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Leaving aside human and social capital for a future volume, the book should be viewed as a crucial first step in developing indicators for total wealth in the countries covered by the case studies, which include Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Ethiopia, Mozambique and South Africa. These case studies experiment with implementing the SEAA in sub-Saharan nations known to suffer from the 'resource curse': their wealth in resources and commodities has allowed inflows of liquidity, yet this cash has not funded crucial developments in infrastructure or education. What's more, resource-driven economies are highly vulnerable to commodity price mutability. The new measures of wealth deployed here offer more hope for the future in these countries than they themselves would once have allowed for.
Empirical research needs a profound theory to be successful. This is the simple but, in its consequences, radical approach for this study in geomorphology. It critically analyses the current system understanding and offers a new view for a geomorphology that understands systems as being open but at the same time operationally closed, as self-organized, structure-building and potentially self-referential. Kirsten von Elverfeldt succeeds in designing a theoretical framework that sets new standards within Physical Geography. By using state-of-the-art concepts in system theory, it offers also new bridges to Human Geography as well as to other neighbouring disciplines. This book was awarded the Dissertation prize 2010 of the German Working Group in Geomorphology of the DGfG and the Hans Bobek-prize of the ÖGG (Austrian Geographical Society).
Constitutionalism is the permanent quest to control state power, of which the judicial review of legislation is a prime example. Although the judicial review of legislation is increasingly common in modern societies, it is not a finished project. This device still raises questions as to whether judicial review is justified, and how it may be structured. Yet, judicial review's justification and its scope are seldom addressed in the same study, thereby making for an inconvenient divorce of these two related avenues of study. To narrow the divide, the object of this work is quite straightforward. Namely, is the idea of judicial review defensible, and what influences its design and scope? This book addresses these matters by comparing the judicial review of legislation in the United Kingdom (the Human Rights Act of 1998), the Netherlands (the Halsema Proposal of 2002) and the Constitution of South Africa of 1996. These systems present valuable material to study the issues raised by judicial review. The Netherlands is of particular interest as its Constitution still prohibits the constitutional review of acts of parliament, while allowing treaty review of such acts. The Halsema Proposal wants to even out this difference by allowing the courts also to apply constitutional norms to legislation and not only to international norms. The Human Rights Act and the South African Constitution also present interesting questions that will make their study worthwhile. One can think of the issue of dialogue between the legislature and the judiciary. This topic enjoys increased attention in the United Kingdom but is somewhat underexplored in South African thought on judicial review. These and similar issues are studied in each of the three systems, to not only gain a better understanding of the systems as such, but also of judicial review in general.
Most people value to have children still highly. But what is the optimal moment to have the first? The decision on having children or not and if yes on the timing of the first is one of the most difficult ones to make, also because it more or less coincides with various other heavy decisions on shaping the life course (like on union formation, labour market career, housing accommodation, etc.). People realise that having children will fundamentally change their life and in order to fit this unknown and irreversible adventure perfectly into their life course postponement of the first birth is an easy way out as long as doubts continue and partners try to make up their mind. Modern methods of birth control are of course a very effective help in that period. What is the best moment to have the first child? And to what moment is postponement justified? There are no easy answers to these questions. Best solutions vary per person as they depend on personal circumstances and considerations (the partner may have conflicting ideas; housing accommodation; job; income; free time activities). Existing parental leave and child care arrangements are weighted as well. Unfortunately the biological clock ticks further. And, also unfortunately, assisted reproductive technology (IVF etc.) is unable to guarantee a successful outcome. Several couples end up without children involuntarily and that may lead to sorrow and grief. This interdisciplinary book overviews the process of postponement and its backgrounds in modern Western societies holistically, both at the personal and the societal level. Contributions come from reproductive, evolutionary biological and neurological sciences, as well as from demography, economy, sociology and psychology. It holds not only at women but also at men becoming first time fathers. The discussion boils down to a new policy approach for motherhood and emancipation on how to shape work and family life? It is argued that a public window where one can compose a 'cafeteria'-like set of supportive arrangements according to personal preferences could lead to a break in the rising age at first motherhood.
