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Food or calorie restriction has been shown in many short-lived animals and the rhesus monkey to prolong life-span. Life-long nutrition studies are not possible in humans because of their long survival. Studies over two to six years in healthy adult humans have, however, shown that a 20% reduction in food or calorie intake slows many indices of normal and disease-related aging. Thus, it is widely believed that long-term reduction in calorie or food intake will delay the onset of age-related diseases such as heart disease, diabetes and cancer, and so prolong life. Over the last 20 or more years there has been a progressive rise in food intake in many countries of the world, accompanied by a rising incidence of obesity. Thus our increasing food and calorie intake has been linked to the rising incidence of cardiovascular disease and diabetes in early adult life. It is accepted that overeating, accompanied by reduced physical exercise, will lead to more age-related diseases and shortening of life-span. The answer is to reduce our calorie intake, improve our diet, and exercise more. But calorie restriction is extremely difficult to maintain for long periods. How then can we solve this problem? Edited by a team of highly distinguished academics, this book provides the latest information on the beneficial effects of calorie restriction on health and life-span. This book brings us closer to an understanding at the molecular, cellular and whole organism level of the way forward.
Knoevenagel Reaction of Unprotected Sugars, By M.-C. Scherrmann ; Carbohydrate-Based Lactones: Synthesis and Applications, By N. M. Xavier, A. P. Rauter, and Y. Queneau; Heterogeneously-Catalyzed Conversion of Carbohydrates, By K. De Oliveira Vigier and F. Jérôme; Palladium-Catalyzed Telomerization of Butadiene with Polyols: From Mono to Polysaccharides, By S. Bouquillon, J. Muzart, C. Pinel, and F. Rataboul; Monosaccharides, By J.A. Galbis and M.G. García-Martín; Natural Sources, By L. Weignerová and V. Křen; Synthesis and Applications of Ionic Liquids Derived from Natural Sugars; By C. Chiappe, A. Marra, and A. Mele
Carbon Sequestration in Forest Ecosystems is a comprehensive book describing the basic processes of carbon dynamics in forest ecosystems, their contribution to carbon sequestration and implications for mitigating abrupt climate change. This book provides the information on processes, factors and causes influencing carbon sequestration in forest ecosystems. Drawing upon most up-to-date references, this book summarizes the current understanding of carbon sequestration processes in forest ecosystems while identifying knowledge gaps for future research, Thus, this book is a valuable knowledge source for students, scientists, forest managers and policy makers.
With respect to the possible outlining of new models of the process of knowledge construction, we are really faced, at the moment, with the appearance of a new frontier: a frontier that appears strictly linked to the emergence of a conceptual revolution at the level of the analysis of that peculiar entanglement of complexity, information, causality, meaning, emergence, teleology and intentionality that characterizes the unfolding of the "natural forms" of human cognition. To recognize some of the peculiar knots of this particular conceptual revolution precisely constitutes the first target of the volume. Cognitive activity is rooted in Reality, but at the same time represents the necessary means whereby Reality can embody itself in an objective way: i.e., in accordance with an in-depth nesting process and a surface unfolding of operational meaning. In this sense, the objectivity of Reality is also proportionate to the autonomy reached by cognitive processes. Within this conceptual framework, reference procedures thus appear as related to the modalities providing the successful constitution of the channel, of the actual link, in particular, established at the neural level between operations of vision and thought. Such procedures ensure not a simple "regimentation" or an adequate replica, but, on the contrary, the real constitution of a cognitive autonomy in accordance with the truth. A method thus emerges which is simultaneously project, telos and regulating activity: a code that becomes process, positing itself as the foundation of a constantly renewed synthesis between function and meaning. In this sense, at the level of cultural evolution, reference procedures act as guide, mirror and canalisation with respect to primary information flows and involved selective forces. They also constitute a precise support for the operations which "imprison" meaning and "inscribe" the "file" considered as an autonomous categorial (and generating) system. In this way, they offer themselves as the actual instruments for the constant renewal of the code, for the invention and the actual articulation of an ever-new incompressibility.
