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The Web has become a rich source of personal information in the last few years. People twitter, blog, and chat online. Current feelings, experiences or latest news are posted. For instance, first hints to disease outbreaks, customer preferences, or political changes could be identified with this data. Surveillance or early warning systems enable such detection of changes and support humans in getting information on changing situations. However, the variety of data that could be considered for surveillance is immense, ranging from sensor-measured values to collected counts and information extracted from natural language documents. Denecke's objective is to introduce the multiple possibilities and facets of surveillance and its applications. She first introduces the task of surveillance and provides an overview on surveillance in various domains. Next, the various information sources that are available and could already be used by surveillance systems are summarized. In the main part of the book, her focus is on unstructured data as a source for surveillance. An overview on existing methods as well as methods to be developed in order to process this kind of data with respect to surveillance is presented. As an example application, she introduces disease surveillance using Web 2.0, including corresponding methods and challenges to be addressed. The book closes with remarks on new possibilities for surveillance gained by recent developments of the Internet and mobile communication, and with an outline of future challenges.
The impact of computer systems that can understand natural language will be tremendous. To develop this capability we need to be able to automatically and efficiently analyze large amounts of text. Manually devised rules are not sufficient to provide coverage to handle the complex structure of natural language, necessitating systems that can automatically learn from examples. To handle the flexibility of natural language, it has become standard practice to use statistical models, which assign probabilities for example to the different meanings of a word or the plausibility of grammatical constructions. This book develops a general coarse-to-fine framework for learning and inference in large statistical models for natural language processing. Coarse-to-fine approaches exploit a sequence of models which introduce complexity gradually. At the top of the sequence is a trivial model in which learning and inference are both cheap. Each subsequent model refines the previous one, until a final, full-complexity model is reached. Applications of this framework to syntactic parsing, speech recognition and machine translation are presented, demonstrating the effectiveness of the approach in terms of accuracy and speed. The book is intended for students and researchers interested in statistical approaches to Natural Language Processing. Slav's work Coarse-to-Fine Natural Language Processing represents a major advance in the area of syntactic parsing, and a great advertisement for the superiority of the machine-learning approach. Eugene Charniak (Brown University)
This book enters new territory by moving toward a new conceptual framework for comparative and interdisciplinary research on transcultural state formation. Once more, statehood and governance are highly discussed topics, whereby modern state building is often considered to be a genuinely European characteristic, despite the fact that early modern Europeans knew of, experienced and grappled with highly developed states in Asia. The articles collected in this book discuss how strategies of governance were part of transcultural transfers between the two continents. The first part presents and discusses concepts of statehood in order to provide a set of conceptual tools for analyzing the transcultural appropriation of governmental strategies. The second part is concerned with case studies that examine the transcultural perception of governance, and the third and final part gathers perspectives on political practice in transcultural encounters (e.g. military, administration, and diplomacy)
This book gives a concise introduction to the German law of business organizations and is meant to help business practitioners and international students to familiarize themselves with its key concepts and legal issues. After outlining some characteristic features of the German legal system the book describes the various types of German business organizations with a special focus on the German Limited Liability Company (GmbH) and the German Stock Corporation (AG). The book discusses some typical problems faced by companies engaged in cross-border activities and also provides a brief outline of some recent developments in European company law with a special focus on the new multinational corporate form of the European Company (SE).
The book focuses on one of the most problematic areas of Turkish penal justice: the overreliance on custodial measures and a corresponding growth in the prison population, and compares Turkey with two major European countries in this respect: England and Wales and Germany. The underlying question throughout the study is the extent to which prison alternatives can be seen as genuine alternatives to immediate custodial sentences.
The black sheep of fallbrook is back . . . And he's in for the surprise of his life.Former bad boy, now-decorated Army Ranger Brody McBride is home and on a mission: Find the woman he never should have left behind and right the wrong he did eight years ago.When the man she loved broke her heart and skipped town, Rain Evans picked up the pieces. But along with heartbreak, Brody left her something infinitely better than she could have imagined: two beautiful daughters. One she gave birth to, and the other she rescued from the woman who helped destroy her relationship with Brody.Brody is shocked to discover he's a father, and he's more determined than ever to win back Rain and protect his girls. Can they rekindle the love they once shared and become the family they were always meant to be? Or will a danger from their past return and ruin everything?
