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The Structural Basis of Architecture

by Arne P. Eggen Mark R. Cruvellier Bjørn N. Sandaker

This is a book that shows how to "see" structures as being integral to architecture. It engages a subject that is both about understanding the mechanical aspects of structure as well as being able to relate this to the space, form, and conceptual design ideas that are inherent to the art of building. Analyzing the structural principles behind many of the best-known works of architecture from past and present alike, this book places the subject within a contemporary context. The subject matter is approached in a qualitative and discursive manner, illustrated by many photographs and structural behavior diagrams. Accessible mathematical equations and worked-out examples are also included so as to deepen a fundamental understanding of the topic. This new, color edition’s format has been thoroughly revised and its content updated and expanded throughout. It is perfect as either an introductory structures course text or as a designer’s sourcebook for inspiration, for here two essential questions are addressed in parallel fashion: “How do structures work?” and “What form do structures take in the context of architecture – and why so?” A rich, varied and engaging rationale for structural form in architecture thus emerges.

Nordic Societal Security: Convergence and Divergence (Routledge New Security Studies)

by Sebastian Larsson

This book compares and contrasts publicly espoused security concepts in the Nordic region, and explores the notion of societal security. Outside observers often assume that Nordic countries take similar approaches to the security and safety of their citizens. This book challenges that assumption and traces the evolution of ‘societal security’, and its broadly equivalent concepts, in Sweden, Norway, Denmark and Finland. The notion of societal security is deconstructed and analysed in terms of its different meanings and implications for each country, through both country- and issue-focused studies. Each chapter traces the evolution of key security concepts and related practices, allowing for a comparison of similarities and differences between these four countries. Using discourses and practices as evidence, this is the first book to explore how different Nordic nations have conceptualised domestic security over time. The findings will be valuable to scholars from across the geographical and theoretical spectrum, while highlighting how Nordic security discourses and practices may deviate from traditional assumptions about Nordic values. This book will be of much interest to students of security studies, Nordic politics and International Relations.

Sociological Theories of Health and Illness

by William C Cockerham

Sociological Theories of Health and Illness reviews the evolution of theory in medical sociology beginning with the field’s origins in medicine and extending to its present-day standing as a major sociological subdiscipline. Sociological theory has an especially important role in the practice of medical sociology because its theories distinguish the subdiscipline from virtually all other scientific fields engaged in the study of health and illness. The focus is on contemporary theory because it applies to contemporary conditions; however, since theory in sociology is often grounded in historical precedents and classical foundations, this material is likewise included as it relates to medical sociology today. This book focuses on the most commonly used sociological theories in the study of health and illness, illustrating their utility in current examples of empirical research on a wide range of topics. The qualitative or quantitative research methods applicable to specific theories are also covered. Distinctions between macro and micro-level levels of analysis and the relevance of the agency-structure dichotomy inherent in all theories in sociology are discussed. Beginning with classical theory (Durkheim, Weber, and Marx) and the neglected founders (Gilman, Martineau, and DuBois), along with symbolic interaction (Mead, Strauss) and labeling theory (Becker), and poststructuralism and postmodernism (Foucault), coverage is extended to contemporary medical sociology. Discussion of the stress process model (Pearlin) is followed by the social construction of gender and race and intersectionality theory (Collins), health lifestyle theory (Cockerham), life course theory (Elder), fundamental cause theory (Link and Phelan), and theories of the medical profession (Freidson), medicalization and biomedicalization (Conrad, Clarke), and social capital (Bourdieu, Putnam, and Lin).

Imagining a Greater Justice: Criminal Violence, Punishment and Relational Justice

by Samuel H. Pillsbury

Even for violent crime, justice should mean more than punishment. By paying close attention to the relational harms suffered by victims, this book develops a concept of relational justice for survivors, offenders and community. Relational justice looks beyond traditional rules of legal responsibility to include the social and emotional dimensions of human experience, opening the way for a more compassionate, effective and just response to crime. The book’s chapters follow a journey from victim experiences of violence to community healing from violence. Early chapters examine the relational harms inflicted by the worst wrongs, the moral responsibility of wrongdoers and common mistakes made in judging wrongdoing. Particular attention is paid here to sexual violence. The book then moves to questions of just punishment: proper sentencing by judges, mandatory sentences approved by the public, and the realities of contemporary incarceration, focusing particularly on solitary confinement and sexual violence. In its remaining chapters, the book looks at changes brought by the victims' rights movement and victim needs that current law does not, and perhaps cannot meet. It then addresses possibilities for offender change and challenges for majority America in addressing race discrimination in criminal justice. The book concludes with a look at how individuals might live out the ideals of a greater—relational—justice.

