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Reactions of Pyridines, Benzopyridines and Azapyridines with Organomagnesiums and Organolithiums, by Manfred Schlosser Lithiations and Magnesiations on Quinoline and Isoquinoline, by Floris Chevallier, Florence Mongin Metalation Reactions of Pyridines, Quinolines, and Isoquinolines with Ate Bases and Their Alkali Metal Salt-Modified Congeners, by Costa Metallinos, Kathryn Stromski Lithiations and Grignard Reactions on Pyrimidine and Quinazoline, by Andrej Kolarovic Other Stoichiometric Metalation Reactions on Pyrimidine and Quinazoline, by Philippe C. Gros Metalation of Pyrazine and Quinoxaline, by Nelly Plé1, Corinne Fruit Metalation of Pyridazine, Cinnoline, and Phtalazine, by Ernst Horkel
The twenty last years have been marked by an increase in available data and computing power. In parallel to this trend, the focus of neural network research and the practice of training neural networks has undergone a number of important changes, for example, use of deep learning machines. The second edition of the book augments the first edition with more tricks, which have resulted from 14 years of theory and experimentation by some of the world's most prominent neural network researchers. These tricks can make a substantial difference (in terms of speed, ease of implementation, and accuracy) when it comes to putting algorithms to work on real problems.
This book will be written by experts for professionals, scientists and all those involved in toxicological data generation and decision-making. It is the updated and expanded version of a monograph published in German in 2004. Chemical safety is regulated on various levels including production, storage, transport, handling, disposal or labelling. This book deals comprehensively with the safety-ensuring methods and concepts employed by regulatory agencies, industry and academics. Toxicologists use experimental and scientific approaches for data collection, e. g. about chemical hazards, physicochemical features or toxicokinetics. The respective experimental methods are described in the book. Toxicologists also deal with much insecurity in the exposure and effect scenarios during risk assessment. To overcome these, they have different extrapolation methods and estimation procedures at their disposal. The book describes these methods in an accessible manner. Differing concepts from one regulation area to another are also covered. Reasons and consequences become evident when reading the book. Altogether, the book Regulatory Toxicology will serve as an excellent reference. "
Essential Astrophysics is a book to learn or teach from, as well as a fundamental reference volume for anyone interested in astronomy and astrophysics. It presents astrophysics from basic principles without requiring any previous study of astronomy or astrophysics. It serves as a comprehensive introductory text, which takes the student through the field of astrophysics in lecture-sized chapters of basic physical principles applied to the cosmos. This one-semester overview will be enjoyed by undergraduate students with an interest in the physical sciences, such as astronomy, chemistry, engineering or physics, as well as by any curious student interested in learning about our celestial science. The mathematics required for understanding the text is on the level of simple algebra, for that is all that is needed to describe the fundamental principles. The text is of sufficient breadth and depth to prepare the interested student for more advanced specialized courses in the future. Astronomical examples are provided throughout the text, to reinforce the basic concepts and physics, and to demonstrate the use of the relevant formulae. In this way, the student learns to apply the fundamental equations and principles to cosmic objects and situations. All of the examples are solved with the rough accuracy needed to portray the basic result. Astronomical and physical constants and units as well as the most fundamental equations can be found in the appendix. Essential Astrophysics goes beyond the typical textbook by including references to the seminal papers in the field, with further reference to recent applications, results, or specialized literature. There are fifty set-aside focus elements that enhance and augment the discussion with fascinating details. They include the intriguing historical development of particular topics and provide further astrophysics equations or equations for other topics. Kenneth Lang is a world-renowned author on astrophysics. His books for professional astrophysicists as well as for students and the interested layman are highly acclaimed.
This book will provide latest insights in the functional potentials of ribonucleic acids in medine and the use of Spiegelmer and Spiegelzyme systems. It will also deal with a new type of delivery systems for cellular targeting.
The purpose of this book, Industrial and Technological Applications of Transport in Porous Materials, is to provide a collection of recent contributions in the field of heat and mass transfer in porous media and their industrial and technological applications. The main benefit of the book is that it discusses some of the most important topics related to transport phenomenon in engineering and their future applications. It includes a set of new technological applications in the field of heat and mass transfer phenomena in a porous medium domain, such as, drying technology, filtration, infrared thermography, energy, recycling, etc. At the same time, these topics will be going to the encounter of a variety of scientific and engineering disciplines, such as chemical, civil, agricultural, mechanical engineering, etc. The book is divided in several chapters that intend to be a resume of the current state of knowledge for benefit of professional colleagues.
