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Phosphoinositides (PIs) are minor components of cellular membranes that play critical regulatory roles in several intracellular functions. This book describes the main enzymes regulating the turnover of each of the seven PIs in mammalian cells, some of their intracellular functions and some evidence of their involvement in human diseases. Due to the complex inter-relation between the distinct PIs and the plethora of functions that they can regulate inside a cell, this book is not meant to be a comprehensive coverage of all aspects of PIs signalling but rather an overview on the current state of the field and where it could go from here. Phosphoinositide and inositol phosphates interact with and modulate the recruitment and activation of key regulatory proteins and in doing so control diverse functions including cell growth and proliferation, apoptosis, cytoskeletal dynamics, insulin action, vesicle trafficking and nuclear function. Initially, inositide signaling was limited to the PLC pathway; however, it is now clear that all the seven phosphoinositides and more than 30 different inositol phosphates likely have specific signaling functions. Moreover there is a growing list of proteins that are regulated by inositol signaling. This has raised the question as to how inositol signaling can control diverse processes and yet maintain signaling specificity. Controlling the levels of inositol signaling molecules and their subcellular compartmentalisation is likely to be critical. This meeting will bring together scientists from different backgrounds to discuss how understanding inositol signaling may be used to target complex human diseases that manifest themselves when inositol signaling is deregulated.
In Basophils and Mast Cells: Methods and Protocols, experts in this challenging field explore techniques to research these cells from the most practical point of view. Given the tremendous influence of mast cells and blood-borne basophils over immune system function, this volume intends to aid the reader in the development of better tools for the isolation of these cells from primary tissues, peripheral blood, bone marrow, or cord blood. Also covered are protocols for the in vitro and in vivo study of their functions. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology format, chapters in this book contain introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls straight from the researchers who use the methods most. Authoritative and easy to use, Basophils and Mast Cells: Methods and Protocols will provide the necessary tools for future research into mast cells and basophils with the goal of aiding in the quest to shed more light on these fascinating cell types.
Unter den medizinischen Disziplinen hat die Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie die größte Zukunft: In den letzten Jahrzehnten hat das Fach in Forschung und Versorgung Quantensprünge durchlaufen. Diese Entwicklung setzt sich fort. Herausforderungen sind die weitere Erforschung und der zunehmende Behandlungsbedarf im Bereich psychischer Erkrankungen. In dem Buch "Psychiatrie 2020" skizziert die Deutsche Gesellschaft für Psychiatrie, Psychotherapie und Nervenheilkunde (DGPPN) neben einer Übersicht über die Entwicklung des Faches eine Vision für das Jahr 2020. Psychiatrie 2020 plus, ist nun die erweiterte und aktualisierte Auflage der Bestandsaufnahme und Vision für das Jahr 2020.
The scope of the book is to give an overview of the history of astroparticle physics, starting with the discovery of cosmic rays (Victor Hess, 1912) and its background (X-ray, radioactivity). The book focusses on the ways in which physics changes in the course of this history. The following changes run parallel, overlap, and/or interact: - Discovery of effects like X-rays, radioactivity, cosmic rays, new particles but also progress through non-discoveries (monopoles) etc. - The change of the description of nature in physics, as consequence of new theoretical questions at the beginning of the 20th century, giving rise to quantum physics, relativity, etc. - The change of experimental methods, cooperations, disciplinary divisions. With regard to the latter change, a main topic of the book is to make the specific multi-diciplinary features of astroparticle physics clear.
This book focuses on the development and cross-cultural testing of a construct of reputation rooted in resource-based theories. No study has ever asked organizational customers to rate the importance of a supplier's positive reputation on their buying decision. The results of the survey contribute substantially to our understanding of reputation measuring and managing. This book is the first to highlight the cross-link between reputation, reputation transfer and culture, and argues that to develop one cross-culturally valid construct of reputation, which can be used in both B-to-B and B-to-C contexts is neither useful nor appropriate.
