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This volume sheds light on still unexplored issues and raises new questions in the main areas addressed by the philosophy of science. Bringing together selected papers from three main events, the book presents the most advanced scientific results in the field and suggests innovative lines for further investigation. It explores how discussions on several notions of the philosophy of science can help different scientific disciplines in learning from each other. Finally, it focuses on the relationship between Cambridge and Vienna in twentieth century philosophy of science. The areas examined in the book are: formal methods, the philosophy of the natural and life sciences, the cultural and social sciences, the physical sciences and the history of the philosophy of science.
This Springer Brief discusses efficient security protocols and schemes for multi-hop wireless networks. It presents an overview of security requirements for these networks, explores challenges in securing networks and presents system models. The authors introduce mechanisms to reduce the overhead and identify malicious nodes that drop packets intentionally. Also included is a new, efficient cooperation incentive scheme to stimulate the selfish nodes to relay information packets and enforce fairness. Many examples are provided, along with predictions for future directions of the field. Security for Multi-hop Wireless Networks demonstrates recent research that enhances the efficiency and safety of these key networks. Concise and practical, it is a useful tool for researchers and professionals working in network security. It is also a valuable resource for advanced-level students interested in wireless communications and networking.
The work presents a theoretical framework for the evaluation of e-Teaching that aims at positioning the online activities designed and developed by the teacher as to the Learning, Interaction and Technology Dimensions. The theoretical research that underlies the study was developed reflecting current thinking on the promotion of quality of teaching and of the integration of information and communication tools into the curriculum in Higher Education (HE), i. e. , bearing in mind some European guidelines and policies on this subject. This way, an answer was sought to be given to one of the aims put forward in this study, namely to contribute towards the development of a conceptual framework to support research on evaluation of e-teaching in the context of HE. Based on the theoretical research carried out, an evaluation tool (SCAI) was designed, which integrates the two questionnaires developed to collect the teachers' and the students' perceptions regarding the development of e-activities. Consequently, an empirical study was structured and carried out, allowing SCAI tool to be tested and validated in real cases. From the comparison of the theoretical framework established and the analysis of the data obtained, we found that the differences in teaching should be valued and seen as assets by HE institutions rather than annihilated in a globalizing perspective.
Information architecture has changed dramatically since the mid-1990s and earlier conceptions of the world and the internet being different and separate have given way to a much more complex scenario in the present day. In the post-digital world that we now inhabit the digital and the physical blend easily and our activities and usage of information takes place through multiple contexts and via multiple devices and unstable, emergent choreographies. Information architecture now is steadily growing into a channel- or medium-specific multi-disciplinary framework, with contributions coming from architecture, urban planning, design and systems thinking, cognitive science, new media, anthropology. All these have been heavily reshaping the practice: conversations about labelling, websites, and hierarchies are replaced by conversations about sense-making, place-making, design, architecture, cross media, complexity, embodied cognition and their application to the architecture of information spaces as places we live in in an increasingly large part of our lives. Via narratives, frameworks, references, approaches and case-studies this book explores these changes and offers a way to reconceptualize the shifting role and nature of information architecture where information permeates digital and physical space, users are producers and products are increasingly becoming complex cross-channel or multi-channel services.
This book puts the debates about the energy-climate continuum on a scientific ground! It is a must-read for everyone, who wants to understand how intimately the energy and climate debates are linked to each other, and who wants to participate in these omnipresent discussions. Antoine Bret explains in his book how fossil fuels became indispensable for our society. He carefully explains how and why this impacts the earth's climate. And he points out that all available fossil fuels will sooner or later be used up. Therefore, he introduces and discusses the alternatives, which are currently considered. The book is divided into three parts. The first part explains the problem and where we stand today, the second part critically discusses possible elements of solution. The third part illustrates historic case studies, containing both warning as well as encouraging examples of societies at turning points. This book is a careful introduction to these topics. The basic science behind the problem and the debates are introduced in an understandable and nicely readable fashion. Facts are illustrated with simple back-on-the-envelope calculations, providing a good feeling for orders of magnitudes. A rich appendix provides additional background information for the interested readers. In this way, the book can even be a valuable resource for introductory university courses in physics, climate science, natural science and many more subjects. This book is a real conversation starter and can be recommended to everyone, specialist or non-specialist, who wants to understand the actual energy-climate debates and maybe even involve.