This book deals with complex problems in the fields of logistics and supply chain management and discusses advanced methods, especially from the field of computational intelligence (CI), for solving them. The first two chapters provide general introductions to logistics and supply chain management on the one hand, and to computational intelligence on the other hand. The subsequent chapters cover specific fields in logistics and supply chain management, work out the most relevant problems found in those fields, and discuss approaches for solving them. Chapter 3 discusses problems in the field of production and inventory management. Chapter 4 considers planning activities on a finer level of granularity which is usually denoted as scheduling. In chapter 5 problems in transportation planning such as different types of vehicle routing problems are considered. While chapters 3 to 5 rather discuss planning problems which appear on an operative level, chapter 6 discusses the strategic problem of designing a supply chain or network. The final chapter provides an overview of academic and commercial software and information systems for the discussed applications. There appears to be a gap between general textbooks on logistics and supply chain management and more specialized literature dealing with methods for computational intelligence, operations research, etc. , for solving the complex operational problems in these fields. For readers, it is often difficult to proceed from introductory texts on logistics and supply chain management to the sophisticated literature which deals with the usage of advanced methods. This book fills this gap by providing state-of-the-art descriptions of the corresponding problems and suitable methods for solving them.
This book presents cutting edge research on the new ethical challenges posed by biomedical Big Data technologies and practices. 'Biomedical Big Data' refers to the analysis of aggregated, very large datasets to improve medical knowledge and clinical care. The book describes the ethical problems posed by aggregation of biomedical datasets and re-use/re-purposing of data, in areas such as privacy, consent, professionalism, power relationships, and ethical governance of Big Data platforms. Approaches and methods are discussed that can be used to address these problems to achieve the appropriate balance between the social goods of biomedical Big Data research and the safety and privacy of individuals. Seventeen original contributions analyse the ethical, social and related policy implications of the analysis and curation of biomedical Big Data, written by leading experts in the areas of biomedical research, medical and technology ethics, privacy, governance and data protection. The book advances our understanding of the ethical conundrums posed by biomedical Big Data, and shows how practitioners and policy-makers can address these issues going forward.
This volume presents research on women's experiences, attitudes and perceptions, considering their work roles and in the context of their lives outside work. It explores the various choices women may opt to take, and the resources they may use, and presents options they may wish to consider over the course of their working lives. The research presented here is varied and the methods used include cross-sectional and longitudinal research, reviews of literature, as well as experiences and practical suggestions from clinical, organisational, health and occupational health psychologists, in addition to occupational safety and health practitioners. It looks at women who are part-time employees, those in vulnerable positions in the informal economy to women in mainstream, full-time employment. The chapters present theoretical underpinnings of how, what, when and where women approach work options, approach life and approach living. The overarching factor that links these chapters is the focus on women as a vital resource in the world economy, with an exploration of the options that are available to them and how these could be maximised to retain a productive and healthy female workforce.
This book reviews systematic training programs that are designed to enhance the language, reading, literacy and cognitive skills of individuals with Learning Disabilities in various disciplines. Most titles on Learning Disabilities intervention often focus on the linguistic area of the disability, while there are many more areas of difficulty. Students with learning disabilities struggle with such as math, cognitive abilities, and organizational skills. Adopting a multi-disciplinary approach, this book encompasses a wide variety of remedial treatments and therapies developed by expert researchers and scholars in the Learning Disabilities area.
This book is Open Access under a CC BY license. It is the first monograph-length study of the force-feeding of hunger strikers in English, Irish and Northern Irish prisons. It examines ethical debates that arose throughout the twentieth century when governments authorised the force-feeding of imprisoned suffragettes, Irish republicans and convict prisoners. It also explores the fraught role of prison doctors called upon to perform the procedure. Since the Home Office first authorised force-feeding in 1909, a number of questions have been raised about the procedure. Is force-feeding safe? Can it kill? Are doctors who feed prisoners against their will abandoning the medical ethical norms of their profession? And do state bodies use prison doctors to help tackle political dissidence at times of political crisis?
