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Gene Drives on the Horizon: Advancing Science, Navigating Uncertainty, and Aligning Research with Public Values

by Engineering Medicine National Academies of Sciences

Research on gene drive systems is rapidly advancing. Many proposed applications of gene drive research aim to solve environmental and public health challenges, including the reduction of poverty and the burden of vector-borne diseases, such as malaria and dengue, which disproportionately impact low and middle income countries. However, due to their intrinsic qualities of rapid spread and irreversibility, gene drive systems raise many questions with respect to their safety relative to public and environmental health. Because gene drive systems are designed to alter the environments we share in ways that will be hard to anticipate and impossible to completely roll back, questions about the ethics surrounding use of this research are complex and will require very careful exploration. Gene Drives on the Horizon outlines the state of knowledge relative to the science, ethics, public engagement, and risk assessment as they pertain to research directions of gene drive systems and governance of the research process. This report offers principles for responsible practices of gene drive research and related applications for use by investigators, their institutions, the research funders, and regulators.

The Ways Of Friendship

by Evan Killick Amit Desai

Friendship is an essential part of human experience, involving ideas of love and morality as well as material and pragmatic concerns. Making and having friends is a central aspect of everyday life in all human societies. Yet friendship is often considered of secondary significance in comparison to domains such as kinship, economics and politics. How important are friends in different cultural contexts? What would a study of society viewed through the lens of friendship look like? Does friendship affect the shape of society as much as society moulds friendship? Drawing on long-term ethnographic fieldwork in Asia, the Middle East, Africa, Latin America and Europe, this volume offers answers to these questions and examines the ideology and practice of friendship as it is embedded in wider social contexts and transformations.

Centralizing Fieldwork

by Agustín Fuentes Jeremy Macclancy

Fieldwork is a central method of research throughout anthropology, a much-valued, much-vaunted mode of generating information. But its nature and process have been seriously understudied in biological anthropology and primatology. This book is the first ever comparative investigation, across primatology, biological anthropology, and social anthropology, to look critically at this key research practice. It is also an innovative way to further the comparative project within a broadly conceived anthropology, because it does not focus on common theory but on a common method. The questions asked by contributors are: what in the pursuit of fieldwork is common to all three disciplines, what is unique to each, how much is contingent, how much necessary? Can we generate well-grounded cross-disciplinary generalizations about this mutual research method, and are there are any telling differences? Co-edited by a social anthropologist and a primatologist, the book includes a list of distinguished and well-established contributors from primatology and biological anthropology.

Civil Society And Gender Justice

by Gunilla Budde Karen Hagemann Sonya Michel

Civil society and civic engagement have increasingly become topics of discussion at the national and international level. The editors of this volume ask, does the concept of "civil society" include gender equality and gender justice? Or, to frame the question differently, is civil society a feminist concept? Conversely, does feminism need the concept of civil society? This important volume offers both a revised gendered history of civil society and a program for making it more egalitarian in the future. An interdisciplinary group of internationally known authors investigates the relationship between public and private in the discourses and practices of civil societies; the significance of the family for the project of civil society; the relation between civil society, the state, and different forms of citizenship; and the complex connection between civil society, gendered forms of protest and nongovernmental movements. While often critical of historical instantiations of civil society, all the authors nonetheless take seriously the potential inherent in civil society, particularly as it comes to influence global politics. They demand, however, an expansion of both the concept and project of civil society in order to make its political opportunities available to all.

Nazi Paris

by Allan Mitchell

Basing his extensive research into hitherto unexploited archival documentation on both sides of the Rhine, Allan Mitchell has uncovered the inner workings of the German military regime from the Wehrmacht's triumphal entry into Paris in June 1940 to its ignominious withdrawal in August 1944. Although mindful of the French experience and the fundamental issue of collaboration, the author concentrates on the complex problems of occupying a foreign territory after a surprisingly swift conquest. By exploring in detail such topics as the regulation of public comportment, economic policy, forced labor, culture and propaganda, police activity, persecution and deportation of Jews, assassinations, executions, and torture, this study supersedes earlier attempts to investigate the German domination and exploitation of wartime France. In doing so, these findings provide an invaluable complement to the work of scholars who have viewed those dark years exclusively or mainly from the French perspective.