Character and Dystopia: The Last Men (Routledge Studies in Twentieth-Century Literature)

by Aaron S. Rosenfeld

This is the first extended study to specifically focus on character in dystopia. Through the lens of the "last man" figure, Character and Dystopia: The Last Men examines character development in Yevgeny Zamyatin’s We, Anthony Burgess’s A Clockwork Orange, Kazuo Ishiguro’s Never Let Me Go, Fyodor Dostoevsky’s Notes from Underground, George Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty-Four, Nathanael West’s A Cool Million, David Mamet’s Glengarry Glen Ross, Octavia Butler’s Parable of the Sower, Lois Lowry’s The Giver, Michel Houellebecq’s Submission, Chan Koonchung’s The Fat Years, and Maggie Shen King’s An Excess Male, showing how in the 20th and 21st centuries dystopian nostalgia shades into reactionary humanism, a last stand mounted in defense of forms of subjectivity no longer supported by modernity. Unlike most work on dystopia that emphasizes dystopia’s politics, this book’s approach grows out of questions of poetics: What are the formal structures by which dystopian character is constructed? How do dystopian characters operate differently than other characters, within texts and upon the reader? What is the relation between this character and other forms of literary character, such as are found in romantic and modernist texts? By reading character as crucial to the dystopian project, the book makes a case for dystopia as a sensitive register of modern anxieties about subjectivity and its portrayal in literary works.

Sport and National Identities: Globalization and Conflict (Routledge Research in Sport, Culture and Society)

by John Connolly Paddy Dolan

While globalisation has undoubtedly occurred in many social fields, in sport the importance of ‘the nation’ has remained. This book examines the continuing but contested relevance of national identities in sport within the context of globalising forces. Including case studies from around the world, it considers the significance of sport in divided societies, former global empires and aspirational nations within federal states. Each chapter looks at sport not only as a reflection of national rivalries but also as a changing cultural tradition that facilitates the reimagining of borders, boundaries and identities. The book questions how these national, state and global identifications are invoked through sporting structures and practices, both in the past and the present. Truly international in perspective, it features case studies from across Europe, the UK, the USA and China and touches on the topics of race, religion, terrorism, separatism, nationalism and militarism. Sport and National Identities: Globalisation and Conflict is fascinating reading for anyone with an interest in the sociology of sport or the relationship between sport, politics, geography and history.

Christianity and Criminal Law (Law and Religion)

by John Witte Jr Norman Doe Mark Hill Qc Rh Helmholz

This collection, by leading legal scholars, judges and practitioners, together with theologians and church historians, presents historical, theological, philosophical and legal perspectives on Christianity and criminal law. Following a Preface by Lord Judge, formerly Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales, and an introductory chapter, the book is divided into four thematic sections. Part I addresses the historical contributions of Christianity to criminal law drawing on biblical sources, early church fathers and canonists, as far as the Enlightenment. Part II, titled Christianity and the principles of criminal law, compares crime and sin, examines concepts of mens rea and intention, and considers the virtue of due process within criminal justice. Part III looks at Christianity and criminal offences, considering their Christian origins and continuing relevance for several basic crimes that every legal system prohibits. Finally, in Part IV, the authors consider Christianity and the enforcement of criminal law, looking at defences, punishment and forgiveness. The book will be an invaluable resource for students and academics working in the areas of Law and Religion, Legal Philosophy and Theology.

Integrating Postmodern Therapy and Qualitative Research: Guiding Theory and Practice

by Carlos Perez

This book interrogates postmodern theories of therapeutic research and practice to demonstrate how these approaches can be effectively integrated into methods of data collection and analysis. Drawing from theories of counseling, and marriage and family therapy, the book thoroughly explores the similarities between therapy and qualitative research. Chapters consider therapies which offer a humanistic "way of being," such as collaborative language systems, narrative therapy, and solution-focused brief therapy, and identify complementary philosophies and traits that can be used to guide the qualitative researcher’s practice. Transcripts and vignettes of the author’s practice as both a therapist and a researcher further help to illuminate how readers might enrich their processes of research and data analysis. Suitable for use on graduate-level qualitative research courses, as well as an adjunct to marriage and family therapy courses, Integrating Postmodern Therapy and Qualitative Research innovatively encourages readers to reflect on and develop their personal practice and approach to analyzing key information.

