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Walking Methods: Research on the Move

by Maggie O'Neill Brian Roberts

This book introduces and critically explores walking as an innovative method for doing social research, showing how its sensate and kinaesthetic attributes facilitate connections with lived experiences, journeys and memories, communities and identities. The book situates walking methods historically, sociologically, and in relation to biographical and arts-based research, as well as new work on mobilities, the digital, spatial, and the sensory. The book is organised into three sections: theorising; experiencing; and imagining walking as a new method for doing biographical research. There is a key focus upon the Walking Interview as a Biographical Method (WIBM) on the move to usefully explore migration, memory, and urban landscapes, as part of participatory, visual, and ethnographic research with marginalised communities and artists and as re-formative and transgressive. The book concludes with autobiographical walks taken by the authors and a discussion about the future of the walking interview as biographical method. Walking Methods combines theory with a series of original ethnographic and participatory research examples. Practical exercises and a guide to using walking as a method help to make this a rich resource for social science researchers, students, walking artists, and biographical researchers.

Development of a New Heterocycle-Forming Reaction and Kinetic Resolution with N-Heterocyclic Carbenes (Springer Theses)

by Yinli Wang

In this book, the author focuses on exploring new organocatalytic transformations under operationally simple and environmentally friendly reaction conditions. Two new types of catalytic reactions promoted by N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) are described. The oxa- and azacycle-forming reactions of sulfonylalkynols and sulfonylalkynamides are broadly considered to be a new type of activation mode in NHC chemistry, wherein the bond formation with internal O- and N-nucleophiles occurs at the γ-position of the propargyl sulfones with 1,2-sulfonyl migration. The resulting oxa- and azacycles are core structures in many biologically significant compounds and medicinally important agents. In addition, the book develops the chiral NHC-catalyzed kinetic resolution of α-hydroxy carboxylic acid derivatives based on chiral recognition of the substrate–cocatalyst complex. In this carboxylate cocatalyst-assisted chiral acylation, the reaction rate acceleration and selectivity enhancement are interpreted in terms of the reversible complexation of the substrate and carboxylate cocatalyst, which is verified by control experiments and measured using analytical methods. The findings described here reveal a promising new aspect of not only NHC catalysis but also identifying novel catalysis systems.

Ocular Oncology (Current Practices in Ophthalmology)

by Aparna Ramasubramanian

This book concentrates on ocular oncology covering the latest advances in both adult and pediatric oncology. The topics covered are: retinoblastoma, melanoma, graft vs. host disease, squamous cell neoplasia, intraocular lymphoma, coats disease, and choroidal hemangioma. Each chapter is written by an expert in the field and covers the most recent developments in management. As part of the series “Current Practices in ophthalmology” this volume is meant for residents, fellows-in-training, generalist ophthalmologists and specialists alike.

Mediterranean Cold-Water Corals: Understanding the Deep-Sea Realms of Coral (Coral Reefs of the World #9)

by Covadonga Orejas Carlos Jiménez

What do we know about Mediterranean Cold (Deep)-Water coral ecosystems? In this book, specialists offer answers and insights with a series of chapters and short papers about the paleoecology, biology, physiology and ecology of the corals and other organisms that comprise these ecosystems. Structured on a temporal axis—Past, Present and Future—the reviews and selected study cases cover the cold and deep coral habitats known to date in the Mediterranean Basin. This book illustrates and explains the deep Mediterranean coral habitats that might have originated similar thriving ecosystems in today’s Atlantic Ocean.

Changing Age and Career Concepts in the Austrian Banking Industry: A Case Study of Middle-Aged Non-managerial Employees and Managers (Contributions to Management Science)

by Barbara Marina Covarrubias Venegas

Demographic change is affecting societies and organizations alike. Although ageing is relevant to all, there is still a tendency for more negative stereotypes to be attributed to older individuals, while positive stereotypes are mainly associated with younger individuals. Further, there are indications of gendered ageism, showing that age prejudices are more likely to affect women. This book argues that, through holistic measures, human resources management is of fundamental importance to an age-friendly and non-age-discriminatory culture. It can be assumed that awareness-raising on age issues also takes into account the gender issue. Drawing on qualitative interviews with employees in the Austrian banking industry and using an analytical framework, the author provides suggestions and implications for organizations to address this situation.