English Learners in the Mathematics Classroom

by Debra S. Coggins

Research-based strategies to reach English learners – now aligned with the Common Core! Enable your English learners to build higher-level math skills and gain greater fluency in their new language—all while achieving the goals of the Common Core. Now in its second edition, this trusted resource includes: Mathematics lesson scenarios in every chapter, directly connected to Common Core Standards and the Standards for Mathematical Practice Instructional approaches that promote participation, hands-on learning, and true comprehension of mathematics concepts that benefit ALL students Sample lessons, visuals, and essential vocabulary that connect mathematical concepts with language development

Good to Great to Innovate: Recalculating the Route to Career Readiness, K-12+

by Lyn D. Sharratt Dr Gale Harild

Guide your students to a successful future in the new economy Learn how outstanding schools on five continents address career readiness, and how your program can best prepare students for a successful future. Written for education leaders at all levels, this resource shows how to: Design a continuum of learning that empowers your students to become independent decision-makers Consistently support student voice and choice through all grade levels Integrate multiple Pathways to opportunity in your curriculum by developing local community partnerships Develop an approach to career readiness that recognizes the value of college, the workplace, university and the new “gold collar” jobs, including technology and the skilled trades

Beyond Core Expectations: A Schoolwide Framework for Serving the Not-So-Common Learner

by Andrea M. Honigsfeld Maria G. Dove Audrey F. Cohan

Create a schoolwide foundation to ensure academic success for ALL students This book demonstrates a system-wide approach to support the learning needs of culturally, linguistically, and academically diverse students. The authors deliver a six-point model for developing improved programs, policies, and practices, including: Mapping and aligning an integrated curriculum—making the mainstream curricula accessible for all learners Collaborative planning and assessment—pooling teachers’ intelligence so the whole is greater than the sum of the parts Teaching students explicit learning strategies—empowering students by taking the focus off the teacher and putting it back on learners

The Reflective Educator's Guide to Classroom Research: Learning to Teach and Teaching to Learn Through Practitioner Inquiry

by Nancy Fichtman Dana Diane Yendol-Hoppey

Harness the power of classroom data with the bestselling, updated guide to professional learning through inquiry and analysis. In this third edition of the renowned approach to teacher inquiry and data analysis, the authors add forward-thinking substance to their methods of formulating action research questions, collecting and analyzing data, and creating lasting solutions. In addition to illustrative real-life examples and practical exercises, new features include: An expanded data analysis chapter that introduces formative data analysis and its role in teacher research. Techniques for using inquiry to effectively implement Common Core State Standards. A brand-new chapter on ethical issues in teacher research.

Lemons to Lemonade: Resolving Problems in Meetings, Workshops, and PLCs

by Robert J. Garmston Dr Diane P. Zimmerman

The complete guide to getting the most out of every gathering of educators! Prevent meetings from descending into aimless rambling or counterproductive conflicts that end up wasting everybody's valuable time. This resource gives you a playbook to help anyone confidently lead group discussions so that problems get solved, not created. The authors, both veteran educators and experts in group dynamics, detail: How to prepare yourself to facilitate the discussion and keep it on task Best practices for squashing conflict without wounding pride Methods for dealing with “interrupters,” “subject-changers,” disputes, personal attacks, and other time-waster events

Trouble in the Making?: The Future of Manufacturing-Led Development

by Gaurav Nayyar Mary Hallward-Driemeier

Technology and globalization are threatening manufacturing’s traditional ability to deliver both productivity and jobs at a large scale for unskilled workers. Concerns about widening inequality within and across countries are raising questions about whether interventions are needed and how effective they could be. Trouble in the Making? The Future of Manufacturing-Led Development addresses three questions: - How has the global manufacturing landscape changed and why does this matter for development opportunities? - How are emerging trends in technology and globalization likely to shape the feasibility and desirability of manufacturing-led development in the future? - If low wages are going to be less important in defining competitiveness, how can less industrialized countries make the most of new opportunities that shifting technologies and globalization patterns may bring? The book examines the impacts of new technologies (i.e., the Internet of Things, 3-D printing, and advanced robotics), rising international competition, and increased servicification on manufacturing productivity and employment. The aim is to inform policy choices for countries currently producing and for those seeking to enter new manufacturing markets. Increased polarization is a risk, but the book analyzes ways to go beyond focusing on potential disruptions to position workers, firms, and locations for new opportunities. www.worldbank.org/futureofmanufacturing