This collectionof stories touches upon many genres: Normed Trek is a clever and wittyAlice-in-Wonderland-type narrative set in the realm of mathematical analysis, The Cantor Trilogy is a dystopia about theconsequences of relying upon computer-based mathematical proofs, InSearch of Future Time bears the flavor of Tales from Arabian Nights set inthe future, and - last but not least - Murderon the Einstein Express is a short, non-technical primer on probabilitiesand modern classical physics, disguised as a detective story. Written primarily for an audience with some background or a stronginterest in mathematics, physics and computer science (in particular artificial intelligence), these stories explore theboundaries between science and fiction in a refreshingly unconventional fashion. In the Afterthoughts the author provides some further insights and annotations.
This is a practical book for health and IT professionals who need to ensure that patient safety is prioritized in the design and implementation of clinical information technology. Healthcare professionals are increasingly reliant on information technology to deliver care and inform their clinical decision making. Health IT provides enormous benefits in efficiency, communication and decision making. However a number of high-profile UK and US studies have concluded that when Health IT is poorly designed or sub-optimally implemented then patient safety can be compromised. Manufacturers and healthcare organizations are increasingly required to demonstrate that their Health IT solutions are proactively assured. Surprisingly the majority of systems are not subject to regulation so there is little in the way of practical guidance as to how risk management can be achieved. The book fills that gap. The author, a doctor and IT professional, harnesses his two decades of experience to characterize the hazards that health technology can introduce. Risk can never be eliminated but by drawing on lessons from other safety-critical industries the book systematically sets out how clinical risk can be strategically controlled. The book proposes the employment of a Safety Case to articulate and justify residual risk so that not only is risk proactively managed but it is seen to be managed. These simple techniques drive product quality and allow a technology's benefits to be realized without compromising patient safety.
Tourism is an activity that anyone can take part in, regardless of their age, gender, nationality or level of income. This makes tourism one of the most rapidly developing industries in the world. Despite the number of benefits which tourism produces, it also has significant negative impacts on the environment. To minimise the scope of these negative impacts, joint efforts combining tourism and environmental management are called for. This book examines the application of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method and lifecycle thinking as a tool to generate more accurate and holistic appraisals of the environmental impacts of tourism. Looking at the issue of sustainability of tourism operations, the book evaluates how it can be improved. It highlights the potential of LCA to affect tourist behaviour and contribute to tourism policy-making and managerial practice. This book provides a valuable resource for undergraduates, postgraduates and researchers interested in sustainable tourism, sustainable development and environmental impact assessment.
This book presents William Clifford's English translation of BernhardRiemann's classic text together with detailed mathematical, historical andphilosophical commentary. The basic concepts and ideas, as well as theirmathematical background, are provided, putting Riemann's reasoning into themore general and systematic perspective achieved by later mathematicians andphysicists (including Helmholtz, Ricci, Weyl, and Einstein) on the basis of hisseminal ideas. Following a historical introduction that positions Riemann's workin the context of his times, the history of the concept of space in philosophy,physics and mathematics is systematically presented. A subsequent chapter onthe reception and influence of the text accompanies the reader from Riemann's timesto contemporary research. Notonly mathematicians and historians of the mathematical sciences, but alsoreaders from other disciplines or those with an interest in physics orphilosophy will find this work both appealing and insightful.
