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In this book, leading scientists in the fields of sensory biology, neuroscience, physics and engineering explore the basic operational principles and behavioral uses of flow sensing in animals and how they might be applied to engineering applications such as autonomous control of underwater or aerial vehicles. Although humans possess no flow-sensing abilities, countless aquatic (e. g. fish, cephalopods and seals), terrestrial (e. g. crickets and spiders) and aerial (e. g. bats) animals have flow sensing abilities that underlie remarkable behavioral feats. These include the ability to follow silent hydrodynamic trails long after the trailblazer has left the scene, to form hydrodynamic images of their environment in total darkness, and to swim or fly efficiently and effortlessly in the face of destabilizing currents and winds.
She didn't expect to meet her maker quite so soon...In the picturesque village of Tarnfield in the North of England, feuds and rivalries lie hidden under its genteel surface. Then the new vicar decides it's time the community was shaken up and that brings together an unlikely alliance of Suzy Spencer, working mother, part time tv producer, sometime (amateur) flower arranger and full time mess, and Robert Clark, conservative widower of the parish. But their alliance comes too late to save the regular flower arranger, found decoratively slain among her own handiwork in the local church vestry...
Callie's mother has chained herself to the neighbor's tree and is living inside the treehouse. She refuses to come down until the neighbor, Mr. Wilson, agrees to leave the tree standing. Soon reporters arrive to interview Callie about her mother's protest. Callie doesn't want to talk to anyone. More chaos ensues when Callie's grandmother invites the "singing grannies" to help save the tree, the neighbor's biker friends come to her aid, and Callie's friends show up to try to get themselves on TV. Callie needs to figure out how to get her mother to come down from the tree so that her life can return to normal.
This volume covers theorders Boraginales, Garryales and Solanales (except Convolvulaceae) of theLamiids (Asterids I) as well as three unplaced families of that clade, i. e. Vahliaceae, Icacinaceae and Metteniusaceae, and the orders Aquifoliales,Escalloniales, Bruniales, Dipsacales and Paracryphiales of the Campanulids(Asterids II). It is the first of two final volumes to (almost) complete thetreatment of the Asterids, which started with Vol. VI (Cornales, Ericales,2004) and continued with Vol. VII (Lamiales, 2004) and Vol. VIII (Asterales,2007). The present volume provides descriptions for 35 families and altogether340 genera, including three genera of somewhat uncertain family affiliation. Itprovides identification keys for families within orders and for all generawithin families, and also discusses probable phylogenetic relationships. Thewealth of information contained in this volume makes it an indispensable sourcefor all those working in pure and applied plant sciences.
This volume presents systematic treatments for the families and genera of the Malpighiales, which more recently have been recognised as a new major group of the eudicots. Apart from several herbaceous lineages (already treated in Vol. IX of this series), the order consists mainly of rainforest trees, particularly those of the understorey. Accompanied by other early eudicot lineages, this reflects the well-documented origin of the group as invaders into the conifer-, cycad- and seed fern-dominated forests of the Cretaceous which, at that time, were transformed into the tropical rainforest biome. In this volume, 24 families with 429 genera comprising over 12,000 species are treated. Many of these belong to the vast family of the Euphorbiaceae (here conceived in a broader sense), followed by the Violaceae, whereas some of the remaining families are very small and even relictual. The revised classification includes a complete inventory of the genera belonging to the families treated in this volume, along with their diagnostic features and keys for their identification. References to the latest taxonomic literature and links to many different disciplines important to modern plant systematics make the volume a valuable source of information on the manifold aspects of plant diversity.
This volume is the outcome of a modern phylogenetic analysis of the grass family based on multiple sources of data, in particular molecular systematic studies resulting from a concerted effort by researchers worldwide, including the author. In the classification given here grasses are subdivided into 12 subfamilies with 29 tribes and over 700 genera. The keys and descriptions for the taxa above the rank of genus are hierarchical, i. e. they concentrate upon characters which are deemed to be synapomorphic for the lineages and may be applicable only to their early-diverging taxa. Beyond the treatment of phylogeny and formal taxonomy, the author presents a wide range of information on topics such as the structural characters of grasses, their related functional aspects and particularly corresponding findings from the field of developmental genetics with inclusion of genes and gene products instrumental in the shaping of morphological traits (in which this volume appears unique within this book series); further topics addressed include the contentious time of origin of the family, the emigration of the originally shade-loving grasses out of the forest to form vast grasslands accompanied by the switch of many members to C4 photosynthesis, the impact of herbivores on the silica cycle housed in the grass phytoliths, the reproductive biology of grasses, the domestication of major cereal crops and the affinities of grasses within the newly circumscribed order Poales. This volume provides a comprehensive overview of existing knowledge on the Poaceae (Gramineae), with major implications in terms of key scientific challenges awaiting future research. It certainly will be of interest both for the grass specialist and also the generalist seeking state-of-the-art information on the diversity of grasses, the most ecologically and economically important of the families of flowering plants.