When Laparoscopy in Children was first published in 2003, it quickly became popular with pediatric surgeons worldwide owing to its clear schematic drawings and concise text. This new edition has been revised and enlarged to cover the new procedures and other advances that have emerged in the intervening period, during which the number of operations has almost doubled. Now, the vast majority of indications for laparoscopy in children are presented and discussed. Each operation is systematically described and illustrated step by step, providing the reader with the technical guidelines required to perform laparoscopy safely even in small children. Laparoscopy in Children will be an invaluable guide for all surgeons who perform, or plan to perform, such operations.
Martin Grötschel is one of the most influential mathematicians of our time. He has received numerous honors and holds a number of key positions in the international mathematical community. He celebrated his 65th birthday on September 10, 2013. Martin Grötschel's doctoral descendant tree 1983-2012, i.e., the first 30 years, features 39 children, 74 grandchildren, 24 great-grandchildren, and 2 great-great-grandchildren, a total of 139 doctoral descendants. This book starts with a personal tribute to Martin Grötschel by the editors (Part I), a contribution by his very special "predecessor" Manfred Padberg on "Facets and Rank of Integer Polyhedra" (Part II), and the doctoral descendant tree 1983-2012 (Part III). The core of this book (Part IV) contains 16 contributions, each of which is coauthored by at least one doctoral descendant. The sequence of the articles starts with contributions to the theory of mathematical optimization, including polyhedral combinatorics, extended formulations, mixed-integer convex optimization, superclasses of perfect graphs, efficient algorithms for subtree-telecenters, junctions in acyclic graphs, and preemptive restricted strip covering, as well as efficient approximation of non-preemptive restricted strip covering. Combinations of new theoretical insights with algorithms and experiments deal with network design problems, combinatorial optimization problems with submodular objective functions, and more general mixed-integer nonlinear optimization problems. Applications include VLSI layout design, systems biology, wireless network design, mean-risk optimization, and gas network optimization. Computational studies include a semidefinite branch and cut approach for the max k-cut problem, mixed-integer nonlinear optimal control, and mixed-integer linear optimization for scheduling and routing of fly-in safari planes. The two closing articles are devoted to computational advances in general mixed integer linear optimization, the first by scientists working in industry, the second by scientists working in academia. These articles reflect the "scientific facets" of Martin Grötschel who has set standards in theory, computation, and applications.
This book presents thirteen papers, representing the most significant advances and current trends in nonlinear hyperbolic conservation laws and related analysis with applications. Topics covered include a survey on multidimensional systems of conservation laws as well as novel results on liquid crystals, conservation laws with discontinuous flux functions, and applications to sedimentation. Also included are articles on recent advances in the Euler equations and the Navier-Stokes-Fourier-Poisson system, in addition to new results on collective phenomena described by the Cucker-Smale model. The Workshop on Hyperbolic Conservation Laws and Related Analysis with Applications at the International Centre for Mathematical Sciences (Edinburgh, UK) held in Edinburgh, September 2011, produced this fine collection of original research and survey articles. Many leading mathematicians attended the event and submitted their contributions for this volume. It is addressed to researchers and graduate students interested in partial differential equations and related analysis with applications.
Based on presentations given at the NordForsk Network Closing Conference "Operator Algebra and Dynamics," held in Gjáargarður, Faroe Islands, in May 2012, this book features high quality research contributions and review articles by researchers associated with the NordForsk network and leading experts that explore the fundamental role of operator algebras and dynamical systems in mathematics with possible applications to physics, engineering and computer science. It covers the following topics: von Neumann algebras arising from discrete measured groupoids, purely infinite Cuntz-Krieger algebras, filtered K-theory over finite topological spaces, C*-algebras associated to shift spaces (or subshifts), graph C*-algebras, irrational extended rotation algebras that are shown to be C*-alloys, free probability, renewal systems, the Grothendieck Theorem for jointly completely bounded bilinear forms on C*-algebras, Cuntz-Li algebras associated with the a-adic numbers, crossed products of injective endomorphisms (the so-called Stacey crossed products), the interplay between dynamical systems, operator algebras and wavelets on fractals, C*-completions of the Hecke algebra of a Hecke pair, semiprojective C*-algebras, and the topological dimension of type I C*-algebras. Operator Algebra and Dynamics will serve as a useful resource for a broad spectrum of researchers and students in mathematics, physics, and engineering.