This book provides a much-needed analysis of the current research in the global epidemic of electronic bullying. Scholars and professionals from the Americas, Europe, and Asia offer data, insights, and solutions, acknowledging both the social psychology and technological contexts underlying cyberbullying phenomena. Contributors address questions that are just beginning to emerge as well as longstanding issues concerning family and gender dynamics, and provide evidence-based prevention and intervention strategies for school and home. The global nature of the book reflects not only the scope and severity of cyberbullying, but also the tenacity of efforts to control and eradicate the problem. Included in the coverage: * Gender issues and cyberbullying in children and adolescents: from gender differences to gender identity measures. * Family relationships and cyberbullying. * Examining the incremental impact of cyberbullying on outcomes over and above traditional bullying in North America. * A review of cyberbullying and education issues in Latin America. * Cyberbullying prevention from child and youth literature. * Cyberbullying and restorative justice. Cyberbullying across the Globe is an essential resource for researchers, graduate students, and other professionals in child and school psychology, public health, social work and counseling, educational policy, and family advocacy.
This book presents a range of research and clinical contributions, including observational studies, practical treatment examples, diagnostic test assessment, biomarkers, and systematic reviews. The objective is to seek to explain the processes or mechanisms whereby abnormal or undesired conditions develop and progress. The attention is given to disturbed carbohydrate metabolism in perpetuation of respiratory ailments or raising therapeutic problems. The psychosocial context of chronic respiratory conditions is tackled as well. Oxidative stress is conducive to both physical and cognitive aging, which raises the specter of using its biochemical markers in future antiaging therapeutic strategies. Critical information provided in the contributions will allow readers to make informed judgments. The book will hopefully serve to create awareness and apprehension about the developments in the field of pneumology and related areas of medical research.
A new perspective on the global food security situation and highlights the need for seeking a common vision and implementing global planning to define the manner in which the human species will manage its food security. The basic question of 'is there enough food' is examined in general and then in some detail. The history of food production is reviewed in the hope that lessons can be learned from the past. But even after ten thousand years of experience we are not able to feed adequately about a third of our total population, despite what statistics can be made to tell us. Intensive agriculture has stripped out the nutrients that support plant growth and marginalised extensive tracts of land. The global solution to feed the growing population has been and continues to be - produce more food. Even during the last 30 years, about 95 percent of global research investments have focused mainly on increasing productivity. However about a third of the food produced, sufficient to feed over two billion hungry people, is lost or wasted in the food value chain. Climate change is another confounding factor that impinges on our discussions. Pests of all kinds continue to destroy food before and after it is harvested, even though the technology to protect it is available. A huge amount of food is wasted in value chains, particularly at the domestic level. Global food production systems are exposed to unprecedented biosecurity risks posed by invasive harmful organisms and this trend is likely to further exacerbate as current approach to biosecurity is based on the notional premise that lines on maps and the legislation that goes with them is sufficient to halt epidemics. Solutions include extending the number of cultivated plant and animal species to include those that can prosper in what are currently considered to be extreme environments.
This volume offers comprehensive 'state-of-the-art' overviews of educational policies concerning the teaching of English in a large number of Asian countries. Each contribution is written by a leading expert and gives a clear assessment of current policies and future trends. Starting with a description of the English education policies in the respective countries, the contributors then delve into the 'nuts and bolts' of the English education policies and how they play out in practice in the education system, in schools, in the curriculum, and in teaching. Topics covered include the balance between the acquisition of English and the national language, political, cultural, economic and technical factors that strengthen or weaken the learning of English.
This timely collection explores trust research from many angles while ably demonstrating the potential of cross-discipline collaboration to deepen our understanding of institutional trust. Citing, among other things, current breakdowns of trust in prominent institutions, the book presents a multilevel model identifying universal aspects of trust as well as domain- and context-specific variations deserving further study. Contributors analyze similarities and differences in trust across public domains from politics and policing to medicine and science, and across languages and nations. Innovative strategies for measuring and assessing trust also shed new light on this essentially human behavior. Highlights of the coverage: Consensus on conceptualizations and definitions of trust: are we there yet? Differentiating between trust and legitimacy in public attitudes towards legal authority. Examining the relationship between interpersonal and institutional trust in political and health care contexts. Trust as a multilevel phenomenon across contexts. Institutional trust across cultures. The "dark side" of institutional trust. With its stimulating array of concepts and applications, Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Trust will attract a varied audience, among them experts in political science, criminal justice, psychology, law, economics, healthcare, sociology, public administration, cross-cultural studies, and business administration.