Winner of three awards---a 2012 eLit Award, a 2013 Indie Next Generation Award, and a 2013 Living Now award---"Flowing with the Go-A Jiu-Jitsu Journey of the Soul" is the story of one woman's path through grief. For what seemed like a lifetime and probably was, Elena Stowell wandered aimlessly in a personal prison of self-doubt and lack of purpose after her fifteen-year-old daughter Carly died suddenly before her eyes. By some combination of miracle and necessity, she walked into a Seattle area Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu gym and rolled for the first time in her life. Through that experience and others that followed, Elena discovered the tenets of the martial art form and healing were the same. With a ripping raw honesty and refreshing balance of humor and introspection, Elena's story reminds us to never stop panning for the gold within ourselves.
The present volume contains the most advanced theories on the martingale approach to central limit theorems. Using the time symmetry properties of the Markov processes, the book develops the techniques that allow us to deal with infinite dimensional models that appear in statistical mechanics and engineering (interacting particle systems, homogenization in random environments, and diffusion in turbulent flows, to mention just a few applications). The first part contains a detailed exposition of the method, and can be used as a text for graduate courses. The second concerns application to exclusion processes, in which the duality methods are fully exploited. The third part is about the homogenization of diffusions in random fields, including passive tracers in turbulent flows (including the superdiffusive behavior). There are no other books in the mathematical literature that deal with this kind of approach to the problem of the central limit theorem. Hence, this volume meets the demand for a monograph on this powerful approach, now widely used in many areas of probability and mathematical physics. The book also covers the connections with and application to hydrodynamic limits and homogenization theory, so besides probability researchers it will also be of interest also to mathematical physicists and analysts.
This first volume discusses fluid mechanical concepts and their applications to ideal and viscous processes. It describes the fundamental hydrostatics and hydrodynamics, and includes an almanac of flow problems for ideal fluids. The book presents numerous exact solutions of flows in simple configurations, each of which is constructed and graphically supported. It addresses ideal, potential, Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. Simple, yet precise solutions to special flows are also constructed, namely Blasius boundary layer flows, matched asymptotics of the Navier-Stokes equations, global laws of steady and unsteady boundary layer flows and laminar and turbulent pipe flows. Moreover, the well-established logarithmic velocity profile is criticised.
In this book fluid mechanics and thermodynamics (F&T) are approached as interwoven, not disjoint fields. The book starts by analyzing the creeping motion around spheres at rest: Stokes flows, the Oseen correction and the Lagerstrom-Kaplun expansion theories are presented, as is the homotopy analysis. 3D creeping flows and rapid granular avalanches are treated in the context of the shallow flow approximation, and it is demonstrated that uniqueness and stability deliver a natural transition to turbulence modeling at the zero, first order closure level. The difference-quotient turbulence model (DQTM) closure scheme reveals the importance of the turbulent closure schemes' non-locality effects. Thermodynamics is presented in the form of the first and second laws, and irreversibility is expressed in terms of an entropy balance. Explicit expressions for constitutive postulates are in conformity with the dissipation inequality. Gas dynamics offer a first application of combined F&T. The book is rounded out by a chapter on dimensional analysis, similitude, and physical experiments.
This book presents a new paradigm of knowledge and action withrespect to urban waterfronts and the "fluid city paradigm,"explaining its methodological framework and describing an integrated andcreative planning approach in which waterfront regeneration is pursued as a keyurban-renewal strategy. It focuses especially on the WATERFRONT project ("WaterAnd Territorial policiEs for integRation oF multisectoRial develOpmeNT"), whichwas funded jointly by Italy and Malta with the goal of developing commonguidelines, strategies, and operational tools for the planning of coastal areas,based on cross-border exchange of experiences. In the described approach, thewaterfront is recognized as having a broad identity, acknowledging thecomplexity of the relationship between seaport and town and taking into accountthe physical and environmental components of human settlement, infrastructure,and productive and recreational activities. It highlights details of theprocess of renewal in the port city of Trapani, with discussion of theimplemented actions, plans, and programs. The book also examines the practicesadopted to transform city-port relationships across Europe in pursuit ofinnovative and sustainable development.
