggestions are madefor adoption practice. The book will be of interest to scholars and studentswith an interest in adoption, social work, child welfare, foster care, family andsociology.
This book engages in thecontroversies of the European Union's Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) reforms,demonstrating how these are reiterated by mainstream theoretical approaches inthe field. The reforms that the EuropeanUnion's CAP underwent during the last threedecades were intended to make it less trade-distorting, more taxpayer-friendlyand more able to meet the new challenges of environmental concerns and ruraldevelopment/territorial cohesion. The outcome of the reforms has, however,contradicted these objectives, with the controversies being reiterated by themainstream theoretical approaches in the field. European Union's Common Agricultural Policy Reforms arguesthat these controversies are due to reductionist, rationalist and idealistassumptions with regard to the object of inquiry applied by mainstreamapproaches. It proposes an alternative critical approach that takes intoaccount the role of real material factors. Critical realism is not just analternative explanation of CAP reforms but an alternative theory of howexplanations can be made, which enables readers to reflect upon and endorse theresults of existing lines of research in proceeding towards deeper leveltheory.
This bookexplores the economic institutions that determine the nature of animal lives assystematically exploited objects traded in a market economy. It examines humanroles and choice in the system, including the economic logic of agriculture,experimentation, and animal ownership, and analyses the marginalization ofethical action in the economic system. Animals and the Economy demonstrates that individual consumers andfarmers are often left with few truly animal-friendly choices. Ethicalparticipants in the economy must either face down an array of institutionalbarriers, or exit mainstream markets entirely. This bookargues that these issues are not necessary elements of a market system, andevaluates a number of policy changes that could improve the lives of animals inthe context of a market economy.
Conventional wisdom warns that unaccountable political and business agents can enrich a few at the expense of many. But logically extending this wisdom implies that associated principals - voters, consumers, shareholders - will favor themselves over the greater good when 'rules of the game' instead create too much accountability. Democratic Governance and Economic Performance rigorously develops this hypothesis, and finds statistical evidence and case study illustrations that democratic institutions at various governance levels (e.g., federal, state, corporation) have facilitated opportunistic gains for electoral, consumer, and shareholder principals. To be sure, this conclusion does not dismiss the potential for democratic governance to productively reduce agency costs. Rather, it suggests that policy makers, lawyers, and managers can improve governance by weighing the agency benefits of increased accountability against the distributional costs of favoring principal stakeholders over more general economic opportunities. Carefully considering the fundamentals that give rise to this tradeoff should interest students and scholars working at the intersection of social science and the law, and can help professionals improve their own performance in policy, legal, and business settings.
The purpose of this book is to develop a theory and practice of education from Karl Popper's non-justificationist philosophy for promoting an open society. Specifically, the book is designed to develop an educational programme for fostering critical thinking in children, particularly when they are involved in group discussion.The study conducted an experiment to assess the effectiveness of Matthew Lipman's Philosophy for Children (P4C) programme in promoting Hong Long (Chinese) children's critical thinking. Forty-two Secondary 1 students volunteered for the experiment, from whom 28 students were randomly selected and randomly assigned to two groups of 14 each: one receiving P4C lessons and the other receiving English lessons. The students who were taught P4C were found to perform better in the reasoning test than those who were not, to be capable of discussing philosophical problems in a competent way, and to have a very positive attitude towards doing philosophy in the classroom. It was also found that P4C played a major role in developing the students' critical thinking.Considering that the construction of children by adults as incompetent in the sense of lacking reason, maturity, or independence reinforces the traditional structure of adult authority over children in society, it runs counter to the goal of fostering critical thinking in children. As a way to return justice to childhood and to effectively promote critical thinking in children, the present study suggested reconstructing the concept of childhood, highlighting the importance of establishing a coherent public policy on promotion of agency in children and also the importance of empowering them to participate actively in research, legal, and educational institutions.