This book presents an up-to-date and comprehensive review of female contraception. It offers an extensive overview of contraception types, including oral, injectable, emergency, and various cervical barrier contraceptives, as well as behavioral and sterilization methods, and discusses the clinical effectiveness, advantages, disadvantages, side effects, and mechanisms of action of each method. Thoroughly revised and updated, the second edition includes coverage of chewable contraceptives, new progestins, new quadraphasic OCP regimen, Nexplanon, which is replacing the Implanon contraceptive implant, and new methods of tubal sterilization. There is also a new chapter devoted to current controversies. Each chapter also includes counseling tips that answer common questions many clinicians and patients have about contraception. The advances in contraception technologies are interplayed with practical advice on choosing the most effective and appropriate contraception for patients, from those who are young and healthy to those with serious medical diseases. The Handbook of Contraception, Second Edition, is an incomparable reference for obstetricians, gynecologists, and primary care physicians.
This book explores the relations between the EU and the BRICS in the areas of politics, economic development, trade and security. The contributions cover topics such as the position of the EU and BRICS in the global order and the EU as a "normative power," as well as the evolution, characteristics and institutionalization of BRICS and the roles of its member countries Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa. The book will appeal to researchers and scholars interested in the rise of BRICS and the resulting challenges and opportunities for the European Union and Global Governance.
This book presents the current state of the art on Construction Grammar models and usage-based language learning research. It reports on three psycholinguistic experiments conducted with the participation of university-level Italian learners of English, whose second language proficiency corresponds to levels B1 and B2 of the 'Common European Framework of Reference for Languages' (CEFR). This empirical research on the role of constructions in the facilitation of language learning contributes to assessing how bilinguals deal with L2 constructions in the light of sentence-sorting, sentence-elicitation, and sentence-completion tasks. Divided into two parts, the book first introduces the main theoretical prerequisites and then reports on the experimental studies. It provides a comprehensive review of the current research in a range of disciplines, including complexity theories, cognitive semantics, construction grammars, usage-based linguistics, and language learning.
This book addresses questions surrounding the feasibility of a global approach to ethical governance of science and technology. The emergence and rapid spread of nanotechnology offers a test case for how the world might act when confronted with a technology that could transform the global economy and provide solutions to issues such as pollution, while potentially creating new environmental and health risks. The author compares ethical issues identified by stakeholders in China and the EU about the rapid introduction of this potentially transformative technology - a fitting framework for an exploration of global agency. The study explores the discourse ethics and participatory Technology Assessment (pTA) inspired by the work of Jürgen Habermas to argue that different views can be universally recognized and agreed upon, perhaps within an ideal global community of communication. The book offers a developed discourse model, utilizing virtue ethics as well as the work of Taylor, Beck, Korsgaard and others on identity formation, as a way forward in the context of global ethics. The author seeks to develop new vocabularies of comparison, to discover shared aspects of identity and to achieve, hopefully, an 'intercultural personhood' that may lead to a global ethics. The book offers a useful guide for researchers on methods for advancing societal understanding of science and technology. The author addresses a broad audience, from philosophers, ethicists and scientists, to the interested general reader. For the layperson, one chapter surveys nanoissues as depicted in fiction and another offers a view of how an ordinary citizen can act as a global agent of change in ethics.
This volume focuses on our understanding of the reading comprehension of adolescents in a high stakes academic environment. Leading researchers share their most current research on each issue, covering theory and empirical research from a range of specializations, including various content areas, English language learners, students with disabilities, and reading assessment. Topics discussed include: cognitive models of reading comprehension and how they relate to typical or atypical development of reading comprehension, reading in history classes, comprehension of densely worded and symbolic mathematical texts, understanding causality in science texts, the more rigorous comprehension standards in English language arts classes, balancing the practical and measurement constraints of the assessment of reading comprehension, understanding the needs and challenges of English language learners and students in special education with respect to the various content areas discussed in this book. This book is of interest to researchers in literacy and educational psychology as well as curriculum developers.