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Information Technology and Product Development: A Research Agenda presents important new research from varied disciplines aimed at developing new theoretical concepts and insights on the application of IT in product and service innovation. Drawing on the work of researchers in such varied management areas as information services, technology management, marketing, operations, business strategy and organizational behavior, the book redefines the role of IT in product and service development and the organizational and management issues underlying the successful deployment of IT in innovation contexts, and provides a foundation for future research on the diverse types of IT applications in product development and their potential impact on both product and service innovation. Reflecting two critical shifts in the service sector - the increased complexity and convergence in products and services, along with the rise of the Internet and rapid digitization of products and services - the book is organized into three sections. Section 1 presents four chapters that focus on the traditional areas of project and process management; Section 2 presents four chapters focusing on the emerging areas of collaborative innovation and knowledge co-creation; and Section 3 presents one chapter that draws it all together and identifies some of the important themes and issues for future research. This important new work has much to offer academic researchers in management in its in-depth theoretical analysis of the wide range of organizational and management issues associated with the application of IT in product and service development. It will also appeal to researchers and thought-leaders in consulting organizations whose primary area of interest is product development or IT applications.
This book examines hybrid tribunals created in Sierra Leone, Kosovo, Cambodia, East Timor, and Lebanon, in terms of their origins (the political and social forces that led to their creation), the legal regimes that they used, their various institutional structures, and the challenges that they faced during their operations. Through this study, the author looks at both their successes and their shortcomings, and presents recommendations for the formation of future hybrid tribunals. Hybrid tribunals are a form of the international justice where the judicial responsibility is shared between the international community and the local state where they function. These tribunals represent an important bridge between traditional international courts like the International Criminal Court (ICC), the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY), the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) and various local justice systems. Because hybrid tribunals are developed in response to large-scale atrocities, these courts are properly considered part of the international criminal justice system. This feature gives hybrid tribunals the accountability and legitimacy often lost in local justice systems; however, by including regional courtroom procedures and personnel, they are integrated into the local justice system in a way that allows a society to deal with its criminals on its own terms, at least in part. This unique volume combines historical and legal analyses of these hybrid tribunals, placing them within a larger historical, political, and legal context. It will be of interest to researchers in Criminal Justice, International Studies, International Law, and related fields.
Strategic Urban Health Communication Charles C. Okigbo, editor People are bombarded with messages continuously and sorting through them constantly. In this milieu, critical ideas about health promotion and illness prevention are forced to compete with distracting, conflicting, even contradictory information. To get vital messages through, communication must be effective, targeted, artful--in a word, strategic. Strategic Urban Health Communication provides a road map for understanding strategy, enhancing strategic planning skills, and implementing strategic communication campaigns. Deftly written chapters link the art and science of strategic planning to world health goals such as reducing health inequities and eradicating diseases. Flexibility is at the heart of these cases, which span developed and developing countries, uses of traditional and digital media, and chronic and acute health challenges. And the contributors ground their dispatches in the larger context of health promotion, giving readers useful examples of thinking globally while working locally. Included in the coverage: Urbanization, population, and health myths: addressing common misconceptions. Integrating HIV/family planning programs: opportunities for strategic communication. The role of sports in strategic health promotion in low-income areas. The Internet as a sex education tool: a case study from Thailand. Advertising and childhood obesity in China. Health communication strategies for sustainable development in a globalized world. Balancing depth of understanding of audiences and methods of reaching them, Strategic Urban Health Communication is a forward-looking resource geared toward professionals and researchers in urban health, global health, and health communication.
Read in-depth, candid interviews with 30 individuals holding top marketing roles within their organizations. Interviewees include chief marketing officers (CMOs) from established organizations--such as Linda Boff of GE, Jeff Jones of Target, and Brian Kenny of the Harvard Business School--to those from hot startups--such as Matt Price of Zendesk and Seth Farbman of Spotify. As more CMOs ascend the ladder to CEO, the varied career stories these 30 CMOs tell constitute a veritable treasure map for marketers seeking to boost growth and enhance the brands of their organizations and themselves. More broadly, these no-holds-barred interviews will entertain and enlighten all those who interface and collaborate with marketing departments, including other C-level executives, managers, and personnel across the organizational gamut. Trends in digital marketing, analytics, and marketing automation have pushed marketing to the forefront of many organizations and increased overlap with other business functions that were previously viewed as separate and distinct from marketing. Today, marketing directly influences sales, HR and recruiting, and technology, requiring individuals in these roles to understand better how marketing works and how it can help them achieve their objectives. These realities of marketing are clearly described in this book as interviewees discuss breaking down silos, working with other departments, and following the data. As the founder of an international marketing agency and contributor to business publications such as Forbes, Mashable, and TechCrunch, author Josh Steimle has succeeded in extracting biographical anecdotes, professional insights, and career advice from each of the individuals profiled in this book.