This Recent Results in Cancer Research volume provides an up-to-date overview of the multidisciplinary management of locally confined rectal cancer as well as colorectal cancer with synchronous resectable liver metastases. The contents comprise the majority of the invited contributions from the Second St. Gallen EORTC Gastrointestinal Cancer Conference, held on 6-8 March 2014 in St. Gallen, Switzerland. Written by some of the world's leading experts in the imaging, endoscopy, pathology, molecular biology, surgery, radiotherapy and medical oncology of rectal cancer and liver metastases, the chapters offer a comprehensive view on the latest recommendations in diagnosis and multidisciplinary treatment. Every clinician involved in the care of patients with rectal cancer will find this book interesting and helpful.
Clogging of steam generators in nuclear power plants is a highly sensitive issue in terms of performance and safety and this book proposes a completely novel methodology for diagnosing this phenomenon. It demonstrates real-life industrial applications of this approach to French steam generators and applies the approach to operational data gathered from French nuclear power plants. The book presents a detailed review of in situ diagnosis techniques and assesses existing methodologies for clogging diagnosis, whilst examining their limitations. It also addresses numerical modelling of the dynamic behaviour of steam generators and provides a thorough analysis of statistical methods for sensitivity analysis and dimension reduction. Steam generators are heat exchangers found in nuclear power plants and over time they become increasingly clogged by iron oxides. This clogging then hampers the flow inside steam generators and compromises their mechanical integrity, which hinders performance and safety. This book is intended for nuclear safety specialists, nuclear performance engineers and researchers and postgraduate students working on heat exchanger modeling and computational engineering.
Socioinformatics is a new scientific approach to study the interactions between humans and IT. These proceedings are a collection of the contributions during a workshop of the Gesellschaft für Informatik (GI). Researchers in this emerging field discuss the main aspects of interactions between IT and humans with respect to; social connections, social changes, acceptance of IT and the social conditions affecting this acceptance, effects of IT on humans and in response changes of IT, structures of the society and the influence of IT on these structures, changes of metaphysics influenced by IT and the social context of a knowledge society.
This is a comprehensive book on the life and works of Leon Henkin (1921-2006), an extraordinary scientist and excellent teacher whose writings became influential right from the beginning of his career with his doctoral thesis on "The completeness of formal systems" under the direction of Alonzo Church. Upon the invitation of Alfred Tarski, Henkin joined the Group in Logic and the Methodology of Science in the Department of Mathematics at the University of California Berkeley in 1953. He stayed with the group until his retirement in 1991. This edited volume includes both foundational material and a logic perspective. Algebraic logic, model theory, type theory, completeness theorems, philosophical and foundational studies are among the topics covered, as well as mathematical education. The work discusses Henkin's intellectual development, his relation to his predecessors and contemporaries and his impact on the recent development of mathematical logic. It offers a valuable reference work for researchers and students in the fields of philosophy, mathematics and computer science.
The focus of his prize-winning thesis is on observations and modeling of binary millisecond pulsars. But in addition, John Antoniadis covers a wide range of observational measurements of binary compact stars systems and tests of General Relativity, like indirect measurements of gravitational wave emission and posing the most stringent constraints on Scalar-Tensor gravity theories. Among others, he presents a system that hosts the most massive neutron star known to date, which has important ramifications for strong-field gravity and nuclear physics. This impressive work was awarded the Otto-Hahn Medal of the Max-Planck Society and the Best PhD in Gravity, Particle and Atomic physics award by the German Physics Society (DPG).
This book is a concise and authoritative reference work and dictionary in the field of corporate social responsibility, sustainability, business ethics and corporate governance. It provides reliable definitions to more than 600 terms and concepts for researchers and professionals alike. By its definitions the dictionary helps users to understand the meanings of commonly used terms in CSR, and the roles and functions of CSR-related international organizations. Furthermore, it helps to identify keynotes on international guidelines, codes and principles relevant to CSR. The role of CSR in the business world has developed from a fig leaf marketing front into an important and indispensable aspect of corporate behavior over the past years. Sustainable strategies are valued, desired and deployed more and more by relevant players in business, politics, and societies all over the world. Both research and corporate practice therefore see CSR as a guiding principle for business success.
Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology attempts to provide concise, critical reviews of timely advances, philosophy and significant areas of accomplished or needed endeavor in the total field of xenobiotics, in any segment of the environment, as well as toxicological implications.
Fountas and Pinnell Leveled Literacy Intervention Green System -- 1st Grade
For design purposes one needs to relate the structure of proposed materials to their NLO (nonlinear optical) and other properties, which is a situation where theoretical approaches can be very helpful in providing suggestions for candidate systems that subsequently can be synthesized and studied experimentally. This brief describes the quantum-mechanical treatment of the response to one or more external oscillating electric fields for molecular and macroscopic, crystalline systems. To calculate NLO properties of large systems, a linear scaling generalized elongation method for the efficient and accurate calculation is introduced. The reader should be aware that this treatment is particularly feasible for complicated three-dimensional and/or delocalized systems that are intractable when applied to conventional or other linear scaling methods.