To the dry bones of grammar Bhatti gave juicy flesh in his poem, telling the greatest Indian story in elegant Sanskrit. Composed in the fourth century CE, in South India, "Bhatti's Poem: The Death of Rávana" is both a poetic retelling of Rama's adventures, and a compendium of grammatical and rhetorical examples for students. Bhatti's study aid to Pánini's groundbreaking grammatical treatise, the "Eight Books," gives examples disguised as the gripping, morally improving "Ramáyana" story. In Bhatti's own words: "This composition is a lamp to those whose eyes have language as their goal." Tradition has it that an elephant ambled between Bhatti and his pupils, interrupting their outdoors grammar class. By Hindu law this intrusion canceled class for a year. Lest time be lost, Bhatti composed his poem to teach grammar without textbooks. Ever since, "The Death of Rávana" has been one of the most popular poems in Sanskrit literature.
One of the open challenges in fundamental physics is to combine Einstein's theory of general relativity with the principles of quantum mechancis. In this thesis, the question is raised whether metric quantum gravity could be fundamental in the spirit of Steven Weinberg's seminal asymptotic safety conjecture, and if so, what are the consequences for the physics of small, possibly Planck-size black holes? To address the first question, new techniques are provided which allow, for the first time, a self-consistent study of high-order polynomial actions including up to 34 powers in the Ricci scalar. These novel insights are then exploited to explain quantum gravity effects in black holes, including their horizon and causal structure, conformal scaling, evaporation, and the thermodynamics of quantum space-time. Results indicate upper limits on black hole temperature, and the existence of small black holes based on asymptotic safety for gravity and thermodynamical arguments.
From the Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist and bestselling author of Backlash, comes In the Darkroom, an astonishing confrontation with the enigma of her father and the larger riddle of identity consuming our age. "In the summer of 2004 I set out to investigate someone I scarcely knew, my father. The project began with a grievance, the grievance of a daughter whose parent had absconded from her life. I was in pursuit of a scofflaw, an artful dodger who had skipped out on so many things--obligation, affection, culpability, contrition. I was preparing an indictment, amassing discovery for a trial. But somewhere along the line, the prosecutor became a witness. " So begins Susan Faludi's extraordinary inquiry into the meaning of identity in the modern world and in her own haunted family saga. When the feminist writer learned that her 76-year-old father--long estranged and living in Hungary--had undergone sex reassignment surgery, that investigation would turn personal and urgent. How was this new parent who identified as "a complete woman now" connected to the silent, explosive, and ultimately violent father she had known, the photographer who'd built his career on the alteration of images? Faludi chases that mystery into the recesses of her suburban childhood and her father's many previous incarnations: American dad, Alpine mountaineer, swashbuckling adventurer in the Amazon outback, Jewish fugitive in Holocaust Budapest. When the author travels to Hungary to reunite with her father, she drops into a labyrinth of dark histories and dangerous politics in a country hell-bent on repressing its past and constructing a fanciful--and virulent--nationhood. The search for identity that has transfixed our century was proving as treacherous for nations as for individuals. Faludi's struggle to come to grips with her father's metamorphosis takes her across borders--historical, political, religious, sexual--to bring her face to face with the question of the age: Is identity something you "choose," or is it the very thing you can't escape?
This book discusses Hong Kong's use of onscreen marking (OSM) in public examinations. Given that Hong Kong leads the way in OSM innovation, this book has arisen from a recognised need to provide a comprehensive, coherent account of the findings of various separate but linked validation studies of onscreen public examinations in Hong Kong. The authors discuss their experience of the validation process, demonstrating how high-stakes innovation should be fully validated by a series of research studies in order to satisfy key stakeholders.