This book is dedicated to readers who want to learn fluid dynamics from the beginning. It assumes a basic level of mathematics knowledge that would correspond to that of most second-year undergraduate physics students and examines fluid dynamics from a physicist's perspective. As such, the examples used primarily come from our environment on Earth and, where possible, from astrophysics. The text is arranged in a progressive and educational format, aimed at leading readers from the simplest basics to more complex matters like turbulence and magnetohydrodynamics. Exercises at the end of each chapter help readers to test their understanding of the subject (solutions are provided at the end of the book), and a special chapter is devoted to introducing selected aspects of mathematics that beginners may not be familiar with, so as to make the book self-contained.
The book contains invited lectures and selected contributions presented at the Enzo Levi and XVII Annual Meeting of the Fluid Dynamic Division of the Mexican Physical Society in 2011. It is aimed to fourth year undergraduate and graduate students, and scientists in the field of physics, engineering and chemistry that have interest in Fluid Dynamics from the experimental and theoretical point of view. The invited lectures are introductory and avoid the use of complicate mathematics. The other selected contributions are also adequate to fourth year undergraduate and graduate students. The Fluid Dynamics applications include multiphase flow, convection, diffusion, heat transfer, rheology, granular material, viscous flow, porous media flow, geophysics and astrophysics. The material contained in the book includes recent advances in experimental and theoretical fluid dynamics and is adequate for both teaching and research.
This book presents, in a methodical way, updated and comprehensive descriptions and analyses of some of the most relevant problems in the context of fluid-structure interaction (FSI). Generally speaking, FSI is among the most popular and intriguing problems in applied sciences and includes industrial as well as biological applications. Various fundamental aspects of FSI are addressed from different perspectives, with a focus on biomedical applications. More specifically, the book presents a mathematical analysis of basic questions like the well-posedness of the relevant initial and boundary value problems, as well as the modeling and the numerical simulation of a number of fundamental phenomena related to human biology. These latter research topics include blood flow in arteries and veins, blood coagulation and speech modeling. We believe that the variety of the topics discussed, along with the different approaches used to address and solve the corresponding problems, will help readers to develop a more holistic view of the latest findings on the subject, and of the relevant open questions. For the same reason we expect the book to become a trusted companion for researchers from diverse disciplines, such as mathematics, physics, mathematical biology, bioengineering and medicine.
With rapid economic and industrial development in China, India and elsewhere, fluid-related structural vibration and noise problems are widely encountered in many fields, just as they are in the more developed parts of the world, causing increasingly grievous concerns. Turbulence clearly has a significant impact on many such problems. On the other hand, new opportunities are emerging with the advent of various new technologies, such as signal processing, flow visualization and diagnostics, new functional materials, sensors and actuators, etc. These have revitalized interdisciplinary research activities, and it is in this context that the 2nd symposium on fluid-structure-sound interactions and control (FSSIC) was organized. Held in Hong Kong (May 20-21, 2013) and Macau (May 22-23, 2013), the meeting brought together scientists and engineers working in all related branches from both East and West and provided them with a forum to exchange and share the latest progress, ideas and advances and to chart the frontiers of FSSIC. The Proceedings of the 2nd Symposium on Fluid-Structure-Sound Interactions and Control largely focuses on advances in the theory, experimental research and numerical simulations of turbulence in the contexts of flow-induced vibration, noise and their control. This includes several practical areas for interaction, such as the aerodynamics of road and space vehicles, marine and civil engineering, nuclear reactors and biomedical science etc. One of the particular features of these proceedings is that it integrates acoustics with the study of flow-induced vibration, which is not a common practice but is scientifically very helpful in understanding, simulating and controlling vibration. This offers a broader view of the discipline from which readers will benefit greatly. These proceedings are intended for academics, research scientists, design engineers and graduate students in engineering fluid dynamics, acoustics, fluid and aerodynamics, vibration, dynamical systems and control etc. Yu Zhou is a professor in Institute for Turbulence-Noise-Vibration Interaction and Control at Harbin Institute of Technology. Yang Liu is an associate professor at The Hong Kong Polytechnic University. Lixi Huang, associate professor, works at the University of Hong Kong. Professor Dewey H. Hodges works at the School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology.