Motherhood, Social Policies and Women's Activism in Latin America (Studies of the Americas)

by Jasmine Gideon Alejandra Ramm

This book is a critical resource for understanding the relationship between gender, social policy and women’s activism in Latin America, with specific reference to Chile. Latin America’s mother-centered kinship system makes it an ideal field in which to study motherhood and maternalism—the ways in which motherhood becomes a public policy issue. As maternalism embraces and enhances gender differences, it has been criticized for deepening gender inequalities. Yet invoking motherhood continues to offer an effective strategy for advancing women’s living conditions and rights, and for women themselves to be present in the public sphere. In analyzing these important relationships, the contributors to this volume discuss maternal health, sexual and reproductive rights, labor programs, paid employment, women miners’ unionization, housing policies, environmental suffering, and LGBTQ intimate partner violence.

Digital Health Approach for Predictive, Preventive, Personalised and Participatory Medicine (Advances in Predictive, Preventive and Personalised Medicine #10)

by Lotfi Chaari

This collection, entitled Digital Health for Predictive, Preventive, Personalized and Participatory Medicine contains the proceedings of the first International conference on digital healthtechnologies (ICDHT 2018). Ten recent contributions in the fields of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and machine learning, Internet of Things (IoT) and data analysis, all applied to digital health. This collection enables researchers to learn about recent advances in the above mentioned fields. It brings a technological viewpoint of P4 medicine. Readers will discover how advanced Information Technology (IT) tools can be used for healthcare. For instance, the use of connected objects to monitor physiological parameters is discussed. Moreover, even if compressed sensing is nowadays a common acquisition technique, its use for IoT is presented in this collection through one of the pioneer works in the field.In addition, the use of AI for epileptic seizure detection is also discussed as being one of the major concerns of predictive medicine both in industrialized and low-income countries.This work is edited by Prof. Lotfi Chaari, professor at the University of Sfax, and previously at the University of Toulouse. This work comes after more than ten years of expertise in the biomedical signal and image processing field.

Oracle Visual Builder Cloud Service Revealed: Rapid Application Development for Web and Mobile

by Sten Vesterli

Build and deploy an attractive, user-friendly web or mobile application in one day or less using Oracle’s new, low-code development tool: Visual Builder Cloud Service.Today’s IT world is fast-paced, and the ability to rapidly deliver running code is the most crucial and sought-after skill a developer can have. Oracle has brought together their enterprise experience, advanced usability knowledge, and their best cloud engineering to produce an innovative platform giving developers unprecedented productivity.You will learn how to use all aspects of Oracle Visual Builder Cloud Service to build web or mobile applications. Using the fully browser-based development environment, you’ll gain experience with all the modern user-interface components that the tool offers for a visual, user-interface-driven, development approach. You'll also see how to use the integrated data management capabilities and existing REST data services to store your data, and learn how to easily transfer applications to a test/staging environment and later to production, while continuing to develop the next version in the development environment.What You'll LearnBuild great-looking web and mobile applications in a browser-based, visual design environmentDefine custom business logic in the visual logic editor or with JavaScriptManage multiple concurrent application versions from development through staging and productionDefine business objects with validation logic for application-specific dataCommunicate with, and draw data from, existing REST web servicesUse Visual Builder Cloud Service to expand Oracle SaaS solutionsWho This Book Is ForDevelopers at all expertise levels as well as business professionals and UX designers with an interest in using IT to quickly solve simple business problems. Because this tool is based on a modern low-code approach, no prior programming experience is necessary to benefit from the book.

New Trends in Computer Technologies and Applications: 23rd International Computer Symposium, ICS 2018, Yunlin, Taiwan, December 20–22, 2018, Revised Selected Papers (Communications in Computer and Information Science #1013)

by Chuan-Yu Chang Chien-Chou Lin Horng-Horng Lin

The present book includes extended and revised versions of papers presented during the 2018 International Computer Symposium (ICS 2018), held in Yunlin, Republic of China (Taiwan), on December 20-22, 2018.The 86 papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 263 submissions from 11 countries. The variety of the topics include machine learning, sensor devices and platforms, sensor networks, robotics, embedded systems, networks, operating systems, software system structures, database design and models, multimedia and multimodal retrieval, object detection, image processing, image compression, mobile and wireless security.