Software and systems quality is playing an increasingly important role in the growth of almost all profit and non-profit organisations. Quality is vital to the success of enterprises in their markets. Most small trade and repair businesses use software systems in their administration and marketing processes. Every doctor's surgery is managing its patients using software. Banking is no longer conceivable without software. Aircraft, trucks and cars use more and more software to handle their increasingly complex technical systems. Innovation, competition and cost pressure are always present in on-going business decisions. The question facing all these organisations is how to achieve the right quality of their software-based systems and products; how to get the required level of quality, a level that the market will reward, a level that mitigates the organisation's risks and a level that the organisation is willing to pay for. Although a number of good practices are in place, there is still room for huge improvements. Thus, let us take a look into the two worlds of "Embedded systems" and "ICT systems" and let us learn from both worlds, from overlaps and individual solutions. The next step for industrialisation in the software industry is required now. Hence, three pillars will be focused in this book: (1) a fundamental notion of right software and systems quality (RiSSQ); (2) portfolio management, quality governance, quality management, and quality engineering as holistic approach over the three layers of an enterprise, i. e. strategic, tactical, and operational layer; and (3) an industrialisation framework for implementing our approach.
Nanoparticles for Gene Delivery into Stem Cells and Embryos, by Pallavi Pushp, Rajdeep Kaur, Hoon Taek Lee, Mukesh Kumar Gupta. Engineering of Polysaccharides via Nanotechnology, by Joydeep Dutta. Hydroxyapatite-Packed Chitosan-PMMA Nanocomposite: A Promising Material for Construction of Synthetic Bone, by Arundhati Bhowmick, Subhash Banerjee, Ratnesh Kumar, Patit Paban Kundu. Biodegradable Polymers for Potential Delivery Systems for Therapeutics, by Sanjeev K. Pandey, Chandana Haldar, Dinesh K. Patel, Pralay Maiti. Phytomedicine-Loaded Polymeric Nanomedicines: Potential Cancer Therapeutics, by S. Maya, M. Sabitha, Shantikumar V. Nair, R. Jayakumar. Proteins and Carbohydrates as Polymeric Nanodrug Delivery Systems: Formulation, Properties and Toxicological Evaluation, by Dhanya Narayanan, J. Gopikrishna, Shantikumar V. Nair, Deepthy Menon. Biopolymeric Micro and Nanoparticles: Preparation, Characterization and Industrial Applications, by Anil Kumar Anal, Alisha Tuladhar. Applications of Glyconanoparticles as "Sweet" Glycobiological Therapeutics and Diagnostics, by Naresh Kottari, Yoann M. Chabre, Rishi Sharma, René Roy.
This collection of reviews by leading Japanese researchers covers topics like ultrafast optical responses, terahertz and phonon studies, super-sensitive surface and high-pressure spectroscopy, combination of visible and x-ray photonics. Several related areas at the cutting edge of measurement technology and materials science are included. This book is partly based on well-cited review articles in the Japanese language in special volumes of the Journal of the Vacuum Society of Japan.
The series Topics in Heterocyclic Chemistry presents critical reviews on present and future trends in the research of heterocyclic compounds. Overall the scope is to cover topics dealing with all areas within heterocyclic chemistry, both experimental and theoretical, of interest to the general heterocyclic chemistry community. The series consists of topic related volumes edited by renowned editors with contributions of experts in the field.
This volume contains the updated and expanded lecture notes of the 37th Saas-Fee Advanced Course organised by the Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy. It offers the most comprehensive and up to date review of one of the hottest research topics in astrophysics - how our Milky Way galaxy formed. Joss Bland-Hawthorn & Ken Freeman lectured on Near Field Cosmology - The Origin of the Galaxy and the Local Group. Francesca Matteucci's chapter is on Chemical evolution of the Milky Way and its Satellites. As designed by the SSAA, books in this series - and this one too - are targeted at graduate and PhD students and young researchers in astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology. Lecturers and researchers entering the field will also benefit from the book.