The CCN family of genes currently comprises six secreted proteins (designated CCN16 i.e., Cyr61/CCN1; ctgf/CCN2; Nov/CCN3; WISP1/CCN4; WISP2/CCN5, and WISP3/CCN6) showing a strikingly conserved primary structure, with four modules sharing partial identity with IGF binding proteins, Von Willebrand protein, thrombospondin and several matricellular proteins and growth factors. The current view is that CCN proteins modulate signaling pathways that involve regulatory components of the extracellular matrix. As such, they likely act as a central hub in the regulation of mitosis, adhesion, apoptosis, extracellular matrix production, growth arrest and migration of multiple cell types. The 5th international workshop on the CCN family of genes, that was held in Toronto in 2008 brought together scientists from around the world who have an interest in the biological roles of this emerging family of proteins. On an educational point of view, the workshop was a unique place for an efficient diffusion of scientific information. The present book comprises a series of selected manuscripts that are based on the original communications that were presented at the meeting by worldwide leaders in the field of CCN biology. All major aspects of CCN proteins biology in both normal and pathological conditions are covered in this volume, from structure-functions analysis up to the involvement of CCN proteins in complex physiological functions. In addition to reports that support the Yin-Yang concept of CCN proteins driving opposite effects on the same biological process, this book also comprises several contributions that point to CCN proteins as amenable targets for therapeutic manipulation of disease processes. Together with the special issue of Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling in which authors have extended on the original data presented at the meeting, the present Proceedings provide an instant picture and unique update of the state of the art in the CCN field.
The means by which non-enveloped viruses penetrate cellular membranes during cell entry remain poorly defined. Recent findings indicate several members of this group share a common mechanism of membrane penetration in which the virus particle undergoes programmed conformational changes, leading to capsid disassembly and release of small membrane-interacting peptides. A complete understanding of host cell entry by this minimal system will help elucidate the mechanisms of non-enveloped virus membrane penetration in general
This book addresses the unique features of four microorganisms that constitute the top bioterror threat agents: Bacillus anthracis; Yersinia pestis, Francisella tularensis and Orthopoxviruses. Side-by-side updated information about their pathogenisis, virulence and epidemiology is provided in a single volume, allowing for evaluation of common features as well as common strategies for defense. Classical microbiological as well as genomic, proteomic & transcriptomic approaches towards development of strategies of novel prophylactic and post-exposure treatment and related aspects of diagnostics and bioforensics are covered. Written by top scientists, this book will be of major interest to all researchers interested in the intricate biology of highly pathogenic microorganisms, to scientists and clinicians interested in microbial pathogenesis and prevention, and to a wide range of professionals dealing with the various aspects of bio-defense.
The composition of the most remote objects brought into view by the Hubble telescope can no longer be reconciled with the nucleogenesis of standard cosmology and the alternative explanation, in terms of the Λ-Cold-Dark-Matter model, has no recognizable chemical basis. A more rational scheme, based on the chemistry and periodicity of atomic matter, opens up an exciting new interpretation of the cosmos in terms of projective geometry and general relativity. The response of atomic structure to environmental pressure predicts non-Doppler cosmical redshifts and equilibrium nucleogenesis by α-particle addition, in accord with observed periodic variation of nuclear abundance. Inferred cosmic self similarity elucidates the Bode -Titius law, general commensurability in the solar system and the occurrence of quantum phenomena on a cosmic scale. The generalized periodic function involves both matter and anti-matter in an involuted mapping to a closed projective plane. This topology ensures the same symmetrical balance in a chiral universe, wrapped around an achiral vacuum interface, without singularities. A new cosmology emerges, based on the theory of projective relativity, presented here as a translation of Veblen's original German text. Not only does it provide a unification of gravity, electromagnetism and quantum theory, through gauge invariance, but also supports the solution of the gravitational field equations, obtained by Gödel for a rotating universe. The appearance of an Einstein-Rosen bridge as outlet from a black hole, into conjugate anti-space, accounts for globular clusters, quasars, cosmic radiation, γ-ray bursters, pulsars, radio sources and other regions of plasma activity. The effects of a multiply-connected space-time manifold on observations in an Euclidean tangent space are unpredictable and a complete re-assessment of the size and structure of the universe is indicated. The target readership includes scientists, as well as non-scientists - everybody with a scientific or philosophical interest in cosmology and, especially those cosmologists and mathematicians with the ability to recast the crude ideas presented here into appropriate mathematical models.