The great flourishing in the Twentieth Century of the amalgamated movement of Phenomenology and Existentialism, having reached its unfolding and reverberation - as we have shown in our two preceding books and continue in this one - seems to have spanned the entire gamut of their marvels. Although the philosophical field is being still corroborated by phenomenologico-existential insights, phenomenology remains itself enigmatic. The question of its foundations, as the source of sense remaining unsolved by Husserl (herein Verducci's study of Husserl and Fink, infra-page). And yet, the deepest phenomenologico-existential inspiration undertakes a new critique of reason (Verducci), the pivotal role of Imaginatio Creatrix (Egbe), Jean Wahl's quest after ultimate meaning (Kremer-Marietti) and the Logos of the "Moral Sense" (Cozma and Szmyd). Phenomenology is then reborn in the ontopoiesis of life (Tymieniecka) as "first philosophy" (Haney). We have here a powerful ferment we may call the New Enlightenment.
The large-scale terrorist attacks on 9/11 resulted in more attention being devoted to victims of terrorist acts. Discussions took place on how their needs could be best accommodated. The Madrid bombings in March 2004 gave further impetus to this process. This development is also part of a recent trend towards general victim of crime policies that branch out into specialized policies devised to meet the needs of particular groups of victims such as victims of trafficking, victims of sexual violence and abuse or victims of traffic accidents. However, although a movement of national and international solidarity relating to addressing the needs of victims of terrorism has developed, political consensus is still fragile. This book provides a thorough analysis of the specific needs of victims of terrorism (using both legal and psycho-social studies), compared to victims of other forms of crime. The study combines different disciplines, enabling to combine the different perspectives leading to synergy in the analysis of the legal and psycho-social needs of victims of terrorism. Furthermore the appropriateness of restorative justice practices in the context of terrorism is included and provides challenging new insights.
The relationship between government, education reform and student outcomes is an ambivalent and often problematic one. Focusing on the interplay between decentralization, globalization, and education reforms, this book draws on recent studies to explore the conceptual frameworks and methodological approaches that can be applied to research covering the state, globalization, equality, and education. It lays bare the neo-liberal ideological imperatives of education and policy reforms, and illustrates the way the relationship between the state and education policy affects current models and trends in education reforms and schooling globally. The chapters critically analyze the dominant discourses about decentralization and comparative education and examine the current resurgence of neo-liberal ideological models in education, both newly constructed and re-invented. To ensure as broad a perspective on the issues as possible, the authors employ a raft of diverse paradigms in comparative education research, ranging from critical theory to globalization. This in-depth exploration of globalization, ideology and democracy in education examines both the reasons for and outcomes of education reforms, decentralization, policy change and transformation. In doing so, it seeks to provide a more informed critique on Western-driven models of accountability, quality and school effectiveness. It is the eighth in the 12-volume book series Globalization, Comparative Education and Policy Research, which presents scholarly research on major discourses in comparative education research with reference to decentralization and school-based management. The series provides an accessible, practical yet scholarly source of information about international issues in the field of globalization and comparative education.
What are the future possibilities for the standing of professional practice as it faces growingly problematic markets for services, complex demands for managerial accountability and control, and problematic circumstances and expectations in its ethical and self-regulative governance? New sources of inspiration may be needed if professionalism is to be either a viable or desirable form for the social organisation of work in the coming years of potentially deep economic and social change. Set in the UK, South Africa, Australia and the USA, the empirical studies included elaborate problematic situations of professional practice concerning issues of identity and knowledge. The theoretical studies explore the notion of generic processes; elaborate the plurality of notions of professional practice; theorise the hybridisation witnessed in inter-professional and cross-disciplinary team work; and outline new theoretical departures relating to these. Elaborating professionalism also raises important methodological issues relating to professionalism as ethical practice. The book offers valuable resources to enrich practice, and provokes thought and new ideas about professionalism.
This authoritative volume, written by two well-known psychologist-philosophers, presents a model of the person and its implications for psychological theory and practice. Professors Ramakrishna Rao and Anand Paranjpe draw the contours of Indian psychology, describe the methods of study, explain crucial concepts, and discuss the central ideas and their application, illustrating them with insightful case studies and judicious reviews of available research data and existing scholarly literature. The main theme is organized around the thesis that psychology is the study of the person and that the person is a unique composite of body, mind and consciousness. The goal of the person is self-realization. Self-realization consists in the realization of one's true self as distinct from the manifest ego and it is facilitated by cultivating consciousness. Cultivating consciousness leads to a kind of psycho-spiritual symbiosis resulting in personal transformation, altruistic value orientation and flowering of the hidden human potential.