Approaches to Understanding the Cumulative Effects of Stressors on Marine Mammals

by Engineering Medicine National Academies of Sciences

Marine mammals face a large array of stressors, including loss of habitat, chemical and noise pollution, and bycatch in fishing, which alone kills hundreds of thousands of marine mammals per year globally. To discern the factors contributing to population trends, scientists must consider the full complement of threats faced by marine mammals. Once populations or ecosystems are found to be at risk of adverse impacts, it is critical to decide which combination of stressors to reduce to bring the population or ecosystem into a more favorable state. Assessing all stressors facing a marine mammal population also provides the environmental context for evaluating whether an additional activity could threaten it. Approaches to Understanding the Cumulative Effects of Stressors on Marine Mammals builds upon previous reports to assess current methodologies used for evaluating cumulative effects and identify new approaches that could improve these assessments. This review focuses on ways to quantify exposure-related changes in the behavior, health, or body condition of individual marine mammals and makes recommendations for future research initiatives.

Strategies for Ensuring Diversity, Inclusion, and Meaningful Participation in Clinical Trials: Proceedings of a Workshop

by Engineering Medicine National Academies of Sciences

Even as the U.S. population becomes steadily more diverse, minorities and women remain underrepresented in clinical trials to develop new drugs and medical devices. Although progress in increasing minority participation in clinical trials has occurred, participation rates do not fully represent the overall population of minorities in the United States. This underrepresentation threatens the health of both these populations and the general population, since greater minority representation could reveal factors that affect health in all populations. Federal legislation has sought to increase the representation of minorities and women in clinical trials, but legislation by itself has not been sufficient to overcome the many barriers to greater participation. Only much broader changes will bring about the meaningful participation of all population groups in the clinical research needed to improve health. To examine the barriers to participation in clinical trials and ways of overcoming those barriers, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine held a workshop in April 2015. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

Pathways to Urban Sustainability: Challenges and Opportunities for the United States

by Engineering Medicine National Academies of Sciences

Cities have experienced an unprecedented rate of growth in the last decade. More than half the world’s population lives in urban areas, with the U.S. percentage at 80 percent. Cities have captured more than 80 percent of the globe’s economic activity and offered social mobility and economic prosperity to millions by clustering creative, innovative, and educated individuals and organizations. Clustering populations, however, can compound both positive and negative conditions, with many modern urban areas experiencing growing inequality, debility, and environmental degradation. The spread and continued growth of urban areas presents a number of concerns for a sustainable future, particularly if cities cannot adequately address the rise of poverty, hunger, resource consumption, and biodiversity loss in their borders. Intended as a comparative illustration of the types of urban sustainability pathways and subsequent lessons learned existing in urban areas, this study examines specific examples that cut across geographies and scales and that feature a range of urban sustainability challenges and opportunities for collaborative learning across metropolitan regions. It focuses on nine cities across the United States and Canada (Los Angeles, CA, New York City, NY, Philadelphia, PA, Pittsburgh, PA, Grand Rapids, MI, Flint, MI, Cedar Rapids, IA, Chattanooga, TN, and Vancouver, Canada), chosen to represent a variety of metropolitan regions, with consideration given to city size, proximity to coastal and other waterways, susceptibility to hazards, primary industry, and several other factors.

Relevance of Health Literacy to Precision Medicine: Proceedings of a Workshop

by Engineering Medicine National Academies of Sciences

On January 20, 2015, President Obama announced the Precision Medicine Initiative (PMI) in his State of the Union address. The PMI, by developing new approaches for detecting, measuring, and analyzing a wide range of biomedical information including molecular, genomic, cellular, clinical, behavioral, physiological, and environmental parameters, is intended to enable a new era of medicine in which researchers, providers, and patients work together to develop individualized care. Part of this effort included the creation of a national, large-scale research participant group, or cohort. The PMI Cohort Program is aimed at extending precision medicine to many diseases, including both rare and common diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, Alzheimer’s disease, obesity, and mental illnesses such as depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia, by building a national research cohort of 1 million or more U.S. participants. An important challenge to assembling the PMI Cohort will be to reach individuals who are socioeconomically disadvantaged. Individuals who are socioeconomically disadvantaged have lower health literacy; often belong to racial, ethnic, and minority communities; and are often less likely to participate in research studies and biorepositories. To explore possible strategies and messaging designs, the Roundtable on Health Literacy formed an ad hoc committee charged with planning and conducting a 1-day public workshop on the intersection of health literacy and precision medicine. The workshop participants discussed a variety of topics including an overview of precision medicine and its potential, the relevance of health literacy to the success of precision medicine efforts, and perspectives and understanding of different groups, such as health care providers, consumers, and insurers. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

