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Teachers on the Edge: The WOE Interviews, 1989–2017

by Lisa Sperber John Boe Eric Schroeder David Masiel

For over 25 years, the journal Writing on the Edge has published interviews with influential writers, teachers, and scholars. Now, Teachers on the Edge: The WOE Interviews, 1989–2017 collects the voices of 39 significant figures in writing studies, forming an accessible survey of the modern history of rhetoric and composition. In a conversational style, Teachers on the Edge encourages a remarkable group of teachers and scholars to tell the stories of their influences and interests, tracing the progress of their contributions. This engaging volume is invaluable to graduate students, writing teachers, and scholars of writing studies.

Leadership in Public Organizations: An Introduction

by Montgomery Van Wart

Leadership in Public Organizations is a concise yet comprehensive treatment of public sector leadership for upper division and graduate students. In addition to a full, up-to-date review of leadership theories in the field, it covers the major competency clusters in detail, and provides both the research on each competency and practical guidelines for improvement. These competencies are graphically portrayed in a Leadership Action cycle that aids students in visually connecting theory and practice. Important features of the text include discussion questions and scenarios at the end of each chapter, numerous exhibits, and an easily reproducible leadership assessment instrument. Although designed for course use in a Public Administration program, Leadership in Public Organizations can also serve as a guidebook for professionals seeking insight into the role of successful leadership behavior in public sector management.

Plantation Crops, Plunder and Power: Evolution and exploitation

by James F. Hancock

Over the last five centuries, plantation crops have represented the best and worst of industrialized agriculture – "best" through their agronomic productivity and global commercial success, and "worst" as examples of exploitative colonialism, conflict and ill-treatment of workers. This book traces the social, political and evolutionary history of seven major plantation crops – sugarcane, banana, cotton, tea, tobacco, coffee and rubber. It describes how all of these were domesticated in antiquity and grown by small landowners for thousands of years before European traders and colonists sought to make a profit out of them. The author relates how their development and spread were closely associated with government expansionist policies. They stimulated the exploration of far off lands, were the focus of major conflicts and led to the enslavement of both native and displaced peoples. From the southern United States, Latin America and the Caribbean, to Asia and Africa, plantation crops turned social structures upside down leading to revolution and government change. The economies of whole countries became tied to the profits of these plantations, leading to internal power struggles to control the burgeoning wealth. Open warfare routinely broke out between the more powerful countries and factions for trade dominance. This book shows that from the early 1500s to today, at least one of the plantation crops was always at the center of world politics, and that this still continues today, for example with the development of oil palm plantations in Southeast Asia.

Crime and Criminal Justice in America

by Joycelyn Pollock

Crime and Criminal Justice in America, Third Edition, addresses the major controversial issues in U.S. policing, courts, and the correctional system. This book features unique graphics and contemporary data and research, developed by Joycelyn Pollock, criminologist, and University Distinguished Professor of Criminal Justice, Texas State University. The text’s question-and-answer model promotes a critical thinking process for students new to criminal justice, encouraging student engagement and the application of learned skills through end-of-chapter exercises. Timely, comprehensive, and visually stimulating, Crime and Criminal Justice in America, Third Edition, is the go-to text for introductory criminal justice students and educators.

Crusading and the Crusader States

by Andrew Jotischky

Crusading and the Crusader States explores how the idea of holy war emerged from the troubled society of the eleventh century, and why Jerusalem and the Holy Land were so important to Europeans. It follows the progress of the major crusading expeditions, offering insights into initial success and subsequent failure, charts the development of new attitudes towards Islam and its followers, and shows the effects of the Crusades on society and culture in the Near East. Providing analysis and discussion of this vital period of medieval history, Andrew Jotischky discusses key questions such as how crusading evolved in theory and practice, how crusading expeditions were planned and carried out, why they were considered such an essential part of medieval society, and why their popularity endured despite military failures. This new edition takes into account the wealth of rich and varied recent research to show why crusading should be seen as central to the European experience in the Middle Ages. It engages with key historiographical debates of the past decade, including how Crusades were formed, the political culture and social networks of crusading, and the effects of crusading on western religious and aristocratic culture. It now extends into the fifteenth century to discuss the lasting ramifications of the Crusades, and illustrate their legacy into the early modern period. It is essential reading for all students of the Crusades and medieval history.