The Theory of Transaction in Institutional Economics: A History (Routledge Studies in the History of Economics)

by Massimiliano Vatiero

Despite abundant literature on transaction costs, there is little to no in-depth analysis regarding what the transaction is or how it works. Drawing on both Old and New Institutional Economics and on a variety of interdisciplinary sources, this monograph traces the history of the meaning of transaction in institutional economics, mapping its topicality and use over time. This manuscript treats the idea of ‘transaction’ as a construct with legal, competitive and political dimensions, and connects different approaches within institutional economics. The book covers the contributions of key thinkers from different schools, including (in alphabetical order) Ronald H. Coase, John R. Commons, Robert Lee Hale, Oliver Hart, Mancur Olson, Thorstein Veblen and Olver E. Williamson. This book will be of interest to advanced students and researchers of institutional economics, law and economics, and economics, and the history of economic thought.

Spon's Civil Engineering and Highway Works Price Book 2017 (Spon's Price Books)

by Aecom

Tender prices performed strongly again in 2016, with a provisional rate increase of 10.3% versus a year earlier. SPON'S CIVIL ENGINEERING AND HIGHWAY WORKS PRICE BOOK 2017 from AECOM gives costs for both general and civil engineering works and highway works. It provides a full breakdown of labour, plant and material elements, with labour rates updated. It is an essential component of infrastructure estimating maturity, benchmarking and cost intelligence, and gives sound guidance for estimators, contractors and clients. This 31st edition incorporates a comprehensive review throughout: Plant and materials have increased, though not as significantly as labour rates. Some item descriptions have been revised to reflect prices in the global market. And in detail: A revised structure for manhole construction to show detailed build-up. New prices for pre-cast manholes with monolithic precast concrete bases. Updated rail supply and installation rates and a few more added items. Revised piling rates and descriptions. Highway pipe rates adjusted to reflect current market specifications and materials. Revised steel works prices to reflect deflation in this sector. Use the access code inside the front cover of the book to get set up with internet access to this edition until the end of December 2017. We now provide a VitalSource® ebook, giving a versatile and powerful online data viewing package. In a time when it is essential to gain 'competitive advantage' in a congested market, this price book provides instant-access cost information and forms a one-stop reference. … along with the standard features you have come to expect from SPON'S CIVIL ENGINEERING AND HIGHWAY WORKS PRICE BOOK: for budgeting: estimating principles, on-cost advice, method-related charges for resource costings: labour costs, plant costs, material prices for rapid cost information: approximate estimates, dayworks, cost indices for plant and labour allowances: production rates, outputs, man hour constants for detailed pricing: unit costs with full breakdown, or specialist prices, with advice on item coverage, waste allowances and comparative costs for incidental advice: tables and formulae, technical information, professional advice updated, free of charge, two or three times a year – see inside for registration details. Updates are available online at

U.S. Relations With South Africa: An Annotated Bibliography--volume 1: Books, Documents, Reports, And Monographs

by Y. G-m. Lulat

Relations between the United States and South Africa - or the parts of the world these nations now occupy - go nearly as far back as the very beginning of their inception as permanent European colonial intrusions. This book is a critical overview of these relations from the late seventeenth century to the present. Unprecedented in its scope - and s

Construction And Housing In The West Bank And Gaza

by Simcha Bahiri

The West Bank Data Base Project is an independent research group established in 1982 to study and analyze demographic, social spatial, legal, economic and political conditions in the West Bank and Gaza. The project, which is directed by Dr. Meron Benvenisti, is funded by the Rockefeller and Ford foundations and administered by The Brookings Institution, Washington, D.C. A continuously updated, computerized data base and its own research are the basis for the project's publications, including maps showing present and projected developments in the region.