This Brief describes the concept and realization of gene therapy for HIV from the unique historic perspective and insight of two pioneers of the clinical applications of stem cell gene therapy for HIV. Gerhard Bauer applied ribozyme-anti-HIV and other vectors to manufacture clinical grade, HIV-resistant hematopoietic stem cells for the first patients that received stem cell gene therapy for HIV, including the first child in the world and the first fully marrow-ablated HIV infected patient. Joseph Anderson developed the most recent and most potent combination anti-HIV lentiviral vectors and pluripotent stem cell applications for HIV gene therapy and tested these in the appropriate in vitro and vivo models, paving the way for novel HIV gene therapy approaches to possibly cure patients. In Gene Therapy for HIV, Bauer and Anderson discuss the unique aspects of this therapy, including its limitations and proper safety precautions and outline a path for a possible functional cure for HIV using stem cell gene therapy based on a cure already achieved with a bone marrow stem cell transplantation performed in Germany using donor stem cells with a naturally arising CCR5 mutation. In addition, the Brief provides a thorough and methodical explanation of the basics of gene therapy, gene therapy vector development, in vitro and in vivo models for HIV gene therapy and clinical applications of HIV gene therapy, including Good Manufacturing Practices.
Histories of Transnational Crime provides a broad, historical framework for understanding the developments in research of transnational crime over the centuries. This volume provides examples of transnational crime, and places them in a broad historical context, which has so far been missing from this field of study. The contributions to this comprehensive volume explore the causes and historical precursors of six main types of transnational crime: -piracy -human smuggling -arms trafficking -drug trafficking -art and antique trafficking -corporate crime. The historical contributions demonstrate that transnational crime is not a novel phenomenon of recent globalization and that, beyond organized crime groups, powerful individuals, governments and business corporations have been heavily involved. Through a systematic historical and contextual analysis of these types of transnational crime, the contributions to this volume provide a fundamental understanding of why and how various forms of transnational crime are still present in the contemporary world. In the past two decades, the study of transnational crime has developed from a subset of the study of organized crime to its own recognized field of study, covering distinct societal threats and requiring a particular approach.
This book focuses on the development of relevant theories and concepts that aid in predicting and modifying consumer behaviors. Consumer behaviors that help improve well-being, such as earning, spending, borrowing, and saving are also covered. In addition, the book discusses how to define consumer rights and responsibilities, and how individual consumers are organized to protect their own interests and to voice their concerns in public decision making processes. Finally, the book covers effects of economic environments on consumer well-being and how consumers can effectively deal with these challenges.
This book is concerned with two intimately related topics of metaphysics: the identity of entities and the foundations of classification. What it adds to previous discussions of these topics is that it addresses them with respect to human-made entities, that is, artefacts. As the chapters in the book show, questions of identity and classification require other treatments and lead to other answers for artefacts than for natural entities. These answers are of interest to philosophers not only for their clarification of artefacts as a category of things but also for the new light they may shed on these issue with respect to to natural entities. This volume is structured in three parts. The contributions in Part I address basic ontological and metaphysical questions in relation to artefact kinds: How should we conceive of artefact kinds? Are they real kinds? How are identity conditions for artefacts and artefact kinds related? The contributions in Part II address meta-ontological questions: What, exactly, should an ontological account of artefact kinds provide us with? What scope can it aim for? Which ways of approaching the ontology of artefact kinds are there, how promising are they, and how should we assess this? In Part III, the essays offer engineering practice rather than theoretical philosophy as a point of reference. The issues addressed here include: How do engineers classify technical artefacts and on what grounds? What makes specific classes of technical artefacts candidates for ontologically real kinds, and by which criteria?