This book adopts the method of grounded theory in studying national communication campaigns in China, referred to as propaganda campaigns in the Chinese linguistic context. The study provides an exploratory and descriptive analysis of the ways in which the media in China fulfilled their function of building a Socialist spiritual civilisation and maintaining national integration during state propaganda campaigns. Explanations for the success and limitations of the campaigns are clearly expressed and combined with cautious statements on the limited role of the media in the process of national integration. The three major communication campaigns detailed in this book offer revelations regarding how to maintain mass morale and revive the national spirit at a time when economic pursuits and aspirations seem to be the top priority for individuals and institutions. A chief premise underpinning this study is that economic growth is not to be equated with social progress or human development, the latter encompassing a far more profound spiritual dimension, which takes far more delicate efforts to accomplish.
In this book, the relationship between financial decision-making and chronic regulatory focus is explored to provide a better understanding of consumer decisions. Financial decisions are modelled on the basis of assets and portfolios sensitive to particular regulatory foci. Studies in the book test whether participants select assets/portfolios that conform to their respective foci. In addition, given that gender, age and education can shape financial decisions, further hypotheses are put forth to explore whether these are related to asset and portfolio selection and regulatory focus. As consumers tend to make financial decisions prior to priming, this book diverts from previous research involving primed states of regulatory focus and instead explores the chronic state. The study employs two complementary instruments, the eye tracker and self-report, to explicate the hypotheses. As the main hypotheses were not supported, the author posits that the harsh worldwide financial climate may have acted as an external influence, moving participants to select assets and portfolios not aligned with their foci. This study marks a valuable contribution to the current literature concerning financial decision-making, the underlying motivational systems and external influences, and will promote further research in these areas. It offers an essential resource for academics and students interested in how regulatory focus interacts with financial decisions and the overarching economic climate.
The subject of this book is young children's emotional-social learning and development within early childhood care and education settings in Aotearoa-New Zealand. The focus on emotional complexity fills a gap in early childhood care and education research where young children are frequently framed narrowly as 'learners,' ignoring the importance of emotional functioning and the feelings with which children make sense of themselves and the world. This book draws on original data in the form of narrative-like framed events to creatively illustrate the complexities in children's diverse ways of feeling, thinking, playing, being, and becoming. Events illuminate the feelings and meanings of observed experiences in holistic and contextualised gestalts. Awareness of unconscious processes, the feeling of feelings, and cultural dimensions of development and meaning-making are addressed. The book emphasises the emergent and psychodynamic nature of children's development and learning with strong links to the role of play and playfulness in the events, drawing on two ethnographically inspired research projects that present theory, experience and practice in real-life events.
The book describes the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomassfor biomass-to-biofuel conversion processes, which is an important step inincreasing ethanol production for biofuels. It also highlights the mainchallenges and suggests possible ways to make these technologies feasible for the biofuel industry. Thebiological conversion of cellulosic biomass into bioethanol is based on thechemical and biological breakdown of biomass into aqueous sugars, for exampleusing hydrolytic enzymes. The fermentable sugars can then be further processedinto ethanol or other advanced biofuels. Pretreatment is required to break downthe lignin structure and disrupt the crystalline structure of cellulose so thatthe acids or enzymes can easily access and hydrolyze the cellulose. Pre-treatment can be the most expensive process in converting biomass to fuel,but there is great potential for improving the efficiency and lowering coststhrough further research and development. This book is aimed at academics andindustrial practitioners who are interested in the higher production of ethanolfor biofuels.
Thisbook addresses issues concerning the shifting contemporary meaning of legalcertainty. The book focuses on exploring the emerging tensions that existbetween the demand for legal certainty and the challenges of regulatingcomplex, late modern societies. The book is divided into two parts: the firstpart focusing on debates around legal certainty at the national level, with aprimary emphasis on criminal law; and the second part focusing on debates atthe transnational level, with a primary emphasis on the regulation oftransnational commercial transactions. Inthe context of legal modernity, the principle of legal certainty--the idea thatthe law must be sufficiently clear to provide those subject to legal norms withthe means to regulate their own conduct and to protect against the arbitraryuse of public power--has operated as a foundational rule of law value. Eventhough it has not always been fully realized, legal certainty has functioned asa core value and aspiration that has structured normative debates throughoutpolitical modernity, both at a national and international level. Inrecent decades, however, legal certainty has come under increasing pressurefrom a number of competing demands that are made of contemporary law, inparticular the demand that the law be more flexible and responsive to a socialenvironment characterized by rapid social and technological change. Theexpectation that the law operates in new transnational contexts and regulatesevery widening sphere of social life has created a new degree of uncertainty,and this change raises difficult questions regarding both the possibility anddesirability of legal certainty. This book compiles, in one edited volume, research from a range ofsubstantive areas of civil and criminal law that shares a common interest inunderstanding the multi-layered challenges of defining legal certainty in alate modern society. The book will be of interest both to lawyers interested inunderstanding the transformation of core rule of law values in the context ofcontemporary social change and to political scientists and social theorists.