The Stuart Age: England, 1603–1714

by Peter Gaunt Barry Coward

The Stuart Age provides an accessible introduction to England's century of civil war and revolution, including the causes of the English Civil War; the nature of the English Revolution; the aims and achievements of Oliver Cromwell; the continuation of religious passion in the politics of Restoration England; and the impact of the Glorious Revolution on Britain. The fifth edition has been thoroughly revised and updated by Peter Gaunt to reflect new work and changing trends in research on the Stuart age. It expands on key areas including the early Stuart economic, religious and social context; key military events and debates surrounding the English Civil War; colonial expansion, foreign policy and overseas wars; and significant developments in Scotland and Ireland. A new opening chapter provides an important overview of current historiographical trends in Stuart history, introducing readers to key recent work on the topic. The Stuart Age is a long-standing favourite of lecturers and students of early modern British history, and this new edition is essential reading for those studying Stuart Britain.

Therapeutic Communication in Mental Health Nursing: Aesthetic and Metaphoric Processes in the Engagement with Challenging Patients

by Shira Birnbaum

This book introduces an innovative technique for therapeutic communication in mental health nursing, expanding the toolkit for nurses seeking to engage challenging patients who have not responded to more conventional therapeutic methods. Linking nursing communication to current research on metaphor and figuration, it is illustrated with accessible clinical examples. Metaphor is a key component of talk-based psychotherapies. But many of the patients whom nurses encounter in the inpatient setting are not good candidates for talk-based approaches, at least initially, because they are violent, withdrawn, highly regressed, or otherwise lacking a vocabulary to convey thoughts and feelings. This book offers specific clinical examples of an approach called the "gestural bridge." This is a method for structuring games and physical activities which connect metaphorically to a patient’s personal themes, activating narrative and observational agency and enabling an exchange of meaning to begin at a time when conventional language is not available. Rooted in what nursing theorists have called the "embodied" or "aesthetic" way of knowing, this approach is both specific and easily grasped. Drawing from contemporary work in literary theory, semiotics, metaphor theory, cognitive science, philosophy, linguistics, psychoanalysis, and the arts, Therapeutic Communication in Mental Health Nursing is important reading for advanced-level practitioners, students, and researchers interested in communication and relationship-building in nursing.

California's Amazing Geology

by Donald R. Prothero

California has some of the most distinctive and unique geology in the United States. It is the only state with all three types of plate boundaries, an extraordinary history of earthquakes and volcanoes, and it has many rocks and minerals found nowhere else. The Golden State includes both the highest and lowest point in the continental US and practically every conceivable geological feature known. This book discusses not only the important geologic features of each region in California, but also the complex geologic four-dimensional puzzle of how California was assembled, beginning over 2 billion years ago. The author provides up-to-date and authoritative review of the geology and geomorphology of each geologic province, as well as recent revelations of tectonic history of California’s past. There are separate chapters on some of California’s distinctive geologic resources, including gold, oil, water, coastlines, and fossils. An introductory section describes basic rock and mineral types and fundamental aspects of plate tectonics, so that students and other readers can make sense of the bizarre, wild, and crazy jigsaw puzzle that is California's geological history.

Applied Time Series Analysis with R, Second Edition

by Wayne A. Woodward Henry L. Gray Alan C. Elliott

Virtually any random process developing chronologically can be viewed as a time series. In economics closing prices of stocks, the cost of money, the jobless rate, and retail sales are just a few examples of many. Developed from course notes and extensively classroom-tested, Applied Time Series Analysis with R, Second Edition includes examples across a variety of fields, develops theory, and provides an R-based software package to aid in addressing time series problems in a broad spectrum of fields. The material is organized in an optimal format for graduate students in statistics as well as in the natural and social sciences to learn to use and understand the tools of applied time series analysis. Features Gives readers the ability to actually solve significant real-world problems Addresses many types of nonstationary time series and cutting-edge methodologies Promotes understanding of the data and associated models rather than viewing it as the output of a "black box" Provides the R package tswge available on CRAN which contains functions and over 100 real and simulated data sets to accompany the book. Extensive help regarding the use of tswge functions is provided in appendices and on an associated website. Over 150 exercises and extensive support for instructors The second edition includes additional real-data examples, uses R-based code that helps students easily analyze data, generate realizations from models, and explore the associated characteristics. It also adds discussion of new advances in the analysis of long memory data and data with time-varying frequencies (TVF).