This work documents the impact that the Great Awakening had on the inhabitants of colonial America's Southern Backcountry. Special emphasis is placed on how this religious revival furrowed the ground on which the seeds of the American Revolution would sprout. The investigation shows how the Great Awakening can be traced to the Europe's Age of Enlightenment. This effort also demonstrates how and why this revival spread so rapidly throughout the colonies. Special focus is placed on how the Great Awakening impacted the mindset of colonists of the Southern Backcountry. Most significantly, this research demonstrates how this 18thcentury revival not only cultivated a sense of American national identity, but how it also fostered a colonial mindset against established authority which, in turn, facilitated the success of the American Revolution. Additionally, this investigation will document (from a cross-cultural perspective) how religious revivals have fueled other revolutionary movements around the world. Such analysis will include the Celtic Druid Revolt, the Maji-Maji Rebellion of East Africa along with the Mad Man's War in Southeast Asia. Lastly, the ethical ramifications of minimizing (or denying) the role that religion played in political and social transformations around the world will be addressed. This final point is of paramount importance given current trend in academia to minimize the role that religion played in spurring revolutions while emphasizing material (i. e. economic) causal factors. This attempt at divorcing religion from history is misguided and unethical because it is not only misleading but it also fails to fully acknowledge the beliefs and values that motivated individuals to take certain actions in the first place.
This volume explores Husserl's theory of sensibility and his conceptualization of spatial and temporal constitution. The author maps the linkages between Husserl's 'transcendental aesthetic', the theory of pure experience in empirio-criticism, as well as Immanuel Kant's transcendental philosophy. The core argument in this analysis centers on the relationship between spatiality and temporality in Husserl's philosophy. The study interrogates Husserl's understanding of the relationship between spatiality and temporality in terms of stratifications, analogies and parallelisms. It incorporates a discussion of the potentialities and limitations of such an understanding. It concludes that such limits can be overcome by adopting an understanding of spatiality and temporality as interwoven moments of sensible experience--a 'spatio-temporal intertwining'. This 'intertwining' is made explicit in a thorough inquiry into three central topics in the phenomenological analysis of sensible experience: spatio-temporal individuation, perspectival givenness and bodily experience. The book shows how such an inquiry can form the bedrock of a dynamic and relational understanding of experience as a whole.
This volume examines Popper's philosophy by analyzing the criticism of his most popular critics: Thomas Kuhn, Paul Feyerabend and Imre Lakatos. They all followed his rejection of the traditional view of science as inductive. Starting from the assumption that Hume's criticism of induction is valid, the book explores the central criticism and objections that these three critics have raised Their objections have met with great success, are significant and deserve paraphrase. One also may consider them reasonable protests against Popper's high standards rather than fundamental criticisms of his philosophy The book starts out with a preliminary discussion of some central background material and essentials of Popper's philosophy. It ends with nutshell representations of the philosophies of Popper. Kuhn, Feyerabend and Lakatos. The middle section of the book presents the connection between these philosophers and explains what their central ideas consists of, what the critical arguments are, how they presented them, and how valid they are. In the process, the author claims that Popper's popular critics used against him arguments that he had invented (and answered) without saying so. They differ from him mainly in that they demanded of all criticism that it should be constructive: do not stop believing a refuted theory unless there is a better alternative to it. Popper hardly ever discussed belief, delegating its study to psychology proper; he usually discussed only objective knowledge, knowledge that is public and thus open to public scrutiny.
This book explores the development of the influential worldwide Hizmet movement inspired by the Turkish scholar Fethullah Gülen, known for his moderate Islamic emphasis on peaceful relations among diverse people. It provides a detailed study of Gülen's account of the virtues and argues that they provide the key to understanding this thinker and the movement he inspired, from its initial establishment of hospitality houses through the growth of worldwide schools, hospitals, media outlets, charitable associations and dialogue centers. The book analyzes the distinctive virtues that shaped the Hizmet movement's ethos as well as continue to sustain its expansive energy, from the core virtues of tolerance, hospitality, compassion and charity to a host of related virtues, including wisdom, humility, mildness, patience, mercy, integrity and hope. It also examines the Islamic and Sufi roots of Gülen's understanding of the virtues as well as presents a comparative study of Gülen's account of the virtues in dialogue with prominent thinkers of the Western philosophical tradition and the religious traditions of Christianity, Judaism and Buddhism. The Hizmet movement provides living witness to the power and efficacy of tolerance, dialogue and peaceful relations among diverse people. This book offers an insightful portrait of the core virtues of this movement and the scholar who fully explored them within his writing. It will appeal to readers interested in virtue ethics, character education, cross-cultural studies, interfaith dialogue and the role of moderate Islam today.