This book presents the theory, analysis and design of microwave stepped-frequency radar sensors. Stepped-frequency radar sensors are attractive for various sensing applications that require fine resolution. The book consists of five chapters. The first chapter describes the fundamentals of radar sensors including applications followed by a review of ultra-wideband pulsed, frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW), and stepped-frequency radar sensors. The second chapter discusses a general analysis of radar sensors including wave propagation in media and scattering on targets, as well as the radar equation. The third chapter addresses the analysis of stepped-frequency radar sensors including their principles and design parameters. Chapter 4 presents the development of two stepped-frequency radar sensors at microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies based on microwave integrated circuits (MICs), microwave monolithic integrated circuits (MMICs) and printed-circuit antennas, and discusses their signal processing. Chapter 5 provides the electrical characterization and test results of the developed microwave and millimeter-wave stepped-frequency radar sensors. Finally, a summary and conclusion is provided.
This book provides an interdisciplinary collection of views on the ethical challenges and opportunities of workplaces in the Internet of things. Current developments within Ubiquitous computing (ubicomp) systems designed for the workplace are introduced and philosophical, organizational and socio-ethical considerations of ubicomp in workplaces are provided. Suggestions regarding the rules that should be respected in order to favor an adequate implementation of ubicomp in the workplace are offered, considering both intra-organizational but also wider societal concerns. The interdisciplinary collection of contributions invites the reader to engage in the discussion of ubicomp in everyday working environments.
The need of video compression in the modern age of visual communication cannot be over-emphasized. This monograph will provide useful information to the postgraduate students and researchers who wish to work in the domain of VLSI design for video processing applications. In this book, one can find an in-depth discussion of several motion estimation algorithms and their VLSI implementation as conceived and developed by the authors. It records an account of research done involving fast three step search, successive elimination, one-bit transformation and its effective combination with diamond search and dynamic pixel truncation techniques. Two appendices provide a number of instances of proof of concept through Matlab and Verilog program segments. In this aspect, the book can be considered as first of its kind. The architectures have been developed with an eye to their applicability in everyday low-power handheld appliances including video camcorders and smartphones.
This SpringerBrief utilizes a surface chemistry/physical chemistry approach toward the study of aqueous corrosion processes. The book starts with a timely and in-depth review of Acid-Base Properties of Surface Oxide Films. Acid-base properties are significant in various surface phenomena such as general and localized corrosion, corrosion inhibition by organic molecules, and the adhesion of organic polymers to oxide-covered metals. This review also discusses the relationship between the two measures of surface charge, the isoelectric point of the oxide film and the potential of zero charge of the oxide-covered metal. Other topics included are capillarity and corrosion, corrosion inhibition, passivity of Fe-Cr and Fe-Cr-Ni alloys, the uptake of chloride Ions and the pitting of aluminum, and the formation of water films on the iron oxide surface.
This book develops two key machine learning principles: the semi-supervised paradigm and learning with interdependent data. It reveals new applications, primarily web related, that transgress the classical machine learning framework through learning with interdependent data. The book traces how the semi-supervised paradigm and the learning to rank paradigm emerged from new web applications, leading to a massive production of heterogeneous textual data. It explains how semi-supervised learning techniques are widely used, but only allow a limited analysis of the information content and thus do not meet the demands of many web-related tasks. Later chapters deal with the development of learning methods for ranking entities in a large collection with respect to precise information needed. In some cases, learning a ranking function can be reduced to learning a classification function over the pairs of examples. The book proves that this task can be efficiently tackled in a new framework: learning with interdependent data. Researchers and professionals in machine learning will find these new perspectives and solutions valuable. Learning with Partially Labeled and Interdependent Data is also useful for advanced-level students of computer science, particularly those focused on statistics and learning.
This SpringerBrief presents research in the application of Stochastic Petri Nets (SPN) to the performance evaluation of wireless networks under bursty traffic. It covers typical Quality-of-Service performance metrics such as mean throughput, average delay and packet dropping probability. Along with an introduction of SPN basics, the authors introduce the key motivation and challenges of using SPN to analyze the resource sharing performance in wireless networks. The authors explain two powerful modeling techniques that treat the well-known state space explosion problem: model decomposition and iteration, and model aggregation using stochastic high-level petri nets. The first technique assists in performance analysis of opportunistic scheduling, Device-to-Device communications with full frequency reuse and partial frequency reuse. The second technique is used to formulate a wireless channel mode for cross-layer performance analysis in OFDM system. Stochastic Petri Nets for Wireless Networks reveals useful insights for the design of radio resource management algorithms and a new line of thinking for the performance evaluation of future wireless networks. This material is valuable as a reference for researchers and professionals working in wireless networks and for advanced-level students studying wireless technologies in electrical engineering or computer science.