This book provides practical guidance for adopting a high velocity, continuous delivery process to create reliable, scalable, Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) solutions that are designed and built using a microservice architecture, deployed to the Azure cloud, and managed through automation. Microservices, IoT, and Azure offers software developers, architects, and operations engineers' step-by-step directions for building SaaS applications--applications that are available 24x7, work on any device, scale elastically, and are resilient to change--through code, script, exercises, and a working reference implementation. The book provides a working definition of microservices and contrasts this approach with traditional monolithic Layered Architecture. A fictitious, homebiomedical startup is used to demonstrate microservice architecture and automation capabilities for cross-cutting and business services as well as connected device scenarios for Internet of Things (IoT). Several Azure PaaS services are detailed including Storage, SQL Database, DocumentDb, Redis Cache, Cloud Services, Web API's, API Management, IoT Hub, IoT Suite, Event Hub, and Stream Analytics. Finally the book looks to the future and examines Service Fabric to see how microservices are becoming the de facto approach to building reliable software in the cloud. What you'll learn What microservices are and why are they're a compelling architecture pattern for SaaS applications How to design, develop, and deploy microservices using Visual Studio, PowerShell, and Azure Microservice patterns for cross-cutting concerns and business capabilities Microservice patterns for Internet of Things and big data analytics solutions using IoT Hub, Event Hub, and Stream Analytics Techniques for automating microservice provisioning, building, and deployment What Service Fabric is and how it's the future direction for microservices on Microsoft Azure Who this book is for Software Application Architects, . NET Developers, Database Admins and DevOps engineers. The code samples will primarily be in C# but will also include Node. JS samples. Table of Contents 1 From Monolithic to Microservice 2 What is a Microservice? 3 Microservice Architecture 4 Azure - A Microservice Platform 5 Automation 6 Microservice Reference Implementation 7 IoT and Microservices 8 Service Fabric
At the Mogao Grottoes, a World Heritage site near Dunhuang city in Gansu Province, visitor numbers have increased inexorably since 1979 when the site opened. A national policy that identifies tourism as a pillar industry, along with pressure from local authorities and businesses to encourage more tourism, threatens to lead to an unsustainable situation for management, an unsafe and uncomfortable experience for visitors and irreparable damage to the fragile art of the cave temples for which the site is famous. In the context of the comprehensive visitor management plan developed for the Mogao Grottoes, a multi-year study began in 2001 as a joint undertaking of the Dunhuang Academy and the Getty Conservation Institute to determine the impact of visitation on the painted caves and develop strategies for sustainable visitation such that, once implemented, these threats would be resolved. The methodological framework featured a major research and assessment component that integrates visitor studies; laboratory investigations; environmental monitoring; field testing and condition assessment to address the issues affecting the grottoes and visitors. Results from this component led to defining limiting conditions, which were the basis for establishing a visitor capacity policy for the grottoes and developing long-term monitoring and management tools.
This book covers fundamental principles and numerical methods relevant to the modeling of the injection molding process. As injection molding processing is related to rheology, mechanical and chemical engineering, polymer science and computational methods, and is a rapidly growing field, the book provides a multidisciplinary and comprehensive introduction to the subjects required for an understanding of the complex process. It addresses the up-to-date status of fundamental understanding and simulation technologies, without losing sight of still useful classical approaches. The main chapters of the book are devoted to the currently active fields of flow-induced crystallization and orientation evolution of fiber suspensions, respectively, followed by detailed discussion of their effects on mechanical property, shrinkage and warpage of injection-molded products. The level of the proposed book will be suitable for interested scientists, R&D engineers, application engineers, and graduate students in engineering.
This textbook provides a comprehensive monography on multiple system atrophy (MSA), a rare and fatal neurodegenerative disorder that presents with autonomic failure and either parkinsonism (MSA-P) or cerebellar ataxia (MSA-C). The underlying neuropathology of MSA is characterized by striatonigral degeneration (SND), olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA) and unique oligodendroglial cytoplasmic alpha-synuclein inclusions. MSA is therefore classified among the alpha-synucleinopathies such as Parkinson`s disease, pure autonomic failure and dementia with Lewy bodies. Over the last decade there have been important advances in early diagnosis, pathogenesis research and clinical trial activity. The monography will cover the entire spectrum ranging from molecular and genetic work to symptomatic and interventional therapies. The book is written for movement disorder clinicians and basic neuroscientists interested in degenerative movement disorders.
