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This book provides comprehensive coverage of the current and emerging management of prostatitis, from diagnosis to therapy. It addresses all clinical aspects of the prostatitis syndrome and equips the reader with all the information needed to offer a tailored therapy. Furthermore, clinical implications of the disease are analyzed and discussed, with particular attention to andrological complications (infertility) and the possible link between prostatitis and prostate cancer. Special consideration is also given to contemporary aspects of prostatitis management relating to antibiotic stewardship and elevated PSA, bearing in mind that thoughtless treatment of prostatitis represents malpractice and sometimes even a forensic issue. The final chapter comprising questions and answers will be valuable for quick consultation in everyday clinical practice. This book will be a truly practical guide for physicians involved in the diagnostic work-up and treatment of patients suspected of having prostatitis and will also serve as a ready source of information for all physicians who occasionally see prostatitis patients.
In a down-to-the earth manner, the volume lucidly presents how the fundamental concepts, methodology, and algorithms of Computational Intelligence are efficiently exploited in Software Engineering and opens up a novel and promising avenue of a comprehensive analysis and advanced design of software artifacts. It shows how the paradigm and the best practices of Computational Intelligence can be creatively explored to carry out comprehensive software requirement analysis, support design, testing, and maintenance. Software Engineering is an intensive knowledge-based endeavor of inherent human-centric nature, which profoundly relies on acquiring semiformal knowledge and then processing it to produce a running system. The knowledge spans a wide variety of artifacts, from requirements, captured in the interaction with customers, to design practices, testing, and code management strategies, which rely on the knowledge of the running system. This volume consists of contributions written by widely acknowledged experts in the field who reveal how the Software Engineering benefits from the key foundations and synergistically existing technologies of Computational Intelligence being focused on knowledge representation, learning mechanisms, and population-based global optimization strategies. This book can serve as a highly useful reference material for researchers, software engineers and graduate students and senior undergraduate students in Software Engineering and its sub-disciplines, Internet engineering, Computational Intelligence, management, operations research, and knowledge-based systems.
Presentingthe first systematic treatment of the behavior of Néron models under ramifiedbase change, this book can be read as an introduction to various subtleinvariants and constructions related to Néron models of semi-abelian varieties,motivated by concrete research problems and complemented with explicitexamples. Néron models of abelian andsemi-abelian varieties have become an indispensable tool in algebraic andarithmetic geometry since Néron introduced them in his seminal 1964 paper. Applications range from the theory of heights in Diophantine geometry to Hodgetheory. We focus specifically on Néron component groups, Edixhoven's filtrationand the base change conductor of Chai and Yu, and we study these invariantsusing various techniques such as models of curves, sheaves on Grothendiecksites and non-archimedean uniformization. We then apply our results to thestudy of motivic zeta functions of abelian varieties. The final chaptercontains a list of challenging open questions. This book is aimed towardsresearchers with a background in algebraic and arithmetic geometry.
Thisvolume focuses on those instances when benign and even beneficial relationshipsbetween microbes and their hosts opportunistically change and becomedetrimental toward the host. It examinesthe triggering events which can factor into these changes, such as reduction inthe host's capacity for mounting an effective defensive response due tonutritional deprivation, coinfections and seemingly subtle environmentalinfluences like the amounts of sunlight, temperature, and either water or airquality. The effects of environmentalchanges can be compounded when they necessitate a physical relocation ofspecies, in turn changing the probability of encounter between microbe andhost. The change also can result whenpathogens, including virus species, either have modified the opportunist or attackedthe host's protective natural microflora. The authors discuss these opportunistic interactions and assess theiroutcomes in both aquatic as well as terrestrial ecosystems, highlighting theimpact on plant, invertebrate and vertebrate hosts.
This book offers a thorough review of the scientific research that links the consumption of grapes to better health. The book starts with a basic review of grape biology, including the key families of phytochemicals found in grapes, and where they are found. An overview of the rationale for and subsequent creation of a standardized grape powder for use in basic and clinical research provides insight and understanding regarding its widespread use in grape-specific research today. The remaining chapters each thoroughly examine a key area of health, demonstrating a significant scope of impact on well-being. The book examines the role of grapes in supporting heart health under multiple angles: general cardiovascular effects, as well as specific effects directly linked to atherosclerosis and hypertension. Other emerging and important areas of health are examined, ranging from grapes and cancer, where grape consumption has been shown to protect healthy colon tissue; grapes and inflammation, where grapes have been shown to block inflammatory activity in immune cells of fat tissue; to brain health, where a grape-enriched diet has been shown to protect against neuronal damage due to loss of oxygen in the brain, as well as against oxidative stress-related anxiety and resulting memory loss; to grapes and eye health where grape consumption has been shown to protect the retina from damage.