The book addresses the most critical issue faced by aviation and climate change: namely the development of a market based measure to control aircraft engine emissions. It discusses the current market economic trends as they impact to aviation and suggests steps and measures to be taken in the development of a workable MBM. ICAO has three years to come up with such an MBM on a global scale and this book will spur discussions on how to achieve this objective.
This groundbreaking Brief brings a rights-based perspective to social work as opposed to the charity- and needs-based formats traditional to the field. Core principles for effective practice are discussed in the context of global human rights advocacy, from addressing individuals' immediate issues to challenging the structures that allow continued injustices to marginalized populations. Focusing specifically on interventions with survivors (and some perpetrators) of torture, human trafficking, and domestic violence, coverage explores and explodes myths about these issues--some of which survivors themselves may believe--and illustrates the immediate application and long-term benefits of rights-based therapy. Case examples, discussion questions, resource links, and a clinician self-care section reinforce the salience of this approach, modeling practice that is ethical in its outlook and empowering in its healing. Clinician skills emphasized in Human Rights-Based Approaches to Clinical Social Work: Reframing client needs as human rights. Cultural humility versus cultural competence. Building the therapeutic relationship and reconstructing safety. Developing trauma-informed practice and avoiding re-traumatization. Forensic and activist roles for social workers. Burnout prevention for practitioners.
This volume explores the role and status of phenomena such as feelings, values, willing, and action in the domain of perception and (social) cognition, as well as the way in which they are related. In its exploration, the book takes Husserl's lifelong project Studien zur Struktur des Bewusstseins (1909-1930) as its point of departure, and investigates these phenomena with Husserl but also beyond Husserl. Divided into two parts, the volume brings together essays that address the topics from different phenomenological, philosophical, and psychological perspectives. They discuss Husserl's position in dialogue with historical and recent philosophical and psychological debates and develop phenomenological accounts and descriptions with the help of Geiger, Heidegger, Merleau-Ponty, Plessner, Sartre, Scheler, Schopenhauer, and Reinach.
This briefs provides foundations of both community wellbeing and community development, and the relationships between the two areas, including both similarities and differences. Community well-being encompasses a large array of concepts and disciplines. Community development, as an established discipline, is one framework that can help further understanding of community well-being, and is an allied concept. The interaction between the two areas is worthy of exploration, as both a new way to think about community development as well as a way to understand what community well-being entails. Beginning with a discussion of the foundations, the first and second chapters provide grounding for conceptions and potential theory applications as well as constructs for moving community wellbeing forward. The remaining chapters provide applications of community well-being in the context of community development, with examples from North America and Asia. Community development focused community wellbeing policies and programs illustrate processes and outcomes.
The Analyst in the Inner City, Second Edition: Race, Class, and Culture Through a Psychoanalytic Lensby Neil Altman
In 1995, Neil Altman did what few psychoanalysts did or even dared to do: He brought the theory and practice of psychoanalysis out of the cozy confines of the consulting room and into the realms of the marginalized, to the very individuals whom this theory and practice often overlooked. In doing so, he brought together psychoanalytic and social theory, and examined how divisions of race, class and culture reflect and influence splits in the developing self, more often than not leading to a negative self image of the "other" in an increasingly polarized society.<P><P> Much like the original, this second edition of The Analyst in the Inner City opens up with updated, detailed clinical vignettes and case presentations, which illustrate the challenges of working within this clinical milieu. Altman greatly expands his section on race, both in the psychoanalytic and the larger social world, including a focus on "whiteness" which, he argues, is socially constructed in relation to "blackness." However, he admits the inadequacy of such categorizations and proffers a more fluid view of the structure of race. A brand new section, "Thinking Systemically and Psychoanalytically at the Same Time," examines the impact of the socio-political context in which psychotherapy takes place, whether local or global, on the clinical work itself and the socio-economic categories of its patients, and vice-versa. Topics in this section include the APA's relationship to CIA interrogation practices, group dynamics in child and adolescent psychotherapeutic interventions, and psychoanalytic views on suicide bombing.<P> Ranging from the day-to-day work in a public clinic in the South Bronx to considerations of global events far outside the clinic's doors (but closer than one might think), this book is a timely revision of a groundbreaking work in psychoanalytic literature, expanding the import of psychoanalysis from the centers of analytical thought to the margins of clinical need.