Theseproceedings primarily focus on advances in the theory, experiments, andnumerical simulations of turbulence in the contexts of flow-induced vibrationand noise, as well as their control. Fluid-related structural vibration andnoise problems are often encountered in many engineering fields, increasinglymaking them a cause for concern. The FSSIC conference, held on 5-9 July 2015 inPerth, featured prominent keynote speakers such as John Kim, Nigel Peake, SongFu and Colin Hansen, as well as talks on a broad range of topics: turbulence,fluid-structure interaction, fluid-related noise and the control/managementaspects of these research areas, many of which are clearly interdisciplinary innature. It provided a forum for academics, scientists and engineers working inall branches of Fluid-Structure-Sound Interactions and Control (FSSIC) toexchange and share the latest developments, ideas and advances, bringing themtogether researchers from East and West to push forward the frontiers of FSSIC,ensuring that the proceedings will be of interest to a broad engineeringcommunity.
This text presents the experiences of leading researchers and surgeons with different fluorescence methods. Chapters range from basic science of fluorescence to current clinical applications and new horizons. The first few chapters describe the historical evolution and physical principles of fluorescence and provide the foundation for the reader to understand the current scope and limits of its use in surgery. The second section focuses on the clinical applications of intraoperative fluorescence imaging including subsections on fluorescence cholangiography, applications to hepatectomy, lymph node navigation, applications to GI tract and pelvic surgery and identification of cancer tissues. The third section focuses on new frontiers including fluorescence probes, imaging systems and applications to photodynamic therapy. Authored by leaders in the development of fluorescent methods worldwide, Fluorescence Imaging for Surgeons: Concepts and Applications will have an impact on numerous medical specialists including general surgeons, colorectal and minimally-invasive surgeons and surgical oncologists. Researchers will find the book to be an invaluable resource on the latest advances in the utilization of nanoparticles and fluorescent probes.
Reflecting the expanding field's need for reliable protocols, 'Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Microscopy' offers techniques from a worldwide team of experts on this versatile and vital subject. The topics covered fall into four broad categories: steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy, time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, fluorescent probe development and the various sub-categories of fluorescence microscopy, such as fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, live cell FRET imaging, fluorescence lifetime imaging, fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy and single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy.
Biological membranes play a central role in cell structure, shape and functions. However, investigating the membrane bilayer has proved to be difficult due to its highly dynamic and anisotropic structure, which generates steep gradients at the nanometer scale. Due to the decisive impact of recently developed fluorescence-based techniques, tremendous advances have been made in the last few years in our understanding of membrane characteristics and functions. In this context, the present book illustrates some of these major advances by collecting review articles written by highly respected experts. The book is organized in three parts, the first of which deals with membrane probes and model membranes. The second part describes the use of advanced quantitative and high-resolution techniques to explore the properties of biological membranes, illustrating the key progress made regarding membrane organization, dynamics and interactions. The third part is focused on the investigation of membrane proteins using the same techniques, and notably on the membrane receptors that play a central role in signaling pathways and therapeutic strategies. All chapters provide comprehensive information on membranes and their exploration for beginners in the field and advanced researchers alike.
The state-of-the-art in fluvial hydrodynamics can be examined only through a careful exploration of the theoretical development and applied engineering technology. The book is primarily focused, since most up-to-date research findings in the field are presented, on the research aspects that involve a comprehensive knowledge of sediment dynamics in turbulent flows. It begins with the fundamentals of hydrodynamics and particle motion followed by turbulence characteristics related to sediment motion. Then, the sediment dynamics is analysed from a classical perspective by applying the mean bed shear approach and additionally incorporating a statistical description for the role of turbulence. The work finally examines the local scour problems at hydraulic structures and scale models. It is intended to design as a course textbook in graduate / research level and a guide for the field engineers as well, keeping up with modern technological developments. Therefore, as a simple prerequisite, the background of the readers should have a basic knowledge in hydraulics in undergraduate level and an understanding of fundamentals of calculus.
