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Describes the six steps included in most reengineering initiatives: selecting the processes for reengineering; identifying change enablers; developing a business vision of process objectives; understanding and measuring existing processes; designing and prototyping the new processes; and implementing the new processes.
Saffronart, a five-year-old online art auction company, leads the market for modern Indian art and now faces competitors in the market it created. Established in 2000 by the wife-and-husband team of Minal and Dinesh Vazirani, Saffronart.com is an innovative online auction firm that specializes in modern and contemporary Indian art. Having been the first firm to offer Indian fine art with authenticity guarantees in an auction setting that increased the transparency of prices, Saffronart succeeded in establishing the genre of modern and contemporary Indian art in the art world, and in creating a market for it. This market, and Saffronart's revenues, grew rapidly from 2000 to 2005. Saffronart's estimate was that the Indian art auction market would be worth $125 million in 2006, with their revenues being $45 million. While this success was gratifying, the firm and its founders faced new internal and external pressures; particularly worrisome was the entry of auction giants Christie's and Sotheby's into the market. The Vaziranis' main challenge now is to consolidate their leading position in the market they created in the face of the unpredictable cyclicality of the secondary art market and increasingly strong competitors.
In the early 1990s Sears faced and allegations by the California Department of Consumer Affairs that the company's auto repair centers had been overbilling customers and making unnecessary repairs. Top management must evaluate the problem and come up with a plan to improve performance. An abridged version of an earlier case.
In 2011, the PNC Financial Services Group announced the addition of $250 million to the $100 million that it had pledged to its early childhood education program, Group Up Great, in 2003. The case serves as an update to the "PNC Financial: Grow Up Great (A)" case, which outlined the design and implementation of the program and presented key challenges. The (B) case will show some of the program's responses to challenges like the strategic integration to Grow Up Great into the bank's business; the introduction of the program to new markets following the bank's geographical expansion; and the measurement of the programs' social impact.
After years of deteriorating financial performance and eroding market position, Safeway, Inc., the largest public grocery store chain in the United States, found itself the target of a hostile takeover offer. Management decided to take the company private in a $4.3 billion leveraged buyout sponsored by Kohlberg Kravis and Roberts. This case begins with the controversy surrounding Safeway's sale of its Dallas division as a result of the LBO and retraces the events leading up to the LBO. Continues with a discussion of the challenges facing management in restructuring the company--including the renegotiation of uncompetitive labor contracts and the intense pressure from the capital markets (through hostile takeover offers) to relinquish control of the company.
Everyone wants their organizations to be more innovative. This desire, however, is hard to turn into action. Organizations tend to follow a similar pattern, improving performance by progressing along a common path. In this chapter, the authors introduce an innovation maturity model consisting of five levels--a path toward achieving innovation excellence--and outline next steps for both organizations just starting out and those that are more mature in their development. This will help you secure quick wins from applying innovation tournaments in your organization. This chapter was originally published as chapter 11 of "Innovation Tournaments: Creating and Selecting Exceptional Opportunities."
Provides an introduction to the fields of project finance and infrastructure finance, and gives a statistical overview of project-financed investments over the years from 2005 to 2009. Examples of project-financed investments include the $1.4 billion Mozal aluminum smelter in Mozambique, $4 billion Chad-Cameroon pipeline, $6 billion Iridium global satellite telecommunications system, 900 million A2 Toll Road in Poland, $20 billion Sakhalin II gas field in Russia, and the $28 billion Dabhol power project. Globally, firms financed $240 billion of capital expenditures using project finance in 2009, down from $409 billion in 2008 as the financial crisis hit the Western markets. The use of project finance has grown at a compound rate of 0% over the last five years, 4% over the past 10 years, and 12% over the past 15 years. This note focuses primarily on private sector investment in industrial and infrastructure projects, and contains four sections. The first section defines project finance and contrasts it with other well-known financing mechanisms. The second section describes the evolution of project finance from its beginnings in the natural resources industry in the 1970s, to the U.S. power industry in the 1980s, to a much wider range of industry applications and geographic locations in the 1990s, and most recently to infrastructure finance in the 2000s. The third section provides a statistical overview of project-financed investment over the last five years (2005 to 2009), and looks at industry, project, and participant specific data. The third section also provides recent data on infrastructure investments and public-private partnerships. The final section discusses current and likely future trends.
The CEO initiated a cultural change process at Prudential Financial to support a major business reorientation. Prudential, historically a privately held ("mutual") insurance company, went public in 2001. The cultural change was intended to prepare the organization to be a publicly traded financial services firm in which speaking up was encouraged at all levels of the organization.