Islamic Development Management: Recent Advancements and Issues

by Noor Zahirah Mohd Sidek Roshima Said Wan Norhaniza Wan Hasan

This book examines a range of current issues in Islamic development management. The first part of the book explores practical issues in governance and the application of Islamic governance in new areas such as quality management systems and the tourism industry, while the second delves into questions of sustainability. The book proposes a new Islamic sustainability and offers new perspectives on CSR in connection with waqf (Islamic endowments) and microfinance. The third part of the book addresses Islamic values and how they are applied in entrepreneurship, inheritance, consumer behavior and marketing. The fourth part examines the issues of waqf and takaful (a form of insurance in line with the Islamic laws), while the fifth discusses the fiqh (the study of Islamic legal codes) and legal framework from the perspectives of entrepreneurship, higher education, reporting and inheritance (wills). The final chapter is dedicated to the application of Islamic principles in various other issues.Written in an accessible style, the book will appeal to newcomers to the field, as well as researchers and academics with an interest in Islamic development management.

Therapeutic Gastrointestinal Endoscopy: A Comprehensive Atlas

by Hoon Jai Chun Suk-Kyun Yang Myung-Gyu Choi

The second edition of this atlas has been extensively revised to provide an up-to-date and comprehensive overview of therapeutic gastrointestinal endoscopy for upper and lower gastrointestinal diseases. The coverage ranges from basic but highly effective procedures like cold snare polypectomy and variceal ligation to sophisticated procedures such as peroral endoscopic myotomy and endoscopic submucosal dissection. New instruments, for example over-the-scope clips and various stents, are introduced in the relevant chapters. Furthermore, several chapters have been added to cover cutting-edge technologies for endoscopic treatment of complex conditions, including refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease and duodenal neoplasia. Many pictures have been exchanged for newer ones, most of them high-definition endoscopy photos, and schematic illustrations are used to ensure clear understanding of complex therapeutic procedures. As in the first edition, special tips of practical value are highlighted and potential pitfalls are identified, but in addition instructive cases have been added at the end of chapters. The second edition of Therapeutic Gastrointestinal Endoscopy will be an essential resource for all therapeutic endoscopists.

Essentials of Business Analytics: An Introduction to the Methodology and its Applications (International Series in Operations Research & Management Science #264)

by Bhimasankaram Pochiraju Sridhar Seshadri

This comprehensive edited volume is the first of its kind, designed to serve as a textbook for long-duration business analytics programs. It can also be used as a guide to the field by practitioners. The book has contributions from experts in top universities and industry. The editors have taken extreme care to ensure continuity across the chapters.The material is organized into three parts: A) Tools, B) Models and C) Applications. In Part A, the tools used by business analysts are described in detail. In Part B, these tools are applied to construct models used to solve business problems. Part C contains detailed applications in various functional areas of business and several case studies. Supporting material can be found in the appendices that develop the pre-requisites for the main text. Every chapter has a business orientation. Typically, each chapter begins with the description of business problems that are transformed into data questions; and methodology is developed to solve these questions. Data analysis is conducted using widely used software, the output and results are clearly explained at each stage of development. These are finally transformed into a business solution. The companion website provides examples, data sets and sample code for each chapter.

Pervasive Computing Paradigms for Mental Health: 9th International Conference, MindCare 2019, Buenos Aires, Argentina, April 23–24, 2019, Proceedings (Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering #288)

by Silvia Serino Pietro Cipresso Daniela Villani

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Pervasive Computing Paradigms for Mental Health, MindCare 2019, held in Buenos Aires, Argentina, in April 2019. The 22 papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 38 submissions and present new paradigms in mental healthcare, in parallel with compelling questions about how it is possible to promote and structure these changes to improve physical well-being.

Teachers and Teaching: Time and the Creative Tension

by Kaustuv Roy

Against the backdrop of a historical debate between science and philosophy with regard to the nature of time, this book argues that our commonsense understanding of time is inadequate—especially for education. Teachers’ work is heavily imbued with the effects of clock time, and yet there is another time—duration—which remains out of sight precisely because our sights are filled with temporal things and projections of futurality. The book rests primarily on Henri Bergson’s work on time, and works toward intuition as phenomenological method for the discovery of a creative time in experience.

Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Sciences of Electronics, Technologies of Information and Telecommunications (Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies #146)

by Stefano Rovetta Med Salim Bouhlel

This two-volume book presents an unusually diverse selection of research papers, covering all major topics in the fields of information and communication technologies and related sciences. It provides a wide-angle snapshot of current themes in information and power engineering, pursuing a cross-disciplinary approach to do so. The book gathers revised contributions that were presented at the 2018 International Conference: Sciences of Electronics, Technologies of Information and Telecommunication (SETIT'18), held on 20–22 December 2018 in Hammamet, Tunisia. This eighth installment of the event attracted a wealth of submissions, and the papers presented here were selected by a committee of experts and underwent additional, painstaking revision. Topics covered include:· Information Processing · Human-Machine Interaction · Computer Science · Telecommunications and Networks · Signal Processing · Electronics · Image and Video This broad-scoped approach is becoming increasingly popular in scientific publishing. Its aim is to encourage scholars and professionals to overcome disciplinary barriers, as demanded by current trends in the industry and in the consumer market, which are rapidly leading toward a convergence of data-driven applications, computation, telecommunication, and energy awareness.Given its coverage, the book will benefit graduate students, researchers and practitioners who need to keep up with the latest technological advances.

The Social Impact of Custody on Young People in the Criminal Justice System

by Claire Paterson-Young Richard Hazenberg Meanu Bajwa-Patel

This book explores the journey of young people through a Secure Training Centre and, more generally, the criminal justice system in the UK. It examines the extent to which young people have been failed by the system at every stage of their lives, with incarceration used as a means of removing ‘the problem’ from society. To explore this process, the authors utilise an integrated theoretical framework to develop a new rehabilitative approach focused on developing positive outcomes for young people. The book deploys a social impact measurement methodology to evaluate the experience and outcomes of youth justice interventions at a Secure Training Centre. Such an approach provides a fresh perspective on the youth justice debate which has traditionally utilised outcome data to measure immediate impact relating to recidivism and is therefore not focused on the young person holistically. Using a social impact framework to evaluate youth justice, underpinned by an integrated theoretical framework, allows for assessment to be made which place the young person at the centre of evaluation.

Applied Statistics and Multivariate Data Analysis for Business and Economics: A Modern Approach Using SPSS, Stata, and Excel

by Thomas Cleff

This textbook will familiarize students in economics and business, as well as practitioners, with the basic principles, techniques, and applications of applied statistics, statistical testing, and multivariate data analysis. Drawing on practical examples from the business world, it demonstrates the methods of univariate, bivariate, and multivariate statistical analysis. The textbook covers a range of topics, from data collection and scaling to the presentation and simple univariate analysis of quantitative data, while also providing advanced analytical procedures for assessing multivariate relationships. Accordingly, it addresses all topics typically covered in university courses on statistics and advanced applied data analysis. In addition, it does not limit itself to presenting applied methods, but also discusses the related use of Excel, SPSS, and Stata.

Epidemiology: Key to Public Health (Statistics for Biology and Health)

by Klaus Krickeberg Pham Van Trong Pham Thi My Hanh

​This unique textbook presents the field of modern epidemiology as a whole; it does not restrict itself to particular aspects. It stresses the fundamental ideas and their role in any situation of epidemiologic practice. Its structure is largely determined by didactic viewpoints.Epidemiology is the art of defining and investigating the influence of factors on the health of populations. Hence the book starts by sketching the role of epidemiology in public health. It then treats the epidemiology of many particular diseases; mathematical modelling of epidemics and immunity; health information systems; statistical methods and sample surveys; clinical epidemiology including clinical trials; nutritional, environmental, social, and genetic epidemiology; and the habitual tools of epidemiologic studies. The book also reexamines the basic difference between the epidemiology of infectious diseases and that of non-infectious ones.The organization of the topics by didactic aspects makes the book ideal for teaching. All examples and case studies are situated in a single country, namely Vietnam; this provides a particularly vivid picture of the role of epidemiology in shaping the health of a population. It can easily be adapted to other developing or transitioning countries.This volume is well suited for courses on epidemiology and public health at the upper undergraduate and graduate levels, while its specific examples make it appropriate for those who teach these fields in developing or emerging countries. New to this edition, in addition to minor revisions of almost all chapters:• Updated data about infectious and non-infectious diseases• An expanded discussion of genetic epidemiology• A new chapter, based on recent research of the authors, on how to build a coherent system of Public Health by using the insights provided by this volume.