Creating clinical guidelines is a modern trend. Published studies pertaining to a given theme are collected, their credibility evaluated, and then treatment options in the form of evidence-based guidelines are offered. There are a number of guidelines for the treatment of thyroid tumors that have established positions in clinical practice in North America and in Western European countries. In Japan, however, where radioisotope facilities are of limited availability, treatment plans for differentiated thyroid cancer differ considerably from those of America and Europe, and the associated clinical guidelines need modification before they can be adopted. In addition, although thyroid tumor is a common disease in endocrine practice, its management can differ even among specialists. Thus, a Japanese clinical guideline for the treatment of thyroid tumor was desired by many clinicians. As a combination of evidence-based and consensus-based guidelines for the treatment of thyroid tumor, this book offers alternatives to conventional approaches in the West. Ultimately, the authors hope the guideline will lead to the best possible treatment for patients all over the world in the not-distant future.
By retrieving entries from the financial-data vendor Wind and collecting relevant data from private placement statements, the author builds a proprietary database and studies five aspects of private placement in China. He examines which listed firms are more likely to choose private placement over SEO in refinancing; he looks into the controlling shareholder's decision on whether or not to purchase privately placed shares; he investigates how the offer discount is determined; he calculates announcement periods for abnormal returns on private placements. Where the abnormal return is significantly positive, he documents positive long-run abnormal return on private offerings and evidence supporting the under-reaction hypothesis. Finally, he concludes that the largest shareholders tunnel by means of excess discounts from which they benefit but which is harmful to other shareholders.
This book provides an evolutionary conceptual framework for comparative genomics, with the ultimate objective of understanding the loss and gain of genes during evolution, the interactions among gene products, and the relationship between genotype, phenotype and the environment. The many examples in the book have been carefully chosen from primary research literature based on two criteria: their biological insight and their pedagogical merit. The phylogeny-based comparative methods, involving both continuous and discrete variables, often represent a stumbling block for many students entering the field of comparative genomics. They are numerically illustrated and explained in great detail. The book is intended for researchers new to the field, i.e., advanced undergraduate students, postgraduates and postdoctoral fellows, although professional researchers who are not in the area of comparative genomics will also find the book informative.
Here, the author has compiled data on about 550 oil-bearing plant species with respect to their content of unsaponifiable matters and oils. This unique information resource offers important information for research and development of food products such as neutraceuticals as well as cosmetics. Unsaponifiable matters have varying effects: Conservation and stability (e.g. lignans, tocopherols, tocotrienols), anti-inflammatory properties (triterpene alcohols), cholesterol-lowering (sterols), well tolerated occlusive effect on the skin (squalene). Information is provided in a clear and systematic fashion, including data on relevant chemical families and pertinent chemical structures. Also included is a thesaurus of English, Latin and French plant species names as well as 655 references to the scientific literature.
In the last few years, the boom in biobanking has prompted a lively debate on a host of interrelated legal issues, such as the Gordian knot of the ownership of biological materials, as well as privacy concerns. The latter are due to the difficulty of accepting that biological samples must be completely anonymous without making it practically impossible to exploit their information potential. The issues also include the delicate role and the changing content of the donor's "informed consent" as the main legal tool that may serve to link the privacy and property interests of donors with the research interests and the set of principles that should be at the core of the biobanking practice. Lastly, the IP issues and the patentability of biological samples as well as the protection of databases storing genetic information obtained from the samples are covered. Collecting eighteen essays written by eminent scholars from Italy, the US, the UK and Canada, this book provides new solutions to these problems. From a comparative viewpoint, it explores the extent to which digital technology may assist in tackling the numerous regulatory issues raised by the practice of biobanking for research purposes. These issues may be considered and analyzed under the traditional paradigms of Property, Privacy, Informed Consent and Intellectual Property.
When Miranda moves with her family to a new house in a small Massachusetts town, she discovers a mysterious antique--a dollhouse. Through the windows, she is shocked to find what seem to be living people in the tiny rooms, and gradually she realizes that scenes from the lives of the big house's past inhabitants are being replayed there. "With numerous deftly sketched characters, including a sympathetic boy next door, an intriguing plot, and such dividends as a secret room used to hide escaping slaves, this should keep readers interested. Well wrought and entertaining."--Kirkus Reviews
Communications and personal information that are posted online are usually accessible to a vast number of people. Yet when personal data exist online, they may be searched, reproduced and mined by advertisers, merchants, service providers or even stalkers. Many users know what may happen to their information, while at the same time they act as though their data are private or intimate. They expect their privacy will not be infringed while they willingly share personal information with the world via social network sites, blogs, and in online communities. The chapters collected by Trepte and Reinecke address questions arising from this disparity that has often been referred to as the privacy paradox. Works by renowned researchers from various disciplines including psychology, communication, sociology, and information science, offer new theoretical models on the functioning of online intimacy and public accessibility, and propose novel ideas on the how and why of online privacy. The contributing authors offer intriguing solutions for some of the most pressing issues and problems in the field of online privacy. They investigate how users abandon privacy to enhance social capital and to generate different kinds of benefits. They argue that trust and authenticity characterize the uses of social network sites. They explore how privacy needs affect users' virtual identities. Ethical issues of privacy online are discussed as well as its gratifications and users' concerns. The contributors of this volume focus on the privacy needs and behaviors of a variety of different groups of social media users such as young adults, older users, and genders. They also examine privacy in the context of particular online services such as social network sites, mobile internet access, online journalism, blogs, and micro-blogs. In sum, this book offers researchers and students working on issues related to internet communication not only a thorough and up-to-date treatment of online privacy and the social web. It also presents a glimpse of the future by exploring emergent issues concerning new technological applications and by suggesting theory-based research agendas that can guide inquiry beyond the current forms of social technologies.