In late 2013 and early 2014, Netflix service over the major U.S. Internet Service Providers (ISPs) suffered major slowdowns. What were the causes of these problems? What could Netflix do to solve them?
How do innovators spot high-potential opportunities when they're still in the embryonic stage? According to the authors, the best approach is to conduct innovation tournaments, pitting opportunities against each other to determine which will create the most value. This chapter provides an overview of innovation tournaments and shows you how companies are currently using them. The authors lay out management levers available to improve your innovation tournaments and position tournaments within the larger context of innovation management and product development. This chapter was originally published as chapter 1 of "Innovation Tournaments: Creating and Selecting Exceptional Opportunities."
Reed Supermarkets is a high-end supermarket chain with operations in several Midwestern states. Meredith Collins, vice president of marketing, visits stores located in Columbus, Ohio, an important region with the largest market and the greatest impact on revenue growth. She is concerned about increased competition from dollar stores and limited-assortment stores offering very low, appealing price points. Reed's market research shows that as a result of the economic downturn, customer loyalty is dwindling and consumers are willing to go to multiple stores to get the best deals. Collins must decide whether to change the current marketing and positioning plan in an effort to increase market share to meet challenging corporate targets. Her options include retreating from price competition and focusing on quality or embracing more private-label brands and competing more aggressively on price. She can also maintain the current positioning and appeal to customers looking for a quality shopping experience. The case contains an implicit quantitative assignment that instructors can emphasize to the degree they choose.
The CEO of Sears must decide how to respond to allegations that the company's auto repair division has been misleading consumers and charging them for unnecessary repairs.
In 2003, PNC Financial focused its corporate citizenship and philanthropic resources on a ten-year, $100 million investment in early childhood education called PNC Grow Up Great. The case tracks the origination of Grow Up Great, how it was developed and implemented within PNC, and some of the key challenges and successes of the program during its first 5 years of operation. Key elements of the case are the process by which PNC decided to focus on Grow Up Great as its signature program, and how the program was designed to provide extensive volunteering opportunities for employees. The case also explores how PNC leadership has engaged in extensive advocacy on the issue of early childhood education. The branding and marketing issues associated with Grow Up Great and how it fits in PNC's organizational structure are also highlighted in the case. =
Strava is a new fast-growing social network for the avid cyclist and runner. The Strava case traces the entrepreneurial journey of two serial entrepreneurs who have been co-founders in a prior venture, and who have co-founded Strava 3 years ago. The protagonists must decide whether or not to accept the Series A investment terms from their venture capitalists.
In 2007, under the leadership of CEO Stuart Rose, the iconic British retailer Marks and Spencer, with great fanfare, announced its "Plan A" initiative. Based on the five essential pillars of climate change, waste, sustainable materials, fair partnership, and health, the plan sought to transform the company's practices. By 2012, the program's aim was to ensure that M&S was carbon neutral and sent no waste to landfill. It also aimed to help its customers and employees achieve a healthier lifestyle, and to improve the lives of all involved in the company's supply chain with fair wages, as well as improved working hours and conditions. Called Plan A "because there is no Plan B," the company identified 180 projects to improve the sustainability of its operations and business practices in anticipation of the need for a very different business model in the future. Key aspects of Plan A included more sustainable sourcing and influencing the business practices of the company's supply chain; communication to employees, customers and investors; and employee engagement. The case concludes with the tradeoffs involved in the decision of whether or not to install refrigerator doors in the grocery section of its stores. While the energy savings and reduced carbon emissions are relatively clear and easy to measure, the impact on customers and revenues is harder to assess.
SADAFCO has long enjoyed a dominant position in the milk and ice cream markets in Saudi Arabia. In the mid-1990s, this dominance was under threat as Nestle, Unilever, and Mars all entered the ice cream market. The case outlines the Saudi Arabian ice cream wars.
A leader's ability to be resilient through trials, challenges, and even personal attacks will depend upon the ability to lead with an open heart. This chapter discusses the key attributes of innocence, curiosity, compassion, and how cultivating them can help stave off cynicism and callousness. This chapter was originally published as Chapter 11 of "Leadership on the Line."