The Social Protection Floor Initiative promotes universal access to essential social transfers and services. Presently 80% of the global population does not enjoy a set of social guarantees that allows them to deal with life's risks such as unemployment, ill health, and natural disasters. This book explores the importance and necessity of social protection, including key concepts, universal principles and human rights, the need for context-specific policies, the role of adaptive climate change, and country examples. Social protection refers to a set of essential transfers, services and facilities that all citizens everywhere should enjoy to ensure the realization of the rights embodied in human rights treaties. The Social Protection Floor aims to facilitate and accelerate the introduction or strengthening of sustainable context-specific social protection systems. Experiences from countries around the world that have implemented components of the Social Protection Floor provide evidence of its feasibility, affordability, and impact. The promise and success of social protection is important for transformative change, social inclusion, and alliance building, and raises critical questions about current neoliberal austerity measures. This book calls for a comprehensive, multi-dimensional, integrated and innovative policy mix that recognizes the interdependency between demographic shifts, employment, labour migration, social protection, economic development, and the environment.
Becoming a caregiver is increasingly an inevitable experience for many people and, therefore, a likely life transition. Drawing on research and personal experiences of working with family caregivers, this book examines a range of family caregiving situations from across the life course. It seeks to capture the dynamics of caregiving in a number of common situations: caregiving during infancy, for adults who acquire a disability through accidents or illness, for older people with age-related issues, and caregiving by children and adolescent carers and grandparent carers. In drawing attention to key moments of vulnerability faced by family and informal caregivers, and by suggesting how to assist 'reconnection' at these moments, the book provides a guide for those working in the area of health, disability and care. Informal care is conceptualised as occurring with the context of personal interrelationships, these being nested within wider kin networks and linked with wider professional formal care networks. Informal care is seen both as an expression of social capital and as an activity that builds social capital. It is an indicator of resources of mutual support within social networks, and it has the effect of adding to the stock of social resources. The book makes a case, therefore, for facilitating the development of social capital by strengthening the capacity of informal caregivers and caregiver groups, and by improving the linkages with formal care organisations.
Analysis of education policy often follows a particular orientation, such as conservative or neo-liberal. Yet, readers are often left to wonder the true meaning and conceptual framing behind these orientations. Without this knowledge, the policy analysis lacks true rigor, its value is diminished as the results may prove difficult to reproduce. Understanding Education Policy provides an overarching framework of four key orientations that lie beneath much policy analysis, yet are rarely used with accuracy: conservative, liberal, critical and post-modern. It details each orientation's application to policy making, implementation and overall impact. The book also argues the value of analysing a policy's orientation to improve the clarity of its analysis and allow broader trends across the education policy field to emerge. The book offers practical examples, key vocabulary and reflection activities which give equitable, yet critical consideration to all education orientations. This allows readers to see the benefits and disadvantages of each perspective and discover their own biases. This introduction to education policy analysis offers theoretically broad, highly practical coverage. It is adaptable to many kinds of policy analysis areas and will appeal to a wide range of readers with an interest in education policy, from students conducting specific research to policy makers looking for a deeper way to re-think their work.
The Grasses and Native Plants manual is a reference manual on diseases which attack grasses, forage, native flowers, and weeds. The manual identifies various types of diseases which are known to invade these plants located throughout North, Central, and South America. The recordings include diseases caused by fungi, bacteria, viruses, viroids, phytoplasmas, and nematodes. Causal disease agents are described and illustrated in some cases and diseases and disease control measures are also discussed. A manual such as this is never finished since new reports of diseases are continuously reported.