Earlier works on plant essential elements have revealed a series of complicated, counter-intuitive relationships among various chemical elements in different plant species, due to both unlike usage of certain elements in plants and to different carriers effecting resorption and transport. In an attempt to provide a more coherent theory behind plant mineral nutrition, this groundbreaking book adopts a very different approach from the existing literature, presenting an explanation of the essentiality of chemical elements in biological systems and the application of stoichiometric network analysis (SNA) to the biological system of elements. Starting with data from biochemical environmental analysis, and a discussion of the phenomena involved in metal ion partition and autocatalytic behaviour, conditions and criteria controlling the partition of metals into biomass are investigated. Several rules are derived and investigated in terms of their interaction both in comparisons among contemporary organisms and in terms of evolution. This allows the construction, for example of a map which directly traces the biological feature of essentiality to parameters of coordination chemistry. The book will have worldwide appeal for researchers interested in fields such as soil/plant interactions, bioinorganic chemistry, plant nutrition, phytomining, bioremediation, biogeochemistry, nutrient cycling, soil chemistry, and cellular physiology.
The aim of the issue is to describe and explain the importance of the chemokine system in hematology. The chemokine system is probably important for many aspects of normal as well as malignant hematopoiesis. A major focus is the development and treatment of hematologic malignancies, including the immunobiology of stem cell transplantation. The present reviews illustrate that chemokines can be involved in leukemogenesis. The chemokine system is also important both for the crosstalk between malignant cells and their neighbouring nonmalignant stromal cells (including endothelial cells) as well as for immunoregulation in patients treated with allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Thus, chemokines are important both for the pathogenesis and treatment of hematological diseases.
The chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is an extraembryonic membrane which serves as a gas exchange surface and its function is supported by a dense capillary network. Because of its extensive vascularization and easy accessibility, the CAM has been broadly used to study the morpho-functional aspects of the angiogenesis process in vivo and to investigate the efficacy and mechanisms of action of pro-angiogenic and anti-angiogenic natural and synthetic molecules. The CAM is a suitable site for transplanting tissues, which can survive and develop in the CAM by peripheral anastomoses between graft and original CAM vasculature or by new angiogenic vessels grown from the CAM that invade the graft. While the formation of peripheral anastomoses between host and pre-existing donor vessels is the main, and the most common, mechanism involved in the revascularization of embryonic grafts, the growth of CAM-derived vessels into the graft is only stimulated in tumor grafts. The CAM has long been a favored system for the study of tumor angiogenesis and metastasis, because at this stage the chick immunocompetence system is not fully developed and the conditions for rejection have not been established. Tumors remain avascular for 72 h, after which they are penetrated by new blood vessels and begin a phase of rapid growth. Also, delivery of tumor cells onto the CAM allows the fine study of the effects of tumor derived angiogenic growth factors on blood vessel structure and functionality. The CAM may also used to verify the ability to inhibit the growth of capillaries by implanting tumors onto the CAM and by comparing tumor growth and vascularization with or without the administration of an anti-angiogenic molecule. Other studies using the tumor cells/CAM model have focused on the invasion of the chorionic epithelium and the blood vessels by tumor cells. The cells invade the epithelium and the mesenchymal connective tissue below, where they are found in the form of a dense bed of blood vessels, which is a target for intravasation.