Chromic acid and chromium oxide are the two versatile Cr(VI) oxidants known to organic chemists for decades. The introduction of the Core's reagent , viz: pyridinium chlorochromate, in 1975 followed by the publications on several Cr(VI) oxidizing agents containing the -onium chromates and halochromates in the last three decades have very much changed the chemistry of oxidations with Chromium VI. Several of these new reagents have been shown to be mild so that they can be handled easily and the reacton products may also be controlled. Some of them are highly selective oxidants for positions like allylic hydroxylic group, etc., and some other are highly regioselective. The information on more than 36 such reagents reported in various internationally reputed journals spanning about 280 references have been collected and provided in this book in such a manner that it will be very useful for professionals, researchers, teachers and graduate students working in organic synthesis.
This book explores in what ways both sides involved in the so-called war on terror are using schoolchildren as propaganda tools while putting the children's security at grave risk. The book explores how terrorists use attacks on education to attempt to destabilize the government while the government and the international aid community use increases in school attendance as an ostensible index of largely illusory progress in the overall security situation and in development. The book challenges the notion that unoccupied civilian schools are not entitled under the law of armed conflict to a high standard of protection which prohibits their use for military purposes. Also examined are the potential violations of international law that can occur when government and education aid workers encourage and facilitate school attendance, as they do, in areas within conflict-affected states such as Afghanistan where security for education is inadequate and the risk of terror attacks on education high.
The entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty entails sweeping changes with respect to foreign investment regulation. Most prominently, the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) now contains in its Article 207 an explicit competence for the regulation of foreign direct investment as part of the Common Commercial Policy (CCP) chapter. With this new competence, the EU will become an important actor in the field of international investment politics and law. The new empowerment in the field of international investment law prompts a multitude of questions. This volume analyzes in depth the new "post-Lisbon situation" in the area of investment policy, provokes further discussion and offers new approaches.
This first-of-its-kind volume addresses the myriad of issues relating to--and reviews the plethora of responses to--premature births in the United States, both in national context and compared with other countries. In addition to current clinical data, it examines how preterm births in the U. S. fit in with larger social concerns regarding poverty, racial disparities, reproductive rights, gender expectations, and the business of health care. Comparisons with preterm birth phenomena in Canada, the U. K. , and other Western European countries illustrate cultural narratives about motherhood, women's status, differences across social welfare and abortion policies , and across health care financing and delivery sytems, and how these may affect outcomes for newborns. The book sorts out these intersecting complexities through the following critical lenses: · Clinical: causes, treatments, and outcomes of preterm birth · Population: the distribution of preterm births · Cultural: how we understand preterm birth · Health care: delivering care for high-risk pregnant women and preterm infants · Ethical: moral decision-making about preterm births Preterm Birth in the United States synthesizes a wide knowledge base for maternal and child health professionals across diverse disciplines, including public health, social work, nursing, medicine, and health policy. Social scientists with interests in reproduction and gender issues will gain access to historical, clinical and epidemiological knowledge that can support their work. There is also an audience for the book among childbirth activists such as supporters of midwifery and less medicalized childbirth.
This book brings together a cutting-edge selection of the most current applications of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), giving clinicians as well as researchers a concise guide to current and future directions. Each chapter begins with in illustrative case study to give readers an example of how MBCT would be used in the clinical setting, followed by an overview of the condition, the theoretical rationale for using MBCT, modifications of MBCT for that disorder, evidence for MBCT use. Chapters also discuss practical considerations of MBCT, including patient selection, home practice, group size, format, and facilitator training. Written by some of the world's leading physicians using MBCT, Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy: Innovative Applications is of great value to psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, and therapists.