The Last Breath

by Kimberly Belle

From a remarkable new voice in suspenseful women's fiction comes an emotionally searing drama about a woman who risks her life to discover the devastating truth about her family... Humanitarian aid worker Gia Andrews chases disasters around the globe for a living. It's the perfect lifestyle to keep her far away from her own personal ground zero. Sixteen years ago, Gia's father was imprisoned for brutally killing her stepmother. Now he's come home to die of cancer, and she's responsible for his care-and coming to terms with his guilt. Gia reluctantly resumes the role of daughter to the town's most infamous murderer, a part complete with protesters on the lawn and death threats that are turning tragedy into front-page news. Returning to life in small-town Tennessee involves rebuilding relationships that distance and turmoil have strained, though finding an emotional anchor in the attractive hometown bartender is certainly helping Gia cope. As the past unravels before her, Gia will find herself torn between the stories that her family, their friends and neighbors, and even her long-departed stepmother have believed to be real all these years. But in the end, the truth-and all the lies that came before-may have deadlier consequences than she could have ever anticipated....

The Ones We Trust

by Kimberly Belle

A moving and evocative exploration of grief and guilt in the wake of one family's devastating loss When former DC journalist Abigail Wolff attempts to rehabilitate her career, she finds herself at the heart of a US army cover-up involving the death of a soldier in Afghanistan-with unspeakable emotional consequences for one family. <P><P>As the story of what happened comes to light, Abigail will do anything to write it. The more evidence she stumbles upon in the case, the fewer people it seems she can trust, including her own father, a retired army general. And she certainly never expected to fall in love with the slain soldier's brother, Gabe, a bitter man struggling to hold his family together. The investigation eventually leads her to an impossible choice, one of unrelenting sacrifice to protect those she loves. Beyond the buried truths and betrayals, questions of family loyalty and redemption, Abigail's search is, most of all, a desperate grasp at carrying on and coping-and seeking hope in the impossible. seeking hope in the impossible. "Painstakingly emotional... Will surprise readers to the very end...it's so worth it!" -RT Book Reviews on The Last Breath

OpenVPN Cookbook - Second Edition

by Jan Just Keijser

Discover over 90 practical and exciting recipes that leverage the power of OpenVPN 2.4 to help you obtain a reliable and secure VPN About This Book • Master the skills of configuring, managing, and securing your VPN using the latest OpenVPN • Gain expertise in establishing IPv6 connections and understand PolarSSL using the latest version of OpenVPN • This book contains enticing recipes about OpenVPN functionalities that cater to mission critical applications Who This Book Is For This book is for system administrators who have a basic knowledge of OpenVPN and are eagerly waiting to build, secure, and manage VPNs using the latest version. This book assumes some prior knowledge of TCP/IP networking and OpenVPN and you must have network administration skills to get the most out of this book. What You Will Learn • Determine the best type of OpenVPN setup for your networking needs • Get to grips with the encryption, authentication, and certifications features of OpenSSL. • Integrate an OpenVPN server into the local IT infrastructure with the scripting features of OpenVPN • Ease the integration of Windows clients into the VPN using Windows-specific client-side configuration • Understand the authentication plugins for PAM and LDAP • Get to know the difference between TUN-style and TAP-style networks and when to use what • Troubleshoot your VPN setup • Establish a connection via IPv6 along with demonstrations In Detail OpenVPN provides an extensible VPN framework that has been designed to ease site-specific customization, such as providing the capability to distribute a customized installation package to clients, and supporting alternative authentication methods via OpenVPN's plugin module interface. This book provides you with many different recipes to help you set up, monitor, and troubleshoot an OpenVPN network. You will learn to configure a scalable, load-balanced VPN server farm that can handle thousands of dynamic connections from incoming VPN clients. You will also get to grips with the encryption, authentication, security, extensibility, and certifications features of OpenSSL. You will also get an understanding of IPv6 support and will get a demonstration of how to establish a connection via IPv64. This book will explore all the advanced features of OpenVPN and even some undocumented options, covering all the common network setups such as point-to-point networks and multi-client TUN-style and TAP-style networks. Finally, you will learn to manage, secure, and troubleshoot your virtual private networks using OpenVPN 2.4. Style and approach This practical, recipe-based book covers the core functionalities of OpenVPN ending with troubleshooting, performance tuning and making the readers inquisitive about the advanced features.