Recent decades have seen a growing emphasis, in a number of professional contexts, on acknowledging and acting on the views of children. This trend was given added weight by the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, ratified in 1990. Today, seeking the perspective of the child has become an essential process in all sorts of tasks, from framing new legislation to regulating professions. This book answers the fundamental question of what it is that constitutes a 'child perspective', and how this might differ from the perspectives of children themselves. The answers to such questions have important implications for building progressive and developmental adult-child relationships. However, theoretical and empirical treatments of child perspectives and children's perspectives are very diverse and idiosyncratic, and the standard reference work has yet to be written. Thus, this work is an attempt to fill the gap in the literature by searching for and defining key formulations of potential child perspectives within parts of the so-called 'new child paradigm'. This has been derived from childhood sociology, contextual-relational developmental psychology, interpretative humanistic psychology and developmental pedagogy. The highly experienced authors develop a comprehensive professional child perspective paradigm that integrates recent theory and empirical child research. With its clear presentation of underlying theories and suggested applications, this book illustrates a child-oriented understanding of specific relevance to both child-care and preschool educational practice.
"Only once in a great while does a book come along that really does the job in addressing a major medical issue. When this happens, all can be joyful... Readers will find ALL their favorite dietary puzzlements dealt with... With consummate scholarship, clarity and brevity, Truswell sifts out the chaff and identifies the critical questions, the responsible investigators, and the key studies." So says Emeritus Professor Henry Blackburn from the University of Minnesota in the foreword to this remarkable concise book on the history of research on diet and heart disease. This was a theme of scientific, medical and public interest in the 20th Century, a century marked by the rise and fall of coronary heart disease as the major cause of death in the first world, followed by the rise of this cause of death in the developing world. There is obviously much to learn, and this book is an excellent starting point, tracing dietary factors and their role in heart disease one by one: fats, sugar, salt, alcohol, coffee, trans-fats, etc. Without an understanding of the role of diet and the changes that have been seen in the North American and NW European diet, the story of the decline in the heart disease death rate may have been very different.
Roughly a billion people around the world continue to live in state of chronic hunger and food insecurity. Unfortunately, efforts to improve their livelihoods must now unfold in the context of a rapidly changing climate, in which warming temperatures and changing rainfall regimes could threaten the basic productivity of the agricultural systems on which most of the world's poor directly depend. But whether climate change represents a minor impediment or an existential threat to development is an area of substantial controversy, with different conclusions wrought from different methodologies and based on different data. This book aims to resolve some of the controversy by exploring and comparing the different methodologies and data that scientists use to understand climate's effects on food security. In explains the nature of the climate threat, the ways in which crops and farmers might respond, and the potential role for public and private investment to help agriculture adapt to a warmer world. This broader understanding should prove useful to both scientists charged with quantifying climate threats, and policy-makers responsible for crucial decisions about how to respond. The book is especially suitable as a companion to an interdisciplinary undergraduate or graduate level class.
This book covers all aspect of legume production management technologies, plant ecological response, nutrients management, biological nitrogen fixation, molecular approaches, potential cultivars, biodiversity management under climate change. Also covered are various aspects of legume management under climate change such as, production management technology, ecology & adaptation, diseases, and international trade; physiology and crops response to nutrients, drought, salinity, and water use efficiency; Biodiversity management, molecular approaches and biological Nitrogen fixation; climate change and strategies. This book presents the most comprehensive and up to date review of research on different cool season grain legume crops, nutrients management, biotic and abiotic stresses management, agronomical approaches for drought management, salinity, drought, weed management and water use efficiency, impact on international trade around the world.