This handbook concisely summarizes state-of-the-art information about stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT), including the history and development of these modalities, the biologic rationale for these technologies, typical practices, and reported results. Developed as a companion to Handbook of Evidence-Based Radiotherapy, Second Edition, edited by Eric Hansen and Mack Roach, III, it is organized by disease site and presents treatment techniques and recommended imaging; safety and quality assurance; toxicities and management; recommended follow-up; and supporting evidence. Inclusion of evidence-based guidelines is intended to help inform decisions regarding the appropriateness of SRS and SBRT and guide treatment and evaluation. Handbook of Evidence-Based Stereotactic Radiosurgery and Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy can be easily referenced in the clinic and is a valuable guide for oncology practitioners.
This book presents a recasting of Aristotle's theory of spatial displacement of inanimate objects. Aristotle's claim that projectiles are actively carried by the media through which they move (such as air or water) is well known and has drawn the attention of commentators from ancient to modern times. What is lacking, however, is a systematic investigation of the consequences of his suggestion that the medium always acts as the direct instrument of locomotion, be it natural or forced, while original movers (e. g. stone throwers, catapults, bowstrings) act indirectly by impressing moving force into the medium. Filling this gap and guided by discussions in Aristotle's Physics and On the Heavens, the present volume shows that Aristotle's active medium enables his theory - in which force is proportional to speed - to account for a large class of phenomena that Newtonian dynamics - in which force is proportional to acceleration - accounts for through the concept of inertia. By applying Aristotle's medium dynamics to projectile flight and to collisions that involve reversal of motion, the book provides detailed examples of the efficacy and coherence that the active medium gives to Aristotle's discussions. The book is directed primarily to historians of ancient, medieval, and early modern science, to philosophers of science and to students of Aristotle's natural philosophy.
This book investigates the socio-economic determinants of the emergence and persistence of Boko Haram terrorism in Nigeria. Since 2009, Boko Haram continues to capture mainstream news headlines, as well as the imagination of aspiring young Salafi-jihadists around the world who support the notion of a radical Islamist socio-political system. By providing an essential overview of the literature on Boko Haram and bridging research and current events, the authors cover a broad spectrum of topics and suggest relevant policies for addressing the problem of Boko Haram terrorism. While Boko Haram's motivations are ostensibly religious, the primary focus is on socio-economic inequality as one of the main factors that predispose the disillusioned, poverty-driven and jobless populace in the northern regions of Nigeria to take up arms against the state. The insights presented in this book will help researchers and policy-makers alike to understand the emergence of locally focused terrorist groups and insurgencies.
This book explains how income growth and better environmental qualities go hand in hand, and reviews the drivers and barriers to sustainable innovation on the basis of real-life cases. It discusses why innovation-based income growth reduces environmental impacts and how the huge global markets for sustainable innovation are currently hampered by protectionist policies. Subsequently, diverse sustainable innovators are presented in ascending order of the complexity of interactions between innovators and stakeholders. In this context, innovating consumers who create communities of peers in solar powered mobility are examined in the first case. It also focuses on regional tacit inventors, who spur innovation in tourism mobility thanks to the informal policies but whose efforts are obstructed by the formalities of the European Union. Artists with an interest in both innovations and the environment develop art services that deliver experiences of environmental qualities. Though these experiences have gone unrecognised so far, they are nonetheless socially beneficial. The book also shows how technology suppliers develop four different patterns of sanitation, each with its own pros and cons for the specific community's needs and conditions. It discusses how project developers also make innovations in office systems, including socially beneficial ones that do away with the need to commute. It includes an analysis of interactions between consumers pursuing ethical consumption and international trailblazers in corporate responsibility and concludes that it is more rewarding to support social entrepreneurs than to attempt to moralise consumers. Further analysis of interactions between sustainable investors and innovators reveals different groups' opinions about policies and markets, helping to explains their weak influence on policies. Mushrooming local energy initiatives are now evolving into energy service companies, producing shifts on energy markets. Why these innovators emerge and how certain policies are blocking them are explained. The policies of the United States and European Union are compared with regard to the main barriers to and drivers of, the renewable energy business. Though the US invests more money and takes more risks, it is less cost-effective in terms of the number of enterprises and jobs, thanks to the feed-in tariffs in Europe. Lastly, the book also discusses policies that invest in education, skills, knowledge and know-how exchange, but instead abolish perverse? subventions of vested interests to? create conditions for sustainable development.
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