Political Changes in Taiwan Under Ma Ying-jeou: Partisan Conflict, Policy Choices, External Constraints and Security Challenges (Routledge Research on Taiwan Series)

by Jacques DeLisle Jean-Pierre Cabestan

In 2008 Ma Ying-jeou was elected President of Taiwan, and the Kuomintang (KMT) returned to power after eight years of rule by the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP). Since taking power, the KMT has faced serious difficulties, as economic growth has been sluggish, society has been polarised over issues of identity and policy, and rapprochement between Taipei and Beijing has met with suspicion or reservation among large segments of Taiwanese society. Indeed, while improved relations with the United States have bolstered Taiwan’s security, warming cross-Strait relations have in turn made Taiwan more dependent upon and vulnerable to an increasingly powerful China. This book provides a comprehensive analysis of the return of the Kuomintang (KMT) to power, and examines the significant domestic political, economic, social and international challenges and changes that have characterized Taiwan since 2008. It identifies the major domestic, cross-Strait and foreign policy trends, and addresses key issues such as elections and Taiwan’s party system; the role of the presidency and legislature; economic development; social movements; identity politics; developments in cross-Strait relations; Taiwan’s security environment and national defence policies; relations with the US and Japan. In turn, the contributors look towards the final years of Ma’s presidency and beyond, and the structural realities – both domestic and external – that will shape Taiwan’s future. Political Changes in Taiwan Under Ma Ying-jeou will be of great interest to students and scholars of Taiwan studies, comparative politics, international relations, and economics. It will also appeal to policy makers working in the field.

Neighborhood Associations and Local Governance in Japan (Nissan Institute/Routledge Japanese Studies)

by Yutaka Tsujinaka Robert J. Pekkanen Hidehiro Yamamoto

Although local neighborhood associations are found in many countries, Japan’s are distinguished by their ubiquity, scope of activities, and very high participation rates, making them important for the study of society and politics. Most Japanese belong to one local neighborhood association or another, making them Japan’s most numerous civil society organization, and one that powerfully shapes governance outcomes in the country. And, they also often blur the state-society boundary, making them theoretically intriguing. Neighborhood Associations and Local Governance in Japan draws on a unique and novel body of empirical data derived from the first national survey of neighborhood associations carried out in 2007 and provides a multifaceted empirical portrait of Japan’s neighborhood associations. It examines how local associational structures affect the quality of local governance, and thus the quality of life for Japan’s citizens and residents, and illuminates the way in which these ambiguous associations can help us refine civil society theory and show how they contribute to governance. As well as outlining the key features of neighbourhood associations, the book goes on to examine in detail the way in which neighbourhood associations contribute to governance, in terms of social capital, networks with other community organizations, social service provision, cooperation with local governments and political participation. This book will be welcomed by students and scholars of Japanese politics, Japanese society, anthropology, urban studies as well as those interested in social capital and civil society.

Three Laws Lethal

by David Walton

The place, New York City; the time, the very near future. The streets of Gotham are swarming with self-driving cars, which are now a reality, and the competition between two entrepreneurs for this cutthroat futuristic business grows increasingly fierce. But when the escalating technological warfare produces superintelligent AI computers that use data to decide who should live and die, the results are explosive . . . and deadly. It is left to young Naomi Sumner, inventor of the virtual world in which the AIs train, to recognize that the supercomputers are developing goals of their own—goals for which they are willing to kill. But can she stop these inhuman machines before it is too late? More importantly, will she stop them? Three Laws Lethal takes the reader on a wild ride in a world that is still imaginary . . . for now . . .

Remembering Genocide (Remembering the Modern World)

by Nigel Eltringham Pam Maclean

In Remembering Genocide an international group of scholars draw on current research from a range of disciplines to explore how communities throughout the world remember genocide. Whether coming to terms with atrocities committed in Namibia and Rwanda, Australia, Canada, the Punjab, Armenia, Cambodia and during the Holocaust, those seeking to remember genocide are confronted with numerous challenges. Survivors grapple with the possibility, or even the desirability, of recalling painful memories. Societies where genocide has been perpetrated find it difficult to engage with an uncomfortable historical legacy. Still, to forget genocide, as this volume edited by Nigel Eltringham and Pam Maclean shows, is not an option. To do so reinforces the vulnerability of groups whose very existence remains in jeopardy and denies them the possibility of bringing perpetrators to justice. Contributors discuss how genocide is represented in media including literature, memorial books, film and audiovisual testimony. Debates surrounding the role museums and monuments play in constructing and transmitting memory are highlighted. Finally, authors engage with controversies arising from attempts to mobilise and manipulate memory in the service of reconciliation, compensation and transitional justice.