From Maps to Models: Augmenting the Nation’s Geospatial Intelligence Capabilities

by Engineering Medicine National Academies of Sciences

The United States faces numerous, varied, and evolving threats to national security, including terrorism, scarcity and disruption of food and water supplies, extreme weather events, and regional conflicts around the world. Effectively managing these threats requires intelligence that not only assesses what is happening now, but that also anticipates potential future threats. The National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) is responsible for providing geospatial intelligence on other countries—assessing where exactly something is, what it is, and why it is important—in support of national security, disaster response, and humanitarian assistance. NGA’s approach today relies heavily on imagery analysis and mapping, which provide an assessment of current and past conditions. However, augmenting that approach with a strong modeling capability would enable NGA to also anticipate and explore future outcomes. A model is a simplified representation of a real-world system that is used to extract explainable insights about the system, predict future outcomes, or explore what might happen under plausible what-if scenarios. Such models use data and/or theory to specify inputs (e.g., initial conditions, boundary conditions, and model parameters) to produce an output. From Maps to Models: Augmenting the Nation’s Geospatial Intelligence Capabilities describes the types of models and analytical methods used to understand real-world systems, discusses what would be required to make these models and methods useful for geospatial intelligence, and identifies supporting research and development for NGA. This report provides examples of models that have been used to help answer the sorts of questions NGA might ask, describes how to go about a model-based investigation, and discusses models and methods that are relevant to NGA’s mission.

Communicating Science Effectively: A Research Agenda

by Engineering Medicine National Academies of Sciences

Science and technology are embedded in virtually every aspect of modern life. As a result, people face an increasing need to integrate information from science with their personal values and other considerations as they make important life decisions about medical care, the safety of foods, what to do about climate change, and many other issues. Communicating science effectively, however, is a complex task and an acquired skill. Moreover, the approaches to communicating science that will be most effective for specific audiences and circumstances are not obvious. Fortunately, there is an expanding science base from diverse disciplines that can support science communicators in making these determinations. Communicating Science Effectively offers a research agenda for science communicators and researchers seeking to apply this research and fill gaps in knowledge about how to communicate effectively about science, focusing in particular on issues that are contentious in the public sphere. To inform this research agenda, this publication identifies important influences – psychological, economic, political, social, cultural, and media-related – on how science related to such issues is understood, perceived, and used.

The Role of Experimentation Campaigns in the Air Force Innovation Life Cycle

by Engineering Medicine National Academies of Sciences

The Air Force (USAF) has continuously sought to improve the speed with which it develops new capabilities to accomplish its various missions in air, space, and cyberspace. Historically, innovation has been a key part of USAF strategy, and operating within an adversary’s OODA loop (observe, orient, decide, act) is part of Air Force DNA. This includes the ability to deploy technological innovations faster than do our adversaries. The Air Force faces adversaries with the potential to operate within the USAF’s OODA loop, and some of these adversaries are already deploying innovations faster than the USAF. The Role of Experimentation Campaigns in the Air Force Innovation Life Cycle examines the current state of innovation and experimentation in the Air Force and best practices in innovation and experimentation in industry and other government agencies. This report also explores organizational changes needed to eliminate the barriers that deter innovation and experimentation and makes recommendations for the successful implementation of robust innovation and experimentation by the Air Force.

Implementation of Lung Cancer Screening: Proceedings of a Workshop

by Engineering Medicine National Academies of Sciences

The public health burden from lung cancer is substantial: it is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Given the individual and population health burden of lung cancer, especially when it is diagnosed at later stages, there has been a push to develop and implement screening strategies for early detection. However, many factors need to be considered for broad implementation of lung cancer screening in clinical practice. Effective implementation will entail understanding the balance of potential benefits and harms of lung cancer screening, defining and reaching eligible populations, addressing health disparities, and many more considerations. In recognition of the substantial challenges to developing effective lung cancer screening programs in clinical practice, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine held a workshop in June 2016. At the workshop, experts described the current evidence base for lung cancer screening, the current challenges of implementation, and opportunities to overcome them. Workshop participants also explored capacity and access issues; best practices for screening programs; assessment of patient outcomes, quality, and value in lung cancer screening; and research needs that could improve implementation efforts. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