This book addresses a major problem for today's large-scale networked systems: certification of the required stability and performance properties using analytical and computational models. On the basis of illustrative case studies, it demonstrates the applicability of theoretical methods to biological networks, vehicle fleets, and Internet congestion control. Rather than tackle the network as a whole --an approach that severely limits the ability of existing methods to cope with large numbers of physical components-- the book develops a compositional approach that derives network-level guarantees from key structural properties of the components and their interactions--the book addresses this problem by pursuing a compositional approach that derives network-level guarantees from key structural properties of the subsystems and their interactions. The foundational tool in this approach is the established dissipativity theory, which is reviewed in the first chapter and supplemented with modern computational techniques. The book blends this theory with the authors' recent research efforts at a level that is accessible to graduate students and practising engineers familiar with only the most basic nonlinear systems concepts. Code associated with the numerical examples can be downloaded at extras. springer. com, allowing readers to reproduce the examples and become acquainted with the relevant software.
Aimed at both beginners and experienced researchers unfamiliar with the technique, this book provides a concise and easy-to-understand guide to using immunohistochemistry. It identifies the proper place and purpose of each component of immunohistochemistry, emphasizes the components that are of critical importance, and explains the logistics of experimental approaches. Understanding the principles of immunohistochemistry allows for the identification and localization of protein targets and is of crucial use in the following experiments: · producing transgenic animals · studying the effects of drug treatments · electrophysiological studies · animal surgery · isolating and differentiating stem cells · super-resolution microscopy Immunohistochemistry for the Non-Expert is aimed at a wide audience, including molecular biologists, pharmacologists, immunologists, chemists, cell biologists, physiologists, and researchers involved with animal anatomy studies.
Thisbook is focused on pancyclic and bipancyclic graphs and is geared toward researchersand graduate students in graph theory. Readers should be familiar with thebasic concepts of graph theory, the definitions of a graph and of a cycle. Pancyclicgraphs contain cycles of all possible lengths from three up to the number ofvertices in the graph. Bipartite graphs contain only cycles of even lengths, abipancyclic graph is defined to be a bipartite graph with cycles of every evensize from 4 vertices up to the number of vertices in the graph. Cutting edgeresearch and fundamental results on pancyclic and bipartite graphs from a widerange of journal articles and conference proceedings are composed in this bookto create a standalone presentation. Thefollowing questions are highlighted through the book: - What is the smallest possible number of edges in apancyclic graph with v vertices? - When do pancyclic graphs exist with exactly onecycle of every possible length? - What is the smallest possible number of edges in abipartite graph with v vertices? - When do bipartite graphs exist with exactly one cycle of every possiblelength?
In this volume a theory for models of transport in the presence of a free boundary is developed. Macroscopic laws of transport are described by PDE's. When the system is open, there are several mechanisms to couple the system with the external forces. Here a class of systems where the interaction with the exterior takes place in correspondence of a free boundary is considered. Both continuous and discrete models sharing the same structure are analysed. In Part I a free boundary problem related to the Stefan Problem is worked out in all details. For this model a new notion of relaxed solution is proposed for which global existence and uniqueness is proven. It is also shown that this is the hydrodynamic limit of the empirical mass density of the associated particle system. In Part II several other models are discussed. The expectation is that the results proved for the basic model extend to these other cases. All the models discussed in this volume have an interest in problems arising in several research fields such as heat conduction, queuing theory, propagation of fire, interface dynamics, population dynamics, evolution of biological systems with selection mechanisms. In general researchers interested in the relations between PDE's and stochastic processes can find in this volume an extension of this correspondence to modern mathematical physics.