The modern unhealthy diet and lifestyle in conjunction with pathogens, environmental carcinogens and multiple other risk factors increase humans' susceptibility to different diseases exemplified by elevated levels of cancers, cardiovascular and communicable diseases. Screening of potential drugs from medicinal plants and animals provides a promising strategy for the alleviation of the impact of these diseases. Components with potential medicinal applications include RIPs, RNases, lectins, protease inhibitors and numerous small compounds. These compounds have shown both preventive and therapeutic effects for humans. This book is a compilation of articles written by internationally renowned experts exploring the different uses of medicinal compounds in human therapeutics. Here we provide a comprehensive outlook on both qualitative and quantitative studies focusing on medicinal plants and animals, and establishing a link between laboratory research discovery and clinical applications.
This book argues that democracy is the inevitable product of China's industrialization and modernization, and is necessary for the development of China's current society. It provides a political guarantee for China's industrialization and modernization. There are both similarities and differences between China's version of democracy and those versions of other countries. In this book, the author discusses the country's important experiences in constructing democracy with Chinese characteristics, which it has gathered during the long struggle for national independence, prosperity and social development. The democracy system embodies basic values and universal principles of democracy with uniquely Chinese characteristics.
This book shows how to use supercritical water (SCW) to synthesize nano- and micro- oxides, inorganic salts and metal particles and its recent advancement. Also polymer/biomass particles can be produced by using the method of precipitation of solutes from SCW. The particles can be used as catalysts for biomass conversions, materials in ceramics & electronic devices and composite materials. Particles are easily produced continuously in a flow reactor in short and long reaction times. Besides the synthesis process, the book also present studies of the properties of these materials. The size, size distribution, crystal growth & structure, and morphology of particles produced by supercritical water can be controlled by the feed concentrations, pH, pressures, temperatures, heating & cooling rates, organic modifications, reducing or oxidizing atmospheres, flow rates and reaction times.
"Wonderful characters, unbelievable adventure . . . I loved this book." -- Eoin Colfer, author of the Artemis Fowl series Ghost, Cormac, and Kate are not like other kids. Ghost can turn invisible, Cormac can run up walls, and Kate can talk to animals--all abilities that make them perfect for the Black Lotus, a training school for ninjas who are sworn to protect the world from the evil samurai-run Empire. But when the Moon Sword--a source of unimaginable power--is stolen, the three are forced to put their new skills to the test and go back in time to sixteenth-century Japan and retrieve it.
This volume provides a comprehensive, state-of-the art review in the field of experimental and human nephrogenesis. The book reviews new data on the effects on kidney development by neonatal asphyxia, obstructive uropathies, nephrotoxic drugs, malnutrition, underfeeding, overfeeding and provides all possible preventive measures to ensure the well-being of the kidney at birth. The book also discusses the possible implications between renal development and the insurgence of kidney disease in adult life and the correlation with renal carcinogenesis. Written by well recognized experts in their fields, Kidney Development in Renal Pathology is a valuable tool for pathologists, neonatologists, nephrologists, gynecologists and researchers with an interest in kidney diseases.
The state-of-the-art in the theoretical statistical physics treatment of the Janus fluid is reported with a bridge between new research results published in journal articles and a contextual literature review. Recent Monte Carlo simulations on the Kern and Frenkel model of the Janus fluid have revealed that in the vapor phase, below the critical point, there is the formation of preferred inert clusters made up of a well-defined number of particles: the micelles and the vesicles. This is responsible for a re-entrant gas branch of the gas-liquid binodal. Detailed account of this findings are given in the first chapter where the Janus fluid is introduced as a product of new sophisticated synthesis laboratory techniques. In the second chapter a cluster theory is developed to approximate the exact clustering properties stemming from the simulations. It is shown that the theory is able to reproduce semi-quantitatively the micellization phenomenon.