Brazil is renowned worldwide for its remarkable reforms in pharmaceutical regulation, which have enhanced access to essential medicines while lowering drug costs. This book innovates by analysing the generic drug reform in Brazil, demonstrating that pharmaceutical regulation is only partially influenced by non-state actors. Little is known about the institutional antecedents and policy process that channeled this regulatory reform. This is particularly intriguing because a regulatory shift in the pharmaceutical sector requires the participation of a number of stakeholders and interest groups in the policy process. Fonseca examines the generic drug reform's causes and consequences. No study has approached the generic drug regulation in Brazil from this perspective. The Politics of Pharmaceutical Policy Reform: A Study of Generic Drug Regulation in Brazil, explores the following: · The politics of pharmaceutical regulation in Brazil over the last 25 years. · The political negotiations to approve the Generic Drug Act, which involved a hard-to-reach agreement between the pharmaceutical industry (national and multinational), the Ministry of Health, and Congress · The controversial decisions to regulate packaging and pharmaceutical equivalence. · The surprising success of Brazilian pharmaceutical firms, which became market champions in a sector largely dominated by multinational firms. · Comparative lessons from the Brazilian case for the political construction of regulatory standards to regulate generic drugs and its effects on global health. This book will interest political scientists and health policy scholars concerned with the political conflicts in the pharmaceutical sector. It argues against well-established approaches to regulatory capture such as control of the regulatory process by interest groups and policy diffusion. It can be used as evidence for graduate courses in public policy, health policy and political science. Because Brazil is one of the largest markets for pharmaceuticals in the world, business leaders and consultancy firms would also be interested.
This book assesses the rapid transformation of the political agency of religious groups within transnational civil society under the conditions of globalization that have weakened the sovereign nation-state. It offers a comprehensive synthesis of the parallel resurgences of Jasper's axial thesis from the distinct lines of research initiated by Eisenstadt, Habermas, Taylor, Bellah, and others. It explores the concept of cosmoipolitanism from the combined perspectives of sociology of religion, critical theory, secularization theory, and evolutionary cultural anthropology. At the theoretical level, cosmoipolitanism prescribes how local, national, transnational, global, and virtual spaces ought publically to engage in transcivilizational discourse without presuming secular assumptions tied to cosmopolitanism. As a transnational extension of the moral-ethical universality of the great Axial Age traditions, cosmoipolitanism provides an ideal description of empirical data. Employing the insights of critical theory, this book offers a micro-level analysis of the pragmatics of discourse of each of the major axial traditions producing a genealogy in iterated stages of the dialectics of secularization as a multi-faceted narrative of the role of religion in alternative modernities. While circumscribing the particular historical limits of each tradition, the book extends their internal claims to species universality in light of the potential for boundless communication Jaspers saw as initiated with the Axial Age. In Jon Bowman's novel and important work, he rethinks the challenges of global justice. Bowman is not just concerned with global justice in the modern world, but with a genealogy that begins with a better understanding of the Axial age, one that is also the unique signature of cosmoi-political institutions. Arguing with depth and precision, Bowman challenges Kantian and Rawlsian universalism. His argument provides a new interpretation of cosmopolitan justice as he explores the deeper roots of cosmopolitan justice. James Bohman Saint Louis University Jon Bowman's Cosmoipolitan Justice is an important, innovative and timely work. Construing globality in terms of pervasive conditions of worldwide interdependence, Bowman advances a decidedly pluralistic account of cosmopolitanism, one uniquely shaped by recent theories of multiple modernities. His analysis is sustained by a highly informed appropriation of such diverse thinkers as Theodor Adorno, Abudullah An-Naim, Talad Asad, Schmuel Eisenstadt, Jürgen Habermas, Karl Jaspers, John Rawls, Amartya Sen, and Charles Taylor. One special feature is the book's synthesis of research on global governance with that on post-secularity and the place of religion in the public sphere. On this basis Bowman presents a distinctive account of the world's axial religions, one underwriting a multi-polar, intercultural global public realm able to address social, political, and economic issues confronting the global community today. This book should be of great interest to students and scholars in philosophy, political theory, international relations, sociology, and religious studies. Professor Andrew Buchwalter Department of Philosophy University of North Florida
This brief synthesizes current findings on the many aspects of chronic student boredom, its relationship with negative academic, emotional, and health outcomes, and what professionals can do to best address it. Citing the complexity of this common student emotion, the author spotlights boredom susceptibility during the critical K-12 years. The brief analyzes cognitive and emotional attributes of boredom and identifies emotional skills that can be strengthened to counteract it. In addition, the volume features strategies for educators and school counselors to reduce boredom, both internally and in class. This stimulating volume: Argues that boredom shouldn't be ignored or dismissed as a passing phase. Examines various types of boredom as well as gender and cultural differences. Explores boredom in the contexts of anxiety and depression and in non-school situations. Provides theory on causes of boredom in students. Details how student self-regulation, motivation, and engagement can be improved. Describes specific roles teachers and mental health professionals can play in controlling boredom. Boredom in the Classroom is an essential resource for researchers, scientist-practitioners, clinicians, and graduate students in the fields of child and school psychology, educational psychology, social work, and related disciplines.