This brief is the result of the research the author has performed in recent years covering electrical fluctuations in numerous systems, including molecular electrical fluctuations, ionic fluctuations, ionic dielectric relaxation, spherical and cylindrical polyelectrolytes, ionic polarizability in polyelectrolytes, pH fluctuation in vesicles and electrical fluctuations in proteins. The importance of estimating electrical fluctuations resides in its richness of information and omnipresence in biological systems. In order to understand how these systems work it is vital to know the magnitude of their electrical fluctuations. Electromagnetic fluctuations are the origin of London (Van der Waals) forces between molecules, and Lifshitz forces between macro objects. Protonic fluctuations are the origin of Kirkwood and Shumaker forces between molecules and pH fluctuations. Furthermore, protonic fluctuations could be the cause of the dielectric increment of proteins in solution. Local electrical fluctuations can influence chemical reactions and so on. This book addresses the interplay of these pervasive phenomena. .
This brief focuses on the use of full-duplex radio in cognitive radio networks, presenting a novel spectrum sharing protocol that allows the secondary users to simultaneously sense and access the vacant spectrum. This protocol, called "Listen-and-talk" (LAT), is evaluated by both mathematical analysis and computer simulations in comparison with other existing protocols, including the listen-before-talk protocol. In addition to LAT-based signal processing and resource allocation, the brief discusses techniques such as spectrum sensing and dynamic spectrum access. The brief proposes LAT as a suitable access scheme for cognitive radio networks, which can support the quality-of-service requirements of these high priority applications. Fundamental theories and key techniques of cognitive radio networks are also covered. Listen and Talk: Full-duplex Cognitive Radio Networks is designed for researchers, developers, and professionals involved in cognitive radio networks. Advanced-level students studying signal processing or simulations will also find the content helpful since it moves beyond traditional cognitive radio networks into future applications for the technology.
This book provides a concise study of eye gaze tracking as a direct controller of electronic displays and interfaces inside cars and other vehicles. The author explores the prospect of controlling a vehicle's internal system via the drivers' eye gaze and for the vehicles to analyse and respond to a drivers' change in cognitive load too. New algorithms tackling micro-saccadic eye movements and the inaccuracy in eye gaze tracking for controlling on-screen pointers are presented and explored. Multimodal fusion algorithms involving eye gaze and finger tracking systems are presented and validated and important results have been obtained on gaze controlled interfaces and visual responses whilst encountering oncoming road hazards. A set of user trials to validate the algorithms involving driving simulators are also presented by the author. Exploring the Use of Eye Gaze Controlled Interfaces in Automotive Environments would of great importance to researchers and designers alike, within the fields of automotive design and engineering, human-computer interaction (HCI) and intelligent interfaces.
The ability to communicate cultural codes in multimedia depends on their meaning and beauty, as perceived by different audiences around the globe. In this book, the ongoing research on computational modeling of visual, musical and textual contents is described in terms of identifying and mapping their semantic representations across different cultures. The underlying psychology of sense-making is quantified through analysis of aesthetics in terms of organizational and structural aspects of the contents that influence an audience's formation of expectations for future signals, violations of these expectations, and explanations of their meaning. Complexity-accuracy tradeoffs in sound representation are further used to develop new computational methods that capture poietic and aesthetic aspects in music communication. Experimental studies are reported that try to characterize preferences for complexity in abstract, classical and traditional art and music across samples of Western and Far Eastern cultures. These experiments illustrate how aesthetics can be computed in terms of semantic and information measures, highlighting commonalities and uncovering differences in aesthetic preferences across cultures and individuals.
This book presents the proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Trust, Privacy and Security in Digital Business (TrustBus 2009), held in Linz, Austria d- ing September 3-4, 2009. The conference continues from previous events held in Zaragoza (2004), Copenhagen (2005), Krakow (2006), Regensburg (2007) and Turin (2008). The advances in the information and communication technologies (ICT) have raised new opportunities for the implementation of novel applications and the pro- sion of high-quality services over global networks. The aim is to utilize this 'infor- tion society era' for improving the quality of life for all citizens, disseminating knowledge, strengthening social cohesion, generating earnings and finally ensuring that organizations and public bodies remain competitive in the global electronic m- ketplace. Unfortunately, such a rapid technological evolution cannot be problem free. Concerns are raised regarding the 'lack of trust' in electronic procedures and the - tent to which 'information security' and 'user privacy' can be ensured. TrustBus 2009 brought together academic researchers and industry developers, who discussed the state of the art in technology for establishing trust, privacy and security in digital business. We thank the attendees for coming to Linz to participate and debate the new emerging advances in this area.