Whether classified as regulators of inflammation, metabolism, or other functions, a distinctive set of molecules enables the body to convey information from one cell to another. Giamila Fantuzzi offers a primer on molecular mediators that coordinate complex bodily processes, and explores the consequences of their discovery for modern medicine.
Optimization techniques offer immense potential for the improvement of performance-driven design, since they allow the adoption of an holistic approach. This can lead to great advantages: optimal design solutions can be properly identified only if all criteria are considered at the same time, rather than separately. There are two barriers which obstruct optimization from being applied to building design: a technological barrier (applying the algorithms is not easy and can be quite time-consuming) and a cultural one (architects and engineers are required to change their perspectives as the design process has to be handled in a new way). This book explores these barriers from the perspective of both engineers and architects, and proposes a change in the attitudes of these two "actors": an engineer and an architect develop a dialog which helps them understand each other's perspective; in this way they find how they must both make a step forward.
This book deals with location problems. Location problems establish a set of facilities (resources) to minimize the cost of satisfying a set of demands (customers) with respect to a set of constraints. There are four components that describe location problems: customers, who are assumed to be already located at points or on routes, facilities that will be located, a space in which customers and facilities are located, and a metric that indicates geographical and chronological distances between customers and facilities. This book describes these parts in each specific location model. Location models are used in a variety of applications such as locating warehouses within a supply chain to minimize the average time to market, locating noxious material to maximize its distance to the public, etc. In this book, readers can find these applications exemplified by real-world cases for each particular model. The relationship between location problems and other areas such as supply chains is also considered here.
This brief presents numerical methods for describing and calculating invariant phase space structures, as well as solving the classical and quantum equations of motion for polyatomic molecules. Examples covered include simple model systems to realistic cases of molecules spectroscopically studied. Vibrationally excited and reacting molecules are nonlinear dynamical systems, and thus, nonlinear mechanics is the proper theory to elucidate molecular dynamics by investigating invariant structures in phase space. Intramolecular energy transfer, and the breaking and forming of a chemical bond have now found a rigorous explanation by studying phase space structures.
This book overviews the extensive literature on apparent cosmological and black hole horizons. In theoretical gravity, dynamical situations such as gravitational collapse, black hole evaporation, and black holes interacting with non-trivial environments, as well as the attempts to model gravitational waves occurring in highly dynamical astrophysical processes, require that the concept of event horizon be generalized. Inequivalent notions of horizon abound in the technical literature and are discussed in this manuscript. The book begins with a quick review of basic material in the first one and a half chapters, establishing a unified notation. Chapter 2 reminds the reader of the basic tools used in the analysis of horizons and reviews the various definitions of horizons appearing in the literature. Cosmological horizons are the playground in which one should take baby steps in understanding horizon physics. Chapter 3 analyzes cosmological horizons, their proposed thermodynamics, and several coordinate systems. The remaining chapters discuss analytical solutions of the field equations of General Relativity, scalar-tensor, and f(R) gravity which exhibit time-varying apparent horizons and horizons which appear and/or disappear in pairs. An extensive bibliography enriches the volume. The intended audience is master and PhD level students and researchers in theoretical physics with knowledge of standard gravity.
Due to the complicated nature of using art and art materials in clinical practice, art therapists are often confronted with ethical considerations that are unique to their field. This book explores challenging topics in the ethical practice of art therapy. Professional guidelines do not always address the gray areas of important ethical issues in art therapy practice. Art therapists must therefore have a strong sense of personal standards by which to navigate morally ambiguous situations. Using case examples and current ethical theory, the book provides much-needed guidance for how to handle dilemmas such as receiving client art as gifts, displaying client art, religious and sexual issues, and the documentation and digital dissemination of confidential material and artwork. This book will be a valuable resource for art therapy students, graduate supervisors, new practitioners, and more experienced clinicians looking to increase their awareness of complex ethical issues.
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