Why, How, Fleet Salvage And Final Appraisal [Illustrated Edition]

by Vice Admiral Homer N. Wallin Rear Admiral Ernest McNeill Eller USN

Illustrated with more than 50 photos.Pearl Harbor will long stand out in men's minds as an example of the results of basic unpreparedness of a peace loving nation, of highly efficient treacherous surprise attack and of the resulting unification of America into a single tidal wave of purpose to victory. Therefore, all will be interested in this unique narrative by Admiral Wallin.The Navy has long needed a succinct account of the salvage operations at Pearl Harbor that miraculously resurrected what appeared to be a forever shattered fleet. Admiral Wallin agreed to undertake the job. He was exactly the right man for it - in talent, in perception, and in experience. He had served intimately with Admiral Nimitz and with Admiral Halsey in the South Pacific, has commanded three different Navy Yards, and was a highly successful Chief of the Bureau of Ships.On 7 December 1941 the then Captain Wallin was serving at Pearl Harbor. He witnessed the events of that shattering and unifying "Day of Infamy." His mind began to race at high speeds at once on the problems and means of getting the broken fleet back into service for its giant task. Unless the United States regained control of the sea, even greater disaster loomed. Without victory at sea, tyranny soon would surely rule all Asia and Europe. In a matter of time it would surely rule the Americas.Captain Wallin salvaged most of the broken Pearl Harbor fleet that went on to figure prominently in the United States Navy's victory. So the account he masterfully tells covers what he masterfully accomplished. The United States owes him an unpayable debt for this high service among many others in his long career.

Gray Ghost And His Featherbed Guerrillas: A Leadership Analysis Of John S. Mosby And The 43rd Virginia Cavalry

by Major Michael D. Pyott

John Singleton Mosby led a successful partisan campaign during the American Civil War for the Confederacy. Prior to the war, Mosby was a frail nondescript lawyer. Entering the war as a private; Mosby eventually rose to the rank of Colonel. He organized, trained, and equipped the 43rd Virginia Cavalry, better known as Mosby's Rangers. This unit grew from nine men to almost nine hundred at the war's end, and conducted many daring celebrated raids on the Union forces and their supply lines. In addition to his raids Mosby provided accurate and timely intelligence to Major General J. E. B. Stuart and General Robert E. Lee throughout his service. This study is a leadership analysis of John Singleton Mosby using the U.S. Army's Field Manual 22-1 00, Army Leadership. The study examines Mosby's leadership development and evaluates him against the sixteen leadership dimensions that the Army currently uses to evaluate potential officers. The purpose of this study is to determine what leadership qualities Mosby possessed that contributed to his success. The study concludes that Mosby was able to influence subordinates, peers, superiors, and non-combatants; he provided a purpose and gave them direction and motivation; he also continuously sought ways to improve and expand the organization.

German General Staff In World War I

by Captain Larry D. Bruns

This study reviews the problems of the German General Staff during the First World War in an attempt to highlight successes and understand failures. The investigation focuses on the traditional staff functions of intelligence, operations, logistics and command, control and communications. To obtain a comparison, two epic battles on the Western Front were used, the Battle of the Marne in 1914 and the first spring offensive, Michael, in 1918. This study revealed that the German General Staff did an excellent job in staff thought, planning and execution. However, in the area of command, control and communications they were not as capable. The defeat at the Marne and the eventual failure of Michael were the result of command, control and communications problems which prevented the German General Staff from placing needed forces at a decisive point and time to obtain a strategic victory. These command, control and communications problems provide a constant underlying theme for the defeat of German forces in the First World War. The United States Army faces many of the same command, control, and communications problems faced by the German General Staff almost seventy years ago. This study highlights the German errors so that United States Army will not make the same mistakes.