This book provides a comprehensive discussion on urban growth and sprawl, and how they can be analyzed using remote sensing imageries. It compiles views of numerous researchers that help in understanding the urban growth and sprawl; their patterns, process, causes, consequences, and countermeasures; how remote sensing data and geographic information system techniques can be used in mapping, monitoring, measuring, analyzing, and simulating the urban growth and sprawl and what are the merits and demerits of available methods and models. This book will be of value for the scientists and researchers engaged in urban geographic research, especially using remote sensing imageries. This book will serve as a rigours literature review for them. Post graduate students of urban geography or urban/regional planning may refer this book as additional studies. This book may help the academicians for preparing lecture notes and delivering lectures. Industry professionals may also be benefited from the discussed methods and models along with numerous citations.
Obesity is a disease of society and economic transition spreading at an epidemic pace throughout the world. According to the World Health Organization, obesity is defined as an increased or abnormal accumulation of body fat mass to the extent that individual's health will be negatively affected. Overweight is thus being considered as top at risk condition in the world and it is mandatory to identify the physiopathological causes involved in adipose tissue enlargement and related metabolic and cardiovascular health disorders.This volume provides the most up to date insights into the biology of a complex endocrine organ: the adipose tissue.
Water is a strategic natural resource of vital importance to all nations. As such it has been the cause of several international disputes. For Turkey especially, water is crucial to social and economic development. Turkey's current national water regime that emphasises water resources development and management for productive uses, however, faces growing environmental concerns and international criticism regarding transboundary water cooperation. Furthermore, EU accession requires Turkey to adopt an extensive and ambitious body of EU water law. To understand Turkey's position to international water law, the national policies and socio-economic circumstances that impact water resources management need to be considered. This book fills the existing knowledge gap through a broad perspective and analysis of the current state of Turkey's water policy and its management of both national and transboundary waters. It is a unique undertaking that brings together Turkish and international authors, practitioners and academics, covering all aspects of water management
Sensing the Environment: Regulation of Local and Global Homeostasis by the Skin's Neuroendocrine Systemby Cezary Skobowiat Radomir M. Slominski Andrzej T. Slominski Blazej Zbytek Michal A. Zmijewski Jeffery D. Steketee
The skin, the body's largest organ, is strategically located at the interface with the external environment where it detects, integrates and responds to a diverse range of stressors, including solar radiation. It has already been established that the skin is an important peripheral neuroendocrine-immune organ that is closely networked with central regulatory systems. These capabilities contribute to the maintenance of peripheral homeostasis. Specifically, epidermal and dermal cells produce and respond to classical stress neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and hormones, production which is stimulated by ultraviolet radiation (UVR), biological factors (infectious and non-infectious) and other physical and chemical agents. Examples of local biologically active products are cytokines, biogenic amines (catecholamines, histamine, serotonin and N-acetyl-serotonin), melatonin, acetylocholine, neuropeptides including pituitary (proopiomelanocortin-derived ACTH, b-endorphin or MSH peptides, thyroid stimulating hormone) and hypothalamic (corticotropin-releasing factor and related urocortins, thyroid-releasing hormone) hormones, as well as enkephalins and dynorphins, thyroid hormones, steroids (glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, sex hormones, 7-δ steroids), secosteroids, opioids and endocannabinoids. The production of these molecules is hierarchical, organized along the algorithms of classical neuroendocrine axes such as the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPA), hypothalamic-thyroid axis (HPT), serotoninergic, melatoninergic, catecholaminergic, cholinergic, steroid/secosteroidogenic, opioid and endocannabinoid systems. Disruptions of these axes or of communication between them may lead to skin and/or systemic diseases. These local neuroendocrine networks also serve to limit the effect of noxious environmental agents to preserve local and consequently global homeostasis. Moreover, the skin-derived factors/systems can also activate cutaneous nerve endings to alert the brain to changes in the epidermal or dermal environments, or alternatively to activate other coordinating centers by direct (spinal cord) neurotransmission without brain involvement. Furthermore, rapid and reciprocal communications between epidermal and dermal and adnexal compartments are also mediated by neurotransmission including antidromic modes of conduction. Lastly, skin cells and the skin as an organ coordinate and/or regulate not only peripheral but also global homeostasis.