Controlled Human Inhalation-Exposure Studies at EPA

by Engineering Medicine National Academies of Sciences

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has a mission and regulatory responsibility to protect human health and the environment. EPA’s pursuit of that goal includes a variety of research activities involving human subjects, such as epidemiologic studies and surveys. Those research activities also involve studies of individuals who volunteer to be exposed to air pollutants intentionally in controlled laboratory settings so that measurements can be made of transient and reversible biomarker or physiologic responses to those exposures that can indicate pathways of toxicity and mechanisms of air-pollution responses. The results of those controlled human inhalation exposure (CHIE) studies, also referred to as human clinical studies or human challenge studies, are used to inform policy decisions and help establish or revise standards to protect public health and improve air quality. Controlled Human Inhalation-Exposure Studies at EPA addresses scientific issues and provides guidance on the conduct of CHIE studies. This report assesses the utility of CHIE studies to inform and reduce uncertainties in setting air-pollution standards to protect public health and assess whether continuation of such studies is warranted. It also evaluates the potential health risks to test subjects who participated in recent studies of air pollutants at EPA’s clinical research facility.

Countering Violent Extremism Through Public Health Practice: Proceedings of a Workshop

by Engineering Medicine National Academies of Sciences

Countering violent extremism consists of various prevention and intervention approaches to increase the resilience of communities and individuals to radicalization toward violent extremism, to provide nonviolent avenues for expressing grievances, and to educate communities about the threat of recruitment and radicalization to violence. To explore the application of health approaches in community-level strategies to countering violent extremism and radicalization, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine held a public workshop in September 2016. Participants explored the evolving threat of violent extremism and radicalization within communities across America, traditional versus health-centered approaches to countering violent extremism and radicalization, and opportunities for cross-sector and interdisciplinary collaboration and learning among domestic and international stakeholders and organizations. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

Out Of Albania

by Nicola Mai Russell King

Analysing the dynamics of the post-1990 Albanian migration to Italy, this book is the first major study of one of Europe's newest, most dramatic yet least understood migrations. It takes a close look at migrants' employment, housing and social exclusion in Italy, as well as the process of return migration to Albania. The research described in the book challenges the pervasive stereotype of the "bad Albanian" and, through in-depth fieldwork on Albanian communities in Italy and back in Albania, provides rich insights into the Albanian experience of migration, settlement and return in both their positive and their negative aspects.

Narrating The Nation

by Stefan Berger Linas Eriksonas Andrew Mycock

A sustained and systematic study of the construction, erosion and reconstruction of national histories across a wide variety of states is highly topical and extremely relevant in the context of the accelerating processes of Europeanization and globalization. However, as demonstrated in this volume, histories have not, of course, only been written by professional historians. Drawing on studies from a number of different European nation states, the contributors to this volume present a systematic exploration, of the representation of the national paradigm. In doing so, they contextualize the European experience in a more global framework by providing comparative perspectives on the national histories in the Far East and North America. As such, they expose the complex variables and diverse actors that lie behind the narration of a nation.

Health, Risk, And Adversity

by Catherine Panter-Brick Agustin Fuentes

Research on health involves evaluating the disparities that are systematically associated with the experience of risk, including genetic and physiological variation, environmental exposure to poor nutrition and disease, and social marginalization. This volume provides a unique perspective - a comparative approach to the analysis of health disparities and human adaptability - and specifically focuses on the pathways that lead to unequal health outcomes. From an explicitly anthropological perspective situated in the practice and theory of biosocial studies, this book combines theoretical rigor with more applied and practice-oriented approaches and critically examines infectious and chronic diseases, reproduction, and nutrition.

High School Graduation: K-12 Strategies That Work

by Avis E. Glaze Ruth E. Mattingley Rob Andrews

High-impact strategies to improve student outcomes Based on first-hand experiences from one of the world’s fastest improving school systems, this comprehensive resource provides concrete, detailed, and research-based tools with particular attention to learning progressions. Scaffolded instruction and leadership strategies promote early and sound foundations in literacy and numeracy, build pathways to close achievement gaps, and emphasize character and citizenship development, among other strategies, to improve graduation rates. You’ll also find: A multi-pronged approach that includes state, district and school level action points Sample tools and templates for planning and self-assessment Lessons learned from schools that have successfully implemented strategies

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