Deserts are unique ecosystems with their own biotic and abiotic components, and are often rich in renewable natural resources, the appropriate management of which can contribute significantly to the sustainable management of desert regions for the welfare of the people. Yet while there are many books on the flora of the countries fringing the important desert countries of the Mediterranean and Red Seas, there or few books reporting on their ecophysiology and vegetation ecology. This book presents the vegetation types of the African and Asian countries of the Mediterranean and Red Sea coastal regions, and discusses the ecological threats and economic applications of these critical resources. In particular, it examines the relationships between climate and vegetation, and discusses these within the context of desertification, agro-industrial applications, ecotourism and sustainable development. The book will provide a valuable reference for researchers and graduate students involved in plant ecology, biogeography, economic botany and environmental management in the Afro-Asian Mediterranean and Red Sea coastal regions, as well as other desert regions around the world.
Addressing the links between science and the real world with a sound scientific baseline, Coastal Water Bodies targets researchers of various disciplines whose interest lies in the integrated sustainable management of coastal water bodies. The main topic of this book is not the ecology according to its accepted meaning, but rather the 'places and people' concerned - the coastal zones of the Mediterranean that are rich in ecological value and the local people who survive thanks to these environmental resources. Integration is the joint consideration of different aspects of water uses and values, and new ways of understanding and managing conflicts around water use are needed if people are to benefit from integration. Sustainability of the ecological and socioeconomic environments requires a climate in which conflicts, if they need to exist, are properly managed in a non-destructive manner.
The currently available means of combating fungal infections are weak and clumsy. The application of fungal genomics offers an unparalleled opportunity to develop novel antifungal drugs. Interestingly, several novel antifungal drug targets have already been identified and validated. However, it is premature to expect a novel antifungal agent in clinical setting as drug discovery programs are still in their infancy. In addition to classical and genomic approaches to drug discovery, treasure trove based on natural products and phytomedicine can provide a multitude of alternative modes of combating fungal infection. This book incisively addresses essential topics on various aspects pertaining to fungal diseases in human and animals, their reservoir, fungal pathogenesis, their management and recent advances in their treatment. Issues of antifungal drug toxicity, especially nephrotoxicity, are also discussed. The development of resistance in fungal pathogens, including multidrug resistance and its mechanism, is dealt with in two chapters. Diverse diagnostic approaches to fungal infections are also reviewed. The combinational drug strategies used in combating invasive fungal infections are addressed in detail. The management of pulmonary mycoses in stem cell transplantation is also given special focus. Novel antifungal drugs (synthetic and herbal), fungal vaccines, and metabolic pathways as drug targets are discussed in detail in three different chapters. Subsequently the roles of innate immunity, cytokine therapy and immunomodulators in the treatment of fungal infections are elaborated upon. As novel drug delivery systems have a great potential for modifying the pharmacokinetics of medications, the last chapter takes this fact into consideration in its examination of state-of-the-art delivery systems in controlling fungal infections.
The Asian-Pacific countries as well as India and Russia offer multinational companies all the benefits of booming economies in a world of recession. However, the investor must be aware of the tax regime under which he will operate. This survey presents the rates, definitions of taxable income and the incentives available in a complete, yet concise form. It goes on to review tax minimisation strategies and concludes with a comparison of the overall tax burdens for investors in each country derived from the Devereux/Griffith formulae - a methodology well known within the EU, but applied to this region for the first time.
The processes of aging and death remain one of the most fascinating, and mysterious, areas of biological research. Huge anomalies between species raise questions the answers to which could have fundamental implications for the field of medical science. As scientists unlock the secrets of the exceptionally long-lived little brown bat (up to 34 years), or the common budgerigar, for example, which despite having a metabolic rate 1.5 times that of a laboratory mouse, can live for up to 20 years, it has become more important than ever to be able to make a comparative analysis of the various species used in research. Dealing with every one of the mammalian species that are employed in laboratory research, this is the first book on the subject of aging that provides detailed comparative data for age-related changes in its subjects. It does so at the level of the whole animal, its organs, organelles and molecules. The comparative data, supplied in 15 chapters by leading experts, provides information on fields as disparate as telomere function and loss, the importance of the Sirtuins and Tor, the influence of hormones on lifespans, the relationship between body size and lifespan, the effects of restricted calorific intake, age-related changes in cell replication, and DNA damage and repair. Chapters are devoted to cardiac aging, comparative skeletal muscle aging, the aging of the nervous and immune systems, the comparative biology of lyosomal function and how it is affected by age, and many other key areas of research. This much-needed text will provide scientists working in a wide spectrum of fields with key data to aid them in their studies.