Grief and the Healing Arts: Creativity as Therapy (Death, Value and Meaning Series)

by Sandra L. Bertman

For nearly three decades, Sandra Bertman has been exploring the power of the arts and belief--symbols, metaphors, stories--to alleviate psychological and spiritual pain not only of patients, grieving family members, and affected communities but also of the nurses, clergy and physicians who minister to them. Her training sessions and clinical interventions are based on the premise that bringing out the creative potential inherent in each of us is just as relevant-- perhaps more so--as psychiatric theory and treatment models since grief and loss are an integral part of life. Thus, this work was compiled to illuminate the many facets that link grief, counseling, and creativity. The multiple strategies suggested in these essays will help practitioners enlarge their repertoire of hands-on skills and foster introspection and empathy in readers.

Literature and Crime in Augustan England (Routledge Library Editions: 18th Century Literature)

by Ian A. Bell

Eighteenth-century England saw an explosion of writings about deviance. In literature, in the law, and in the press, writers returned again and again to the question of crime and criminals. While the extension of the legal system formalised the power of the state to categorise and punish ‘deviance’, writers repeatedly confronted the problematic nature of legal authority and the unstable idea of ‘the criminal’. Some of this commentary was supportive, some was subversive and resistant, uncovering the complexity of issues the law sought to ignore. Originally published in 1991, Ian Bell’s masterly investigation of the diverse representations of crime and legality in the Augustan period ranges widely across the contemporary press, involving court reports, philosophical writings, periodicals, biographies, pornography and polemics. Re-assessing the canonical texts of eighteenth-century ‘Literature’, Bell situates the work of Defoe, Hogarth, Gay, Swift, Pope, Richardson and Fielding in its social and political context.

Mission of the University

by Gerard Chaliand

In 1930, the great Spanish philosopher Jose Ortega y Gasset set forth a program for reforming the modern Spanish university. Aware that the missions of the university are many and often competing, Ortega built his program around a conception of a general culture that knows no national boundaries or time limits and could fit into any national system of higher education. His ideas are especially pertinent to contemporary debate in America over curriculum development and the purpose of education.In this volume Ortega sought to answer two essential questions: what is the knowledge most worth knowing by all students and what is the function of the university in a modern democracy? Basing his answers on his own deep personal culture and an extensive knowledge of the various European university systems, Ortega defined four primary missions: the teaching of the learned professions, the fostering of scientific research, training for political leadership, and finally the creation of cultured persons with the ability to make intellectual interpretations of the world. Ortega's understanding of general culture is set out in great detail here. He meant an active engagement in ideas and issues that were both historical and contemporary. His concern is with the classical problems of justice, the good society, who should rule, and the responsibilities of citizenship.In his informative and brilliant introduction to this new edition, Clark Kerr, a lifetime student of Ortega's work, analyzes Ortega's ideas in their historical context and speculates on how the great issues he dealt with here can be made contemporary for modern students facing the challenges and uncertainties of the twenty-first century. Mission of the University and its new opening essay will be of interest to educationists, social scientists, and above all the students of this era.

Artificial Intelligence: Research Directions in Cognitive Science: European Perspectives Vol. 5 (Psychology Revivals)

by D. Sleeman N. O. Bernsen

Originally published in 1992, this title reviews seven major subareas in artificial intelligence at that time: knowledge acquisition; logic programming and representation; machine learning; natural language; vision; the design of an AI programming environment; and medicine, a major application area of AI. This volume was an attempt primarily to inform fellow AI workers of recent European work in AI. It was hoped that researchers in ‘sister’ disciplines, such as computer science and linguistics would gain a deeper understanding of the assumptions, techniques and tools of contemporary AI.

Taiwan Enterprises in Global Perspective

by Xiaohu (Shawn) Wang

This volume was conceived to further the understanding of the transformation of the Taiwan economy over the past four decades and thus to throw light on issues in development theory and policy, especially for other developing economies. It is built on the micro foundation of a series of enterprise field studies which were conducted by a consortium of eight Taiwan universities under the auspices of Taiwan's National Science Council. Although Taiwan's status as one of the "four dragons" and a rapidly growing Asian Pacific economy is well understood, information on its development remains relatively scarce. Publications of most international organizations rarely include Taiwan as an entity, and scholarly analysis of the causes of the Taiwan miracle are often speculative. Those based on empirical research are by and large at the macro level; few are based on field studies of one of the most critical factors - Taiwan's enterprises. This volume aims to fill the void and goes a long way toward developing a micro perspective on this important economy.