This book investigates the potential need for an international convention on forests and establishes a multifunctional concept of forests as a cornerstone for international forest regulation. Accordingly, it examines a variety of international instruments pertaining directly or indirectly to forests and explores their entangled, fragmented nature. While contending that the lack of consistency in international law impedes the development of a stand-alone international forest convention, at the same time it argues that the lessons learned from fragmentation as well as from the history of forest discourse on the international level open up new options for the regulation of forests in international law, based on (new) concepts of coordination and cooperation.
This book is the first to analyze the compliance of different types of a breeder's exception to patent rights with article 30 of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights. This type of exception allows using protected biological matter for breeding new varieties of plants. The breeder's exception is widely accepted under plant variety legislation, but it is not common under patent laws despite the fact that patent rights often cover plant varieties. Only few European countries have adopted such an exception. After the entry into force of the Agreement on a Unified Patent Court, the exception will be mandatory for all European Union Member states. Based on a legal and economic approach, this book offers guidance to those countries that need to incorporate a breeder's exception into their national patent systems and suggests the importance of the exception for promoting plant breeding activities.
This short book sets out to explore the concept of nature in the context of a changing reality, in which the extent of our transformation of the environment has become evident: What is nature and to what extent has humanity transformed it? How do nature and society relate to one another? What does the idea of a sustainable society entail and how can nature be understood as a political subject? What is the Anthropocene and how does it affect nature as both an idea and a material entity? Has nature perhaps "ended?" In addressing these questions, the author delivers a concise but meaningful study of contemporary understandings of nature, one that goes beyond the limits posed by a single discipline. Adopting a truly comprehensive perspective, the work incorporates classical disciplines such as philosophy, evolutionary theory and the history of ideas; new and mixed approaches ranging from environmental sociology to neurobiology and ecological economics and the emerging area of the environmental humanities and represents a growing branch of political thought that views nature as a new political subject.
This short book presents an overview of different types of biomaterial such as bio ceramics, bio polymers, metals and bio composites, while especially focusing on nano biomaterials and their applications in different tissues. It provides a compact introduction to nano materials for drug delivery systems, tissue engineering and implants, while also reviewing essential trends in the biomaterial field over the last few decades and the latest developments.
This brief summarizes the results of a two-year, international research project covering drug addiction treatment versus punishment in Austria, Poland, and Spain. It features: -An analysis of the national drug-related legislation and its application in these countries - An evaluation of drug laws and policies by both the law enforcement and drug treatment practitioners -An evaluation of drug-addicted offenders undergoing drug treatment versus punishment and their outcomes The basic findings of the project can be summarized as follows: drug addiction and drug-related criminal behavior should be treated as a psychiatric disorder and a chronic disease. The study supports the application of a treatment-oriented approach to drug-related delinquency. As this brief demonstrates, one challenge to an adequate treatment of drug addicted offenders is a lack of cooperation between the judicial and the medical sector, and an inconsistent application of policies. By comparing the legislation and application of drug laws in these three European countries, the authors provide insights with implications for other national legal systems. This brief will be of interest to researchers and policy-makers working with drug involved individuals, from criminology and criminal justice, public health, public policy and international comparative law.