In this book, an international group of philosophers, economists and theologians focus on the relationship between justice, luck and responsibility in health care. Together, they offer a thorough reflection on questions such as: How should we understand justice in health care? Why are health care interests so important that they deserve special protection? How should we value health? What are its functions and do these make it different from other goods? Furthermore, how much equality should there be? Which inequalities in health and health care are unfair and which are simply unfortunate? Which matters of health care belong to the domain of justice, and which to the domain of charity? And to what extent should we allow personal responsibility to play a role in allocating health care services and resources, or in distributing the costs? With this book, the editors meet a double objective. First, they provide a comprehensive philosophical framework for understanding the concepts of justice, luck and responsibility in contemporary health care; and secondly, they explore whether these concepts have practical force to guide normative discussions in specific contexts of health care such as prevention of infectious diseases or in matters of reproductive technology. Particular and extensive attention is paid to issues regarding end-of-life care.
This is one of those biographies that provide a window onto the broader understanding of science in its social and cultural context. Using Sergei Nikolaevich Vinogradskii's career and scientific research trajectory as a point of entry, this book illustrates the manner in which microbiologists, chemists, botanists, and plant physiologists inscribed the concept of a "cycle of life" into their investigations. Their research transformed a longstanding notion into the fundamental approaches and concepts that underlay the new ecological disciplines that emerged in the 1920s. The book presents a reconstruction of significant episodes of Vinogradskii's laboratory practices and the role of theory in their development. It paints the broader picture of the history of ecology, microbiology and soil science and how these are uniquely united: through the concept of the cycle of life.
Over the past few years, the tree model of time has been widely employed to deal with issues concerning the semantics of tensed discourse. The thought that has motivated its adoption is that the most plausible way to make sense of indeterminism is to conceive of future possibilities as branches that depart from a common trunk, constituted by the past and the present. However, the thought still needs to be further articulated and defended, and several important questions remain open, such as the question of how actuality can be understood and formally represented in a branching framework. The present volume is intended to be a 360 degree reflection on the tree model. The contributions is gathers concern the model and its alternatives, both from a semantic and from a metaphysical point of view.
This compelling reevaluation of the relationship between logic and knowledge affirms the key role that the notion of judgement must play in such a review. The commentary repatriates the concept of judgement in the discussion, banished in recent times by the logical positivism of Wittgenstein, Hilbert and Schlick, and the Platonism of Bolzano. The volume commences with the insights of Swedish philosopher Per Martin-Löf, the father of constructive type theory, for whom logic is a demonstrative science in which judgement is a settled feature of the landscape. His paper opens the first of four sections that examine, in turn, historical philosophical assessments of judgement and reason; their place in early modern philosophy; the notion of judgement and logical theory in Wolff, Kant and Neo-Kantians like Windelband; their development in the Husserlian phenomenological paradigm; and the work of Bolzano, Russell and Frege. The papers, whose authors include Per Martin-Löf, Göran Sundholm, Michael Della Rocca and Robin Rollinger, represent a finely judged editorial selection highlighting work on philosophers exercised by the question of whether or not an epistemic notion of judgement has a role to play in logic. The volume will be of profound interest to students and academicians for its application of historical developments in philosophy to the solution of vexatious contemporary issues in the foundation of logic.
On the (Im)Possibility of Business Ethics: Critical Complexity, Deconstruction, and Implications for Understanding the Ethics of Businessby Minka Woermann
Corporations, and the environments in which they operate, are complex, with changing multiple dimensions, and an inherent capacity to evolve qualitatively. A central premise of this study is that a postmodern reading of ethics represents an expression of, and an engagement with, the ethical complexities that define the business landscape. In particular, the deconstructive philosophy of Jacques Derrida offers a non-trivial reading of a complex notion of ethics, and thereby helps us to develop the skills necessary to critique and intervene in our practices, and to develop robust strategies for living in the absence of prescriptive ethical frameworks. Although a central premise of this study is that substantive ethical claims can only be generated within a given context, the study nevertheless presents readers with a meta-position that illustrates the type of considerations that should inform ethical reflection from a complexity perspective. In order to illustrate the value that this meta-position holds for business ethics, these considerations are explored in terms of the implications that they hold for our understanding of corporate social responsibility, for the practice of responsible management and leadership practices, and for teaching business ethics.