Nondestructive Characterization of Composite Media

by RobertA. Kline

A guide to NDE of composite materials by acoustic wave propagation, including advanced ultrasound methods, for detailed identification and measurement of defects, and characterization of microstructure and properties. ""The major objective is to present the basic concepts of wave propagation in anisotropic media, and to show how these concepts can be applied to the quantitative, nondestructive evaluation of composite media.

Visual Research Methods in Design (Routledge Revivals)

by Henry Sanoff

First published in 1991, this book is about applications and issues relating to the visual environment. The content pertains to the understanding of human behaviour in the environment by recording behaviour and actions or by direct interaction with people. The author examines research and planning methods that primarily stress the visual features of the physical environment. Traditionally, environmental research has relied on verbal descriptions and perceptions of the physical environment, virtually ignoring the visual component and the potential application of the social sciences for gathering this data. Various strategies that can expand the visual information base have been explored here: diagramming, photo-interviewing, photo-sorting, mapping, notation, simulation, videotaping, and CADD.

The Legal Status Of The Arabs In Israel

by David Kretzmer

This study examines how the Israeli legal system copes with two major issues. The first is the tension between the constitutional definition of Israel as both a Jewish state and a democracy committed to equal rights for all of its citizens. The second issue is the delicate position of a national minority in a state that since its establishment has been involved in a bitter conflict with the Palestinian nation to which that minority belongs.

Conflict in Urban Development: A Comparison Between East and West (Routledge Revivals)

by Henri Goverde Arie Dekker Tadeusz Markowski Maria Ptaszynska-Woloczkowicz

Published in 1992, the aim of this book is to give both the professional planner and the student a feel for the current arguments alive in planning policy circles and to introduce relevant contemporary research. This book has developed out of a series of seminars run at the Institute of Planning Studies at Nottingham University as part of its continuing professional development programme. Each of the seminars brought together a variety of speakers who were involved with the topic under discussion from a different aspect – some with academic research experience and others with practical policy implementation. Most the nineteen contributors presented papers at this series of seminars, but some have been rewritten, others substantially revised, and several have been commissioned especially for this book. Four current policy issues are examined: provision and pedestrians; jobs for the inner cities; the homeless and the relationship between planners and developers. For each topic contributors were chosen who could approach the problem from a different point of view, the aim being to explore each topic with direct statements and straightforward arguments leading therefore to a more stimulating breadth of this view rather than a bland overview.

Social Work Case Management

by Roberta R. Greene Betsy S. Vourlekis

This new practice text provides a series of readings focusing on case management in a number of fields and in a variety of settings with different client populations. Each chapter examines a major component of case management practice by presenting information about an innovative program from a different location around the country. In conjunction, these readings provide a road map to social work case management.In addition to offering up-to-date practice approaches and examining the functions and skills of case management in depth, the authors provide the policy information needed for putting this traditional form of social work practice into today's service delivery context.

Women's Writing In Latin America: An Anthology

by Sara Castro-klaren

In the last two decades Latin American literature has received great critical acclaim in the English-speaking world, although attention has been focused primarily on the classic works of male literary figures such as Borges, Paz, and Cortázar. More recently, studies have begun to evaluate the works of established women writers such as Sor Juana Iné

The New Evolutionary Paradigm: Keynote Volume (Routledge Revivals)

by Ervin Laszlo

Originally published in 1991, The New Evolutionary Paradigm provides an innovative and cross disciplinary look at evolution. While Darwin’s theory of evolution was originally restricted to the life sciences, in recent years the same principles have been applied successfully to historical, social and natural sciences. The papers included in The New Evolutionary Paradigm analyse the facts, observations, and accumulated data from the significance of a general evolution theory cannot be overemphasised; a new understanding of the cosmos and man’s relationship to it could lead to the systemization of the irreversible change that takes place in society and nature. This book will appeal to scientists, sociologists and those interested in transdisciplinary evolution theories.

Managing Work Experience (Routledge Library Editions: Human Resource Management Ser.)

by Peter Ashworth Judy Saxton

This book, first published in 1992, sets out the belief that the placement element of courses should be designed from the start as a genuine educational experience. The learner most not merely live through experiences which are supposed to lead to personal and professional development, but must reflect on experiences in a way which is planned to

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