Biological systems inherently possess much ambiguity or uncertainty. Computational electrophysiology is the one area, from among the vast and rapidly growing discipline of computational and systems biology, in which computational or mathematical models have succeeded. This textbook provides a practical and quick guide to both computational electrophysiology and numerical bifurcation analysis. Bifurcation analysis is a very powerful tool for the analysis of such highly nonlinear biological systems. Bifurcation theory provides a way to analyze the effect of a parameter change on a system and to detect a critical parameter value when the qualitative nature of the system changes. Included in this work are many examples of numerical computations of bifurcation analysis of various models as well as mathematical models with different abstraction levels from neuroscience and electrophysiology. This volume will benefit graduate and undergraduate students as well as researchers in diverse fields of science.
This book gives a current overview of all facets of urban soils. Different urban land-use types in a number of examples worldwide are introduced. Many examples in different countries are provided in order to illustrate the situation in detail. The contaminant sources of urban soils (e.g., dust deposition, contamination along roadsides, contamination of floodplains, application of wastewater, anthropogenic deposits) are comprehensively presented. For practical application purposes a key with which to identify technogenic materials during field work is presented. Features like reductomorphic conditions in landfill soils, acidification of coal mining heaps and the impact of physical characteristics such as sealing are taken into consideration in the context of the contamination problem. The mobility of contaminants in the soils under consideration is introduced and discussed. The content of the book, however, is not limited to the description of contaminated urban soils. Different methods of assessment (classification, functional assessment, assessment focused on pathways with reference to standardized exposure scenarios) are introduced. Finally, quality standards for contaminated land in a number of countries are listed, compared and discussed. The book links up the contamination problem of urban soils with geographical aspects such as the historical development of city growth, the process of urbanization and the urban-to-rural gradients. Accordingly, the reader will be able to understand the specific problems of contaminated urban soils and will find sensible approaches to assessment.
The presented work combines two areas of research: cooperative game theory and lot size optimization. One of the most essential problems in cooperations is to allocate cooperative profits or costs among the partners. The core is a well known method from cooperative game theory that describes efficient and stable profit/cost allocations. A general algorithm based on the idea of constraint generation to compute core elements for cooperative optimization problems is provided. Beside its application for the classical core, an extensive discussion of core variants is presented and how they can be handled with the proposed algorithm. The second part of the thesis contains several cooperative lot sizing problems of different complexity that are analyzed regarding theoretical properties like monotonicity or concavity and solved with the proposed row generation algorithm to compute core elements; i.e. determining stable and fair cost allocations.
Coteaching is two or more teachers teaching together, sharing responsibility for meeting the learning needs of students and, at the same time, learning from each other. Working as collaborators on every aspect of instruction, coteachers plan, teach and evaluate lessons together. Over the past decade, because coteaching can be highly beneficial to both students and teachers it has become an increasingly important element of science teacher education and is expanding into other content areas and educational settings. This edited book brings together ten years' work on the research and the practice of coteaching and its impact on teaching and learning, predominantly in the sciences. It includes contributions from Europe, United States and Australia and presents an doverview of theory and practice common to most studies.
A critical companion of zoosemiotics is the first attempt to systematise the study of animal communication and signification through its most important and/or problematic terms and concepts, and its most representative scholars. It is a companion, in that it attempts to cover the entire range of key terms in the field, and it's critical, in that it aims not only to describe, but also to discuss, problematise and, in some cases, resolve, these terms.
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