Special Force: Origin And Development Of The Jedburgh Project In Support Of Operation Overlord

by Major Wyman W. Irwin

This study examines the history of the Jedburgh project from the origin of the concept, through development of the Jedburgh plan, to final preparations for deployment. It includes a study of the recruitment process used to man the force and the training program undertaken to prepare the Jedburghs for their unconventional warfare (UW) mission. The Jedburgh plan provided for 100 three-man teams composed of American, British, French, Belgian, and Dutch special forces personnel. These teams operated well behind German lines, with the primary mission of coordinating the activities of the various resistance elements to ensure that their operations supported the overall Allied campaign effort. These operations, indeed the very concept of a force designed to work directly with partisans in an occupied country in support of conventional forces, remain significant because they are the doctrinal basis for our current special forces. Today's UW doctrine centers increasingly around the support of revolutionary insurgents in a low intensity conflict environment. U.S. Army Special Forces leaders must understand the different and complex nature of conducting UW with partisans in a mid to high intensity conflict, though, if they are to remain prepared to conduct these operations. The amount of lead time required to develop such a capability will probably not be available in future conflicts.

Wilson’s Creek Staff Ride And Battlefield Tour [Illustrated Edition]

by Major George E. Knapp

Includes more than 14 maps and IllustrationsArmies of the North and South fought the Battle of Wilson's Creek about ten miles southwest of Springfield, Missouri, on Saturday, 10 Aug. 1861...While the action at Wilson's Creek was small compared to that at Gettysburg or Chickamauga, it remains significant and useful to students of military history....The Union defeat in battle and the death of General Nathaniel Lyon, so closely following the disaster at First Bull Run, caused the North to adopt a more serious attitude about the war and to realize that victory would come only with detailed planning and proper resourcing. Thus, the Union reinforced Missouri with soldiers and weapons during the fall and winter of 1861-62, while the Confederacy applied its scanty resources elsewhere. Although the exiled pro-Confederate state government voted to secede and sent delegates to Richmond, Virginia, Missouri effectively remained in the Union. Any questions about Missouri's fate were settled at the Battle of Pea Ridge in March 1862, when Union forces turned back the last significant Confederate threat to Missouri.Wilson's Creek was a "first battle" for most of the soldiers who fought there. First battles often provide armies with special insights into the application of military art and science, and Wilson's Creek was no exception. The Mexican War model of organization and combined arms battle was generally confirmed, but some key observations relating to technology and command and control emerged as well...In addition, artillery proved decisive at several key moments during the fighting. Cavalry, on its part, proved to be much less valuable, and this fact hinted at lessons to be learned later in the Civil War. Ultimately, the infantry of both sides played out the drama, and many of the most useful insights came from that branch.

Recollections Of A Confederate Staff Officer [Illustrated Edition]

by General G. Moxley Sorrel

Includes Civil War Map and Illustrations Pack - 224 battle plans, campaign maps and detailed analyses of actions spanning the entire period of hostilities."As a young man in Georgia, G. Moxley Sorrel enlisted in a cavalry unit even before the Civil War erupted, so eager was he to serve his home state. During the war, as an aide-de-camp on Brigadier General James Longstreet's staff he fought in many battles, including those at Chickamauga and Chattanooga. He was at Longstreet's side when Longstreet was struck down in 1864. Sorrel's "rough jottings from memory" provide vivid and detailed descriptions of many of the war's chief participants and events. His military career was cut short when he was shot in the lungs at Hatcher's Run. Although he survived, the war ended before he could return to duty. In his declining years he wrote, "For my part, when the time comes to cross the river like the others, I shall be found asking at the gates above, 'Where is the Army of Northern Virginia? For there I make my camp.'"-Paperback Edition