This book is concentrated on the synergy between computer science and numerical analysis. It is written to provide a firm understanding of the described approaches to computer scientists, engineers or other experts who have to solve real problems. The meshless solution approach is described in more detail, with a description of the required algorithms and the methods that are needed for the design of an efficient computer program. Most of the details are demonstrated on solutions of practical problems, from basic to more complicated ones. This book will be a useful tool for any reader interested in solving complex problems in real computational domains.
Presenting an optimal energy distribution strategy for microgrids in a smart grid environment, and featuring a detailed analysis of the mathematical techniques of convex optimization and online algorithms, this book provides readers with essential content on how to achieve multi-objective optimization that takes into consideration power subscribers, energy providers and grid smoothing in microgrids. Featuring detailed theoretical proofs and simulation results that demonstrate and evaluate the correctness and effectiveness of the algorithm, this text explains step-by-step how the problem can be reformulated and solved, and how to achieve the distributed online algorithm on the basis of a centralized offline algorithm. Special attention is paid to how to apply this algorithm in practical cases and the possible future trends of the microgrid and smart grid research and applications. Offering a valuable guide to help researchers and students better understand the new smart grid, this book will also familiarize readers with the concept of the microgrid and its relationship with renewable energy.
This Ph. D. thesis from the University of Birmingham UK opens new research avenues in the use of Pulsar Timing Arrays (PTAs) to study populations of super-massive black hole binaries through gravitational-wave observations. Chiara Mingarelli's work has shown for the first time that PTAs can yield information about the non-linear dynamics of the gravitational field. This is possible because PTAs capture, at the same time, radiation from the same source emitted at stages of its binary evolution that are separated by thousands of years. Dr. Mingarelli, who is the recipient of a Marie Curie International Outgoing Fellowship, has also been amongst the pioneers of the technique that will allow us to probe the level of anisotropy of the diffuse gravitational-wave background radiation from the whole population of super-massive black hole binaries in the Universe. Indeed, future observations will provide us with hints about the distribution of galaxies harboring massive black holes and insights into end products of hierarchical mergers of galaxies.
This is the fifth edition of a very successful textbook on clinical trials methodology, written by recognized leaders who have long and extensive experience in all areas of clinical trials. The three authors of the first four editions have been joined by two others who add great expertise. Most chapters have been revised considerably from the fourth edition. A chapter on regulatory issues has been included and the chapter on data monitoring has been split into two and expanded. Many contemporary clinical trial examples have been added. There is much new material on adverse events, adherence, issues in analysis, electronic data, data sharing and international trials. This book is intended for the clinical researcher who is interested in designing a clinical trial and developing a protocol. It is also of value to researchers and practitioners who must critically evaluate the literature of published clinical trials and assess the merits of each trial and the implications for the care and treatment of patients. The authors use numerous examples of published clinical trials to illustrate the fundamentals. The text is organized sequentially from defining the question to trial closeout. One chapter is devoted to each of the critical areas to aid the clinical trial researcher. These areas include pre-specifying the scientific questions to be tested and appropriate outcome measures, determining the organizational structure, estimating an adequate sample size, specifying the randomization procedure, implementing the intervention and visit schedules for participant evaluation, establishing an interim data and safety monitoring plan, detailing the final analysis plan and reporting the trial results according to the pre-specified objectives. Although a basic introductory statistics course is helpful in maximizing the benefit of this book, a researcher or practitioner with limited statistical background would still find most if not all the chapters understandable and helpful. While the technical material has been kept to a minimum, the statistician may still find the principles and fundamentals presented in this text useful. This book has been successfully used for teaching courses in clinical trial methodology.
Straight from the Old West, and the breathless imagination of today's top creator of suspense, comes this bold, non-stop tale of a trainload of terror--and of one man pitted against an army of corruption. The Rocky Mountains, winter 1873... One of the most desolate stretches of railroad in the west. Travelling along it is a crowded troop train, bound for the cholera-stricken garrison at Fort Humboldt. On board are the Governor of Nevada, the daughter of the fort's commander and a US marshal escorting a notorious outlaw. Between them and safety are the hostile Paiute Indians--and a man who will stop at nothing, not even murder...