From the bestselling author of the Remaining series... They took everything--killed his wife, enslaved his daughter, destroyed his life. Now he's a man with nothing left to lose ... and that's what makes him so dangerous. Ten years after the collapse, Huxley had built a good life again. He had a loving wife, a farm with fields of golden barley, and a daughter with a strange and wonderful gift. Then the slavers came. Working out in the fields during the attack, Huxley returns too late. His daughter has been taken and his wife is bleeding out, her last whispered words about a man with a scorpion tattoo on his neck. Where do the slavers go? Huxley has no idea. He only knows that they headed east and so will he, setting out on foot across the desert of the Wastelands. Eighteen months into his journey, he has no hope of ever seeing his daughter alive. Dying of thirst in the open desert, he doesn't even expect to see another day. Then a man appears out of the desert and offers Huxley water from his canteen, an unheard of kindness in these savage times. Jay is an odd man, full of violence and guided by his hatred of the slavers, but he helps Huxley survive. And he gives Huxley a new purpose: nothing can bring back the dead, but we can chase down the slavers and make them bleed. Together, Huxley and Jay carve a path of destruction across the remains of a once-great land. The slavers are brutal, but they have no idea what's coming for them. Huxley has found something to live for again: blood and vengeance. In his most powerful work yet, New York Times bestselling author D. J. Molles delivers a carefully woven novel of violence and redemption, bringing to life a devastating portrait of a man pushed to the edge of his own humanity. "Molles' precise construction gives readers ample reason to return."--Publishers Weekly on The Remaining "...intense, relentless, and nail biting storytelling..."-ZombiePop, review of The Remaining: Aftermath
Yanfei Shen and Takashi Nakanishi Exotic Self-Organized Fullerene Materials Based on Uncommon Hydrophobic-Amphiphilic Approach Yuming Zhao and Guang Chen C60 Fullerene Amphiphiles as Supramolecular Building Blocks for Organized and Well-Defined Nano scale Objects Anna Troeger, Vito Sgobba and Dirk M. Guldi Multilayer Assembly for Solar Energy Conversion Delphine Felder-Flesch Self- or Induced Organization of Fullerene Hexakisadducts Andrés de la Escosura, Olga Trukhina, and Tomás Torres Dual Role of Phthalocyanines in Carbon Nano structure-Based Organic Photovoltaics Riccardo Marega, Davide Giust and Davide Bonifazi Supramolecular Chemistry of Carbon Nano tubes at Interfaces: Toward Applications Stephanie Frankenberger, Johanna A. Januszewski and Rik R. Tykwinski Oligomers from sp-Hybridized Carbon: Cumulenes and Polyynes.
As a result of researchers' and scientists' increasing interest in pure as well as applied mathematics in non-conventional models, particularly those using fractional calculus, Mittag-Leffler functions have recently caught the interest of the scientific community. Focusing on the theory of the Mittag-Leffler functions, the present volume offers a self-contained, comprehensive treatment, ranging from rather elementary matters to the latest research results. In addition to the theory the authors devote some sections of the work to the applications, treating various situations and processes in viscoelasticity, physics, hydrodynamics, diffusion and wave phenomena, as well as stochastics. In particular the Mittag-Leffler functions allow us to describe phenomena in processes that progress or decay too slowly to be represented by classical functions like the exponential function and its successors. The book is intended for a broad audience, comprising graduate students, university instructors and scientists in the field of pure and applied mathematics, as well as researchers in applied sciences like mathematical physics, theoretical chemistry, bio-mathematics, theory of control and several other related areas.
This volume contains the proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Difference Equations and Applications, held at Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman in May 2013. The conference brought together experts and novices in the theory and applications of difference equations and discrete dynamical systems. The volume features papers in difference equations and discrete time dynamical systems with applications to mathematical sciences and, in particular, mathematical biology, ecology, and epidemiology. It includes four invited papers and eight contributed papers. Topics covered include: competitive exclusion through discrete time models, Benford solutions of linear difference equations, chaos and wild chaos in Lorenz-type systems, advances in periodic difference equations, the periodic decomposition problem, dynamic selection systems and replicator equations, and asymptotic equivalence of difference equations in Banach Space. This book will appeal to researchers, scientists, and educators who work in the fields of difference equations, discrete time dynamical systems and their applications.
This book describes the challenges that critical infrastructure systems face, and presents state of the art solutions to address them. How can we design intelligent systems or intelligent agents that can make appropriate real-time decisions in the management of such large-scale, complex systems? What are the primary challenges for critical infrastructure systems? The book also provides readers with the relevant information to recognize how important infrastructures are, and their role in connection with a society's economy, security and prosperity. It goes on to describe state-of-the-art solutions to address these points, including new methodologies and instrumentation tools (e. g. embedded software and intelligent algorithms) for transforming and optimizing target infrastructures. The book is the most comprehensive resource to date for professionals in both the private and public sectors, while also offering an essential guide for students and researchers in the areas of modeling and analysis of critical infrastructure systems, monitoring, control, risk/impact evaluation, fault diagnosis, fault-tolerant control, and infrastructure dependencies/interdependencies. The importance of the research presented in the book is reflected in the fact that currently, for the first time in human history, more people live in cities than in rural areas, and that, by 2050, roughly 70% of the world's total population is expected to live in cities.