Several years earlier Nellie and her mother fled the Interior and its hated security police for the Outbacks, a loose-knit resistance of small cities, towns and rural areas. Since then her mother has disappeared and twelve-year-old Nellie is on her own, scrounging a living where she can find it. When loneliness opens her mind to flux, the ability to alter her vibratory state in the molecular field, she learns to travel to other levels of reality. When a prank by the Skulls, an unruly gang of boys, reveals several large scars on her scalp, Nellie is forced to confront the terrifying truth that her vague memories of experiments that took place while she lived in the Interior are real. Befriended by fourteen-year-old Deller, leader of the Skulls, Nellie learns of the disappearance of his younger brother Fen. Using her ability to travel the levels, she eventually finds Fen trapped in an experimental laboratory deep in another reality. Although Nellie is unable to free him, her discovery precipitates a series of events that lead her and Deller back to the Interior, and straight into the memories she has been trying so hard to forget.
Addressing students and researchers as well as Computational Fluid Dynamics practitioners, this book is the most comprehensive review of high-resolution schemes based on the principle of Flux-Corrected Transport (FCT). The foreword by J.P. Boris and historical note by D.L. Book describe the development of the classical FCT methodology for convection-dominated transport problems, while the design philosophy behind modern FCT schemes is explained by S.T. Zalesak. The subsequent chapters present various improvements and generalizations proposed over the past three decades. In this new edition, recent results are integrated into existing chapters in order to describe significant advances since the publication of the first edition. Also, 3 new chapters were added in order to cover the following topics: algebraic flux correction for finite elements, iterative and linearized FCT schemes, TVD-like flux limiters, acceleration of explicit and implicit solvers, mesh adaptation, failsafe limiting for systems of conservation laws, flux-corrected interpolation (remapping), positivity preservation in RANS turbulence models, and the use of FCT as an implicit subgrid scale model for large eddy simulations.
This book presents a thorough review of the state-of-knowledge and recent innovations in the synthesis of pure and improved grades of fly ash zeolites (FAZ). Addressing improvements to conventional methods, it also showcases a novel technique for the synthesis of high cation exchangers from fly ash and detailed characterization techniques for the products obtained. In addition, it examines in detail various areas of specific applications of fly ash zeolites. Over the years, several methods such as hydrothermal, fusion prior to hydrothermal, microwave assisted hydrothermal and molten salt techniques for producing FAZ have been developed. However, one-step and two-step reactions between the fly ash and alkali usually generate alkaline wastes that may cause environmental contamination. In addition, the separation of FAZ from the partially activated fly ash (the impurities) remains a major concern for researchers and industrialists alike. In view of these challenges, this book presents a novel technique for three-step activation (TSA), which focuses on recycling the fly ash-NaOH-water reaction by-products until zeolitic residue is formed. The FAZ (the final residue after third step reactions) synthesized in this manner exhibits exceptionally high cation exchange capacity, specific surface area and pore area. This book offers a comprehensive compendium of reading material on fly ash and its recycled product, the zeolites. Students at both undergraduate and graduate levels, researchers, and practicing engineers will all find this book to be a valuable guide in their respective fields.
After a member of her competitive cheerleading team is injured in practice, sixteen-year-old Marnie is asked to be a flyer-the most coveted role in cheerleading. The Soar Starlings team has a real shot at the provincial championship, and Marnie has only a few weeks to prepare. But as she scrambles to polish her lifts and throws, Marnie's personal life begins to unravel. First, her boyfriend of two years breaks up with her, and then her best friend Arielle, captain of the Starlings, disappears during a team trip to Toronto. As Marnie struggles to adjust to being both a flyer and the team's new captain, she realizes that, to be a leader, you have to let go of old alliances to make room in your life for new ones.
Read Sherri L. Smith's posts on the Penguin BlogIda Mae Jones dreams of flight. Her daddy was a pilot and being black didn't stop him from fulfilling his dreams. But her daddy's gone now, and being a woman, and being black, are two strikes against her. When America enters the war with Germany and Japan, the Army creates the WASP, the Women's Airforce Service Pilots--and Ida suddenly sees a way to fly as well as do something significant to help her brother stationed in the Pacific. But even the WASP won't accept her as a black woman, forcing Ida Mae to make a difficult choice of "passing," of pretending to be white to be accepted into the program. Hiding one's racial heritage, denying one's family, denying one's self is a heavy burden. And while Ida Mae chases her dream, she must also decide who it is she really wants to be.
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