Staff Ride Handbook For The Battle Of Perryville, 8 October 1862 [Illustrated Edition]

by Dr Robert S. Cameron

Illustrated with 9 figures and 11 maps of the campaign and engagements at Perryville.The battle of Perryville symbolized the high-water mark of the Confederacy in the western theater of operations. In Aug. 1862 General Braxton Bragg and Major General (MG) Edmund Kirby Smith led separate armies into Kentucky to wrest the state from the Union and install a Confederate governor. They initially met success and captured the state capital, simultaneously shifting the war in the west from northern Mississippi and Alabama to Kentucky. In response the North raised additional forces to protect Cincinnati and Louisville while MG Don Carlos Buell halted his offensive against Chattanooga and marched his Army of the Ohio back to Kentucky. On 8 Oct. 1862 Buell's army clashed with Bragg's at Perryville. The Confederates achieved a tactical success in a hard-fought engagement that generated more than 7,000 casualties. Of the regiments engaged, 10 suffered losses between 40 and 60 percent. However, outnumbered by three to one, Bragg's army could not sustain its victory and withdrew. Within days of the battle, all of the invading Southern forces retired from the state. Kentucky remained firmly in the Union and secure from Confederate invasion for the war's duration.Despite its importance to the course of the war in the west, Perryville does not benefit from the high visibility accorded the better-known Civil War sites such as Manassas, Gettysburg, Antietam, and Chickamauga. Although more than 70,000 Union and Confederate soldiers deployed in and around Perryville, understanding of the battle and its significance to the overall course of the war remains poor. For staff ride purposes this unfamiliarity can be a benefit. It forces the participants to study and think about the situation facing their Civil War counterparts without the preconceived notions that surround the more popular sites.

Falklands, Jutland And The Bight [Illustrated Edition]

by Commander The Hon. Barry Bingham V.C. R.N.

At the outbreak of the First World War, Barry Bingham, an Ulsterman and career sailor who joined the Royal Navy in 1895, was a Lieutenant-Commander gunnery officer on the new battlecruiser HMS Invincible.He and his men did not have to wait long before they were pitched into battle against the German fleet, Invincible was part of the taskforce sent into the South Atlantic to avenge the defeat at the Battle of Corondel. The ensuing battle of the Falkland Islands was a decisive encounter, the lighter German Squadron under Admiral Graf Spee were surprised by their British opponents and lost all but two of their ships.The author's reward for his conduct was command of a destroyer squadron in the Home Fleet and in May 1916 at the Battle of Jutland he was to win the Victoria Cross. He was ordered along with six other destroyers, along with the three of his squadron, to attack Admiral Hipper's battlecruiser squadron. Out-ranged and out-gunned, Bingham's ship drove for his target hard and fast, hoping to come within torpedo range of the heavier German ships. The German destroyer screen intercepted the majority of the British ships, of which two were sunk and others disabled; Bingham in HMS Nestor along with HMS Nicator of his squadron plowed forward. With reckless bravery the two ships carried on to 3,000 yards but were disabled before they could release their torpedoes; the Nestor continued to fight the unequal battle until sunk., Bingham and many of his crew were picked up a German destroyer bound for captivity warmed only by the thought that they had done more than their duty.

German Special Operations In The 1944 Ardennes Offensive

by Major Jeffrey Jarkowsky

This study is a historical analysis of the German special operations conducted in support of their overall Ardennes offensive. It focuses on the two major special operations of the German offensive, Operations "Greif" and "Stoesser." Operation Greif was the German attempt to infiltrate a commando unit behind American lines disguised as American soldiers. Operation Stoesser, the last German airborne operation of the war, was designed to secure a key cross-roads behind American lines. These special operations failed because of faulty planning, inadequate preparation, and a lack of coordination between the special and conventional forces. These problems, exacerbated by a lack of preparation time, resulted in a pair of ad-hoc units that were unable to accomplish their primary missions, although the operations were characterized by boldness, initiative, and improvisation. This study also examines the strategic setting, planning, preparations, and conduct of these operations, as well as their impact on the overall campaign. This study also examines the key lessons-learned that can be derived from both operations. Lastly, the study explores the implications of these lessons for the U.S. military of today.