A Seamless Argument: Real World Strategies for Syndicating Recommendations, Understanding Managers' Motives, and Preparing an Organization for Changeby Jay Barney Patricia Gorman Clifford
"What I Didn't Learn in Business School" is a fictional account that follows new consultant Justin Campbell as he joins an elite consulting team hired by a chemical firm to assess the potential of a newly developed technology. Collecting data, analyzing information, and developing a strategy are core components of Justin's job. The most important part, however, is selling his ideas. Unfortunately, and especially for recent business school graduates, that is a very difficult skill to learn. In this chapter, follow Justin and his team as they prepare to sell their carefully tested strategic recommendations to their client. As they craft their presentation, they must anticipate the motivations and potential objections of the firm's managers, develop strategies for gaining buy-in, and lay the groundwork for change. This chapter was originally published as Chapter 13 of "What I Didn't Learn in Business School: How Strategy Works in the Real World."
This case is designed to be used with HBS Note: Industry Self-Regulation: Sustaining the Commons in the 21st Century, HBS No. 315-074.
Provides an introduction to the fields of project finance and infrastructure finance, and gives a statistical overview of project-financed investments over the years from 2002 to 2006. Examples of project-financed investments include the $4 billion Chad-Cameroon pipeline, $6 billion Iridium global satellite telecommunications system, $900 million A2 Toll Road in Poland, $1.4 billion Mozal aluminum smelter in Mozambique, and $20 billion Sakhalin II gas field in Russia. Globally, firms financed $328 billion of capital expenditures using project finance in 2006, up from $217 billion in 2001. The use of project finance has grown at a compound rate of 13% over the past 10 years. Focuses primarily on private sector investment in industrial and infrastructure projects, and contains four sections. The first section defines project finance and contrasts it with other well-known financing mechanisms. The second section describes the evolution of project finance from its beginnings in the natural resources industry in the 1970s, to the U.S. power industry in the 1980s, to a much wider range of industry applications and geographic locations in the 1990s, to infrastructure finance in the 2000s. The third section provides a statistical overview of project-financed investment over the last five years (2002 to 2006), and looks at industry, project, and participant specific data. In addition, provides recent data on infrastructure investments and public-private partnerships. The final section discusses current and likely future trends.
Government and nonprofit organizations can be strategic and build competitive advantage in ways other than pure operational excellence. But it takes vision and leadership to move beyond existing processes to a strategy that highlights which processes and activities are the most important to implement. This chapter provides examples of how the Balanced Scorecard has been applied in government, nonprofit, and health care organizations, with effective delivery of services to customers as the primary focus.
Tottenham Hotspur Football Club is a publicly-owned professional soccer team based in London, England. The club's chairman, Daniel Levy, is contemplating a significant investment in physical assets, including the development of a new stadium as well as the acquisition of a new player. The team must decide if the expected cash flows associated with adding the stadium, the player, or both, warrant the considerable required investments in these assets
How will U.S. consumers respond to the proliferation of alternative-fuel vehicles, such as cars powered partially or completely by electricity, in the coming decade? After a century in which fossil-fuel-powered vehicles dominated the market, it appeared consumers would have an unprecedented level of choice as to the type of car they purchased and drove. Automakers were introducing various models that used electricity for power, and other power sources, such as fuel cells, were also seeing increased attention. Some observers believed the time was ripe for widespread adoption of these new vehicles: consumers and policymakers were increasingly concerned about the fallout of U.S. dependence on fossil-fuel-powered cars-namely, adverse environmental impacts and reliance on foreign sources of oil, plus the fluctuating price of gasoline-and innovative infrastructure technology was being developed to support electric-powered cars. Despite these promising developments, it remained unclear whether consumers were ready to switch to alternative-fuel vehicles on a large scale. Would they be willing to make the lifestyle trade-offs required for grid-dependent vehicles? How should policymakers intervene, if at all, to encourage adoption, and what marketing activities and incentives might firms employ to stimulate demand?
Reebok executives are reviewing the company's advertising and promotion programs for the second half of 1988. These include sponsorship of the 1988 Summer Olympics and a rock concert tour organized by Amnesty International. In addition, Reebok is launching a new advertising campaign with the slogan "Reeboks Let U.B.U."
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Here is an overview of the specialized formats that Bookshare offers its members with links that go to the Help Center for more information.
- Bookshare Web Reader - a customized reading tool for Bookshare members offering all the features of DAISY with a single click of the "Read Now" link.
- DAISY (Digital Accessible Information System) - a digital book file format. DAISY books from Bookshare are DAISY 3.0 text files that work with just about every type of access technology that reads text. Books that contain images will have the download option of ‘DAISY Text with Images’.
- BRF (Braille Refreshable Format) - digital Braille for use with refreshable Braille devices and Braille embossers.
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- DAISY Audio - Similar to the Daisy 3.0 option above; however, this option uses MP3 files created with our text-to-speech engine that utilizes Ivonas Kendra voice. This format will work with Daisy Audio compatible players such as Victor Reader Stream and Read2Go.