This thesis addresses optical binding - a new area of interest within the field of optical micromanipulation. It presents, for the first time, a rigorous numerical simulation of some of the key results, along with new experimental findings and also physical interpretations of the results. In an optical trap particles are attracted close to areas of high optical intensities and intensity gradients. So, for example, if two lasers are pointed towards each other (a counter propagating trap) then a single particle is trapped in the centre of the two beams - the system is analogous to a particle being held by two springs in a potential well. If one increases the number of particles in the trap then naively one would expect all the particles to collect in the centre of the well. However, the effect of optical binding means that the presence of one particle affects the distribution of light experienced by another particle, resulting in extremely complex interactions that can lead to unusual 1D and 2D structures to form within the trap. Optical binding is not only of theoretical interest but also has applications in micromanipulation and assembly.
In Alive, Scott Sigler introduced readers to an unforgettable young heroine and a mysterious new world reminiscent of those of The Hunger Games, Divergent, and Red Rising. Now he expands his singular vision in the next thrilling novel of this powerful sci-fi adventure series."If it's war they want, they messed with the wrong girl." M. Savage--or Em, as she is called--has made a bewildering and ominous discovery. She and the other young people she was chosen to lead awoke in strange coffins with no memory of their names or their pasts. They faced an empty, unknown place of twisting tunnels and human bones. With only one another to depend on, they searched for answers and found the truth about their terrifying fate. Confronted by a monstrous enemy, they vowed never to surrender--and, by any means, to survive. The planet Omeyocan may be the sanctuary Em and her comrades seek. But the planet for which they were created turns out not to be a pristine, virgin world. Vestiges of a lost civilization testify to a horrifying past that may yet repeat itself. And when a new enemy creeps from the jungle shadows, Em and her young refugees learn there's nowhere left to run. They face a simple choice: fight or die. In the midst of this desperate struggle, their unity is compromised from within--and a dangerous zealot devoted to a bloodthirsty god moves to usurp Em's command, threatening to lead them all down a path to violent doom. Praise for Scott Sigler's Alive "Suspenseful . . . [Alive] lives up to its hype, packing plenty of thrills. . . . A page-turner that whets the appetite for volume 2."--Entertainment Weekly "Fascinating and intriguing . . . a cross between Lord of the Flies and The Maze Runner and yet . . . so much more."--Fresh Fiction "A ripping, claustrophobic thunderbolt of a novel."--Pierce Brown, New York Times bestselling author of Red Rising "Unstoppable and real, M. Savage is one hell of a heroine. Get ready to be left breathless."--Kristin Cast, New York Times bestselling author of the House of Night series "Sigler has created a wonderful and engrossing character in M. Savage. Strong and smart, but with the naïveté and misgivings of any teenage girl, she's someone you'll definitely want on your side when s**t hits the fan, which it most certainly does."--Veronica Belmont, host of Sword & Laser "The puzzle unfolds masterfully, right down to the last page."--Phil Plait, PhD, author of Bad AstronomyFrom the Hardcover edition.