Through application of the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method, this monograph mainly focuses on large deformations and flow failure simulations of geomaterials and movement behavior, which are always involved in geo-disasters. The work covers the theoretical background, numerical techniques, code implementation issues, and many novel and interesting applications. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional SPH models in the framework of both hydrodynamics and solid mechanics are established, with detailed descriptions. The monograph also contains many appealing and practical examples of geo-disaster modeling and analysis, including the fluidized movement of flow-like landslides, lateral spread of liquefied soils, and flow slides in landfills. In the documented SPH simulations, the propagation of geo-disasters is effectively reproduced. Dynamic behaviors of geomaterials during propagation are ascertained, including sliding path, flow velocity, maximum distance reached, and distribution of deposits. In this way, the monograph presents a means for mapping hazardous areas, estimating hazard intensity, and identifying and designing appropriate protective measures.
Motivated by a variational model concerning the depth of the objects in a picture and the problem of hidden and illusory contours, this book investigates one of the central problems of computer vision: the topological and algorithmic reconstruction of a smooth three dimensional scene starting from the visible part of an apparent contour. The authors focus their attention on the manipulation of apparent contours using a finite set of elementary moves, which correspond to diffeomorphic deformations of three dimensional scenes. A large part of the book is devoted to the algorithmic part, with implementations, experiments, and computed examples. The book is intended also as a user's guide to the software code appcontour, written for the manipulation of apparent contours and their invariants. This book is addressed to theoretical and applied scientists working in the field of mathematical models of image segmentation.
A dark epic fantasy inspired by the tale of Snow White, from C. J. Redwine, the author of the Defiance series. Perfect for fans of A Court of Thorns and Roses and Cinder.Lorelai Diederich, crown princess and fugitive at large, has one mission: kill the wicked queen who took both the Ravenspire throne and the life of her father. To do that, Lorelai needs to use the one weapon she and Queen Irina have in common--magic. She'll have to be stronger, faster, and more powerful than Irina, the most dangerous sorceress Ravenspire has ever seen.In the neighboring kingdom of Eldr, when Prince Kol's father and older brother are killed by an invading army of magic-wielding ogres, the second-born prince is suddenly given the responsibility of saving his kingdom. To do that, Kol needs magic of his own--and the only way to get it is to make a deal with the queen of Ravenspire, promise to become her personal huntsman--and bring her Lorelai's heart.But Lorelai is nothing like Kol expected--beautiful, fierce, and unstoppable--and despite dark magic, Lorelai is drawn in by the passionate and troubled king. Fighting to stay one step ahead of the dragon huntsman--who she likes far more than she should--Lorelai does everything in her power to ruin the wicked queen. But Irina isn't going down without a fight, and her final move may cost the princess the one thing she still has left to lose.
#65533; This book is an updated version of awell-received book previously published in Chinese by Science Press of China(the first edition in 2006 and the second in 2013). It offers a systematic andpractical overview of spatial data mining, which combines computer science andgeo-spatial information science, allowing each field to profit from theknowledge and techniques of the other. To address the spatiotemporalspecialties of spatial data, the authors introduce the key concepts andalgorithms of the data field, cloud model, mining view, and Deren Li methods. The data field method captures the interactions between spatial objects bydiffusing the data contribution from a universe of samples to a universe ofpopulation, thereby bridging the gap between the data model and the recognitionmodel. The cloud model is a qualitative method that utilizes quantitativenumerical characters to bridge the gap between pure data and linguisticconcepts. The mining view method discriminates the different requirements byusing scale, hierarchy, and granularity in order to uncover the anisotropy ofspatial data mining. The Deren Li method performs data preprocessing to prepareit for further knowledge discovery by selecting a weight for iteration in orderto clean the observed spatial data as much as possible. In addition to theessential algorithms and techniques, the book provides application examples ofspatial data mining in geographic information science and remote sensing. Thepractical projects include spatiotemporal video data mining for protectingpublic security, serial image mining on nighttime lights for assessing theseverity of the Syrian Crisis, and the applications in the government project'the Belt and Road Initiatives'.
This book presents a universal mass-production micro/nano integrated fabrication technology, which can be used to realize micro/nano hierarchical structures on Si-based materials and flexible polymeric materials. This fabrication technology has been systematically investigated by using experimental measurements, mechanism analyses, theoretical simulations and so on. Three common materials (i. e. , silicon, PDMS and Parylene-C) with micro/nano hierarchical structures have been successfully fabricated, which also show several attractive properties. Furthermore, this book introduces this fabrication technology into microenergy field, and proposes several high-performance nanogenerators, of which practical applications have also been studied in commercial electronic device and biomedical microsystem.
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