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It is a societal given, borne out by the facts: the higher one's social status, the better health, and the longer life expectancy. As the situation persists, an important question demands attention, namely whether health care systems contribute to the inequity. Drawing accurate conclusions requires workable theory, reliable data collection instruments, and valid analytical methods. Using one representative country to typify the industrial world, Health Care Utilization in Germany studies its subject in terms of social determinants. This singular volume offers systematic guidelines for research into health care access based on an acclaimed behavioral model of care utilization. Contributors focus on specific social factors, medical conditions, and sectors of care to examine why differences exist, their implications, and how care providers can better match supply with demand. And many of the book's topics, such as obesity, dementia, preventive services, and immigrant health, are of global interest. Included in the coverage: Updating a classic behavioral model of health care access. Insights from qualitative research. The problem of repeated surveys: how comparable are their results? Gender and utilization of health care. Care utilization by dementia patients living at home. Social determinants of utilization of psychotherapy in Germany. A volume certain to spark discussion among researchers across the community, the findings and methods in Health Care Utilization in Germany will be analyzed by health psychologists, public health professionals, and epidemiologists