Minding the Self: Jungian meditations on contemporary spirituality

by Murray Stein

Many people have an aptitude for religious experience and spirituality but don't know how to develop this or take it further. Modern societies offer little assistance, and traditional religions are overly preoccupied with their own organizational survival. Minding the Self: Jungian meditations on contemporary spirituality offers suggestions for individual spiritual development in our modern and post-modern times. Here, Murray Stein argues that C.G. Jung and depth psychology provide guidance and the foundation for a new kind of modern spirituality. Murray Stein explores the problem of spirituality within the cultural context of modernity and offers a way forward without relapsing into traditional or mythological modes of consciousness. Chapters work towards finding the proper vessel for contemporary spirituality and dealing with the ethical issues that crop up along the way. Stein shows how it is an individual path but not an isolationist one, often using many resources borrowed from a variety of religious traditions: it is a way of symbol, dream and experiences of the numinous with hints of transcendence as these come into personal awareness. Minding the Self: Jungian meditations on contemporary spirituality uses research from a wide variety of fields, such as dream-work and the neuroscience of the sleeping brain, clinical experience in Jungian psychoanalysis, anthropology, ethics, Zen Buddhism, Jung's writings and the recently published Red Book. It will be of interest to psychoanalysts, Jungian scholars, undergraduates, graduate and post-graduate students and anyone with an interest in modern spirituality.

Close Reading in Elementary School: Bringing Readers and Texts Together

by Diana Sisson Betsy Sisson

The Common Core State Standards encourage teachers to use close reading as a means to help students access complex text. Many literacy experts believe close reading has the power to create strong, independent readers. But what does that really mean, and how does it work in the classroom?This book is your must-have guide to getting started! It provides step-by-step strategies and scaffolds for teaching close reading and improving students’ comprehension of complex texts. You will learn how to teach close reading based on text type, how to transition students through increasingly challenging texts, and how to use close reading as a springboard for close writes and close talks. Special Features:• An easy-to-use framework for creating a close reading lesson• Close reading strategies for a variety of literary and informational subgenres• Ideas for teaching close reading to meet specific comprehension objectives based on the Common Core, including analyzing text structure and evaluating argument• Suggestions for helping students read with increased levels of rigor• A clear explanation of what text complexity really means and how it varies by student• Scaffolds to help students at all ability levels do a close reading• Guidelines and procedures for close talks—purposeful, focused discussions about text• Procedures for close writes that vary based on genre and student ability level In addition, each chapter includes study guide questions to help you apply the ideas in the book to your own classroom. With this practical book, you will have all the tools you need to make close reading a reality!

Rural Development and the Construction of New Markets (Routledge ISS Studies in Rural Livelihoods)

by Jan Douwe van der Ploeg Paul Hebinck Sergio Schneider

This book focuses on empirical experiences related to market development, and specifically new markets with structurally different characteristics than mainstream markets. Europe, Brazil, China and the rather robust and complex African experiences are covered to provide a rich multidisciplinary and multi-level analysis of the dynamics of newly emerging markets. Rural Development and the Construction of New Markets analyses newly constructed markets as nested markets. Although they are specific market segments that are nested in the wider commodity markets for food, they have a different nature, different dynamics, a different redistribution of value added, different prices and different relations between producers and consumers. Nested markets embody distinction viz-a-viz the general markets in which they are embedded. A key aspect of nested markets is that these are constructed in and through social struggles, which in turn positions this book in relation to classic and new institutional economic analyses of markets. These markets emerge as steadily growing parts of the farmer populations are dedicating their time, energy and resources to the design and production of new goods and services that differ from conventional agricultural outputs. The speed and intensity with which this is taking place, and the products and services involved, vary considerably across the world. In large parts of the South, notably Africa, farmers are ‘structurally’ combining farming with other activities. By contrast, in Europe and large parts of Latin America farmers have taken steps to generate new products and services which exist alongside ongoing agricultural production. This book not only discusses the economic rationales and dynamics for these markets, but also their likely futures and the threats and opportunities they face.

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