A scintillating debut novel about a young couple whose marriage is tested when they move to an army base rife with love triangles, life-or-death conflicts, and a dramatic cover-up In 1959, Nat Collier moves with her husband, Paul, and their two young daughters to Idaho Falls, a remote military town. An Army Specialist, Paul is stationed there to help oversee one of the country's first nuclear reactors--an assignment that seems full of opportunity. Then, on his rounds, Paul discovers that the reactor is compromised, placing his family and the entire community in danger. Worse, his superiors set out to cover up the problem rather than fix it. Paul can't bring himself to tell Nat the truth, but his lies only widen a growing gulf between them. Lonely and restless, Nat is having trouble adjusting to their new life. She struggles to fit into her role as a housewife and longs for a real friend. When she meets a rancher, Esrom, she finds herself drawn to him, comforted by his kindness and company. But as rumors spread, the secrets between Nat and Paul build and threaten to reach a breaking point. Based on a true story of the only fatal nuclear accident to occur in America, The Longest Night is a deeply moving novel that explores the intricate makeup of a marriage, the shifting nature of trust, and the ways we try to protect the ones we love. Praise for The Longest Night"[A] stunning debut."--Entertainment Weekly "[A] smart and detailed portrait of a dissolving postwar marriage . . . will remind many readers of Richard Yates's Revolutionary Road."--San Francisco Chronicle "[Andria] Williams's quietly confident style is without swagger or gimmick. . . . What emerges most powerfully from The Longest Night is a kind of quiet wonder at the exquisite intricacy, but astonishing durability, of familial love."--Los Angeles Review of Books"Think Army Wives meets Serial meets your perfect long weekend read. About an army base with a lot of love triangles, and a cover-up."--theSkimm "The tension builds heavily with each page."--InStyle"Scintillating . . . A smoldering, altogether impressive debut that probes the social and emotional strains on military families in a fresh and insightful way."--Kirkus Reviews (starred review) "[A] luminous debut . . . Williams expertly builds tension between Paul and Nat as the story progresses towards the inevitable nuclear tragedy in this utterly absorbing and richly rewarding novel."--Booklist (starred review)"Andria Williams's debut is an intimately detailed portrait of love, trust, and guilt in a town--and an era--clouded with secrets."--Celeste Ng, author of Everything I Never Told You "A smart and compassionate novel that offers as many fresh insights into marriage and intimacy as it does about American nuclear history. Andria Williams is a terrific writer--clear-eyed and empathetic--and this is a fantastic debut."--Molly Antopol, author of The UnAmericans"It's hard to believe The Longest Night is Andria Williams's debut novel. Her command of language, character and plot--the three essential ingredients for a riveting read--is extraordinary."--David Abrams, author of FobbitFrom the Hardcover edition.
Notch signaling regulates many cell fate decision and differentiation processes during embryonic development and tissue homeostasis. Moreover, disregulation of the pathway is associated with human disorders and cancer. In the last 15 years it became evident that Notch plays important roles in the hematopoietic system as well as in the regulation of immune responses. This special issue on Notch regulation of the immune system summarizes recent advances and covers multiple aspects of Notch signaling within the hematopoietic and the immune system. This issue covers subjects including Notch function in embryonic and adult hematopoietic stem cells, lymphocyte development and function as well as in T cell leukemia.
This text is a guide how to solve problems in which viscoelasticity is present using existing commercial computational codes. The book gives information on codes' structure and use, data preparation and output interpretation and verification. The first part of the book introduces the reader to the subject, and to provide the models, equations and notation to be used in the computational applications. The second part shows the most important Computational techniques: Finite elements formulation, Boundary elements formulation, and presents the solutions of Viscoelastic problems with Abaqus.
"Contradictions" is a general interest book that exposes the incompatibility between popular religious beliefs and the scientific view of human nature. It begins with a survey of the evolution of religions and their continuing, often irrational, influences in modern society. Then, based on his long experience in neuroscience, the author takes issue with Decartes about the duality of body and soul. He presents case studies of patients with brain diseases and from these deduces that the soul, far from being separate and supernatural, is no more or less than our way of experiencing our brains ... and which correspondingly disintegrates when they do. Convincing clinical findings and powerful arguments about the universality of truth make this book a bold contribution to the debate about belief and religion in the modern world.
The "EPCglobal Architecture Framework" is currently the most accepted technical approach to the Internet of Things and provides a solid foundation for building Business-to-Business information networks based on unique identifications of 'things'. Lately, the vision of the Internet of Things has been extended to a more holistic approach that integrates sensors as well as actuators and includes non-business stakeholders. A detailed look at the current state of the art in research concerning cost and benefit estimations is provided and the limits of Cost Benefit Sharing for RFID-based IT-infrastructures are explained. In this work a market driven evaluation based on sales potential of information is developed. Simple technical means for aggregation of micro values to a billable amount are discussed. The requirements for electronic billing infrastructure are defined and a matching e-billing solutions for an evaluation scenario is presented, providing a technical infrastructure to evaluate and bill product-related information in a future Internet of Things, based on an extended EPCglobal Architecture. Further opportunities and threats are discussed to provide an overview of its future potential. As a result it will contribute to the sustainable success of the Internet of Things itself.
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