British Boer War And The French Algerian Conflict: Counterinsurgency For Today

by Major Michael J. Lackman

Military historical case studies provide insight for military planners. Military planners cannot afford to ignore history when planning in today's complex environment. This thesis analyzes military doctrinal changes and adaptation during Britain's Boer War and the French counterinsurgency war in Algeria. The Boer War serves as an example of doctrinal change during a counterinsurgency campaign. The French experience demonstrates the difficult task of fighting against an ambiguous enemy who uses terrorism as its primary tactic. A counterinsurgency comparison and analysis focuses on three issues present in both case studies: population control measures, operational tactics, and the civil military operations. The conclusion offers solutions to the military situation today based on the British and French counterinsurgency. This thesis argues history provides US military planners with the background to develop a successful counterinsurgency strategy for today's environment.

Halsey At Leyte Gulf: Command Decision And Disunity Of Effort

by Lt-Cmd Kent Stephen Coleman

In October 1944, US forces executed amphibious landings on the Japanese-occupied island of Leyte in the central Philippines. Japanese naval forces, severely outnumbered by the US Third and Seventh Fleets, attempted to stop the invasion by attacking US amphibious shipping in Leyte Gulf. Due to the divided US area commands in the Pacific theater during World War II, the Third and Seventh Fleet commanders, Adm. Halsey and Vice Adm. Kinkaid, reported to separate superiors, Adm. Nimitz and Gen. MacArthur, even though both fleets were supporting the operation. Although the Japanese were soundly defeated, one of the Japanese forces, under Vice Adm. Kurita, nearly reached its objective. Many historians have criticized Halsey for ordering his carrier force to close with a Japanese carrier force that was acting as a decoy, thus leaving the US forces in Leyte Gulf unprotected. Although Halsey was effectively decoyed, the divided US naval chain of command amplified problems in communication and coordination between Halsey and Kinkaid. This divided command was more important in determining the course of the battle than the tactical decision made by Halsey and led to an American disunity of effort that nearly allowed Kurita's mission to succeed.

Achieving Operational Flexibility Through Task Organization:: How The American Forces In Europe Beat Nazi Germany By Making The Difficult Routine

by Lt.-Col. Brian North

On the eve of World War II, the U.S. Army was a small cadre force without deployable combat divisions. Because of years of preparation and planning during the interwar years, the Army completed the transformation into a huge organization with multiple army groups spread across the world in less than four years. This new army displayed remarkable battlefield flexibility. Doctrine and training guided senior leaders in the European Theater of Operations to ensure overwhelming combat power at the point of attack. They constantly shifted their divisions, a limited asset on the continent for the majority of 1944, between corps headquarters immediately prior to major battles. Many divisions changed corps assignments four times in a three-month period and corps moved between armies on a regular basis with no apparent difficulty. Changing task organization in the face of the enemy is a complex undertaking, affecting command relationships, logistics, and every other staff function. Despite the potential for introducing unwanted friction, the shifting of units from one headquarters to another was a common practice in the European theater in 1944. How were these newly formed units able to display the flexibility to integrate effectively while engaged in combat?This monograph proposes operational flexibility resulted from a unique American way of war developed during the interwar period by veterans of the First World War. Three factors -- common doctrine, carefully selected leaders, and an effective organizational structure -- provided senior commanders the organizational flexibility they required in combat. Without this flexibility, the Army would have had difficulty executing its breakout from the Normandy bridgehead, pursuing the retreating German forces across France, and quickly thwarting the Nazi offensive in the Ardennes at the end of 1944.

American Pilots In The Battle Of Britain

by Major John D. Lauher

This study determines the extent of American pilot participation as members of the Royal Air Force, flying in the Battle of Britain. It also examines the recruiting mechanism by which the Americans became involved in the war and documents their contributions as combat pilots during the battle itself.Research reveals that, while many American citizens were recruited to fly for Britain during the summer of 1940, only six Americans are known to have actually participated in the Battle of Britain, fought between 12 August and 15 September 1940. These men not only demonstrated America's determination to support her allies, but materially contributed to Britain's cause by destroying two and one half enemy aircraft, probably destroying five others, and damaging two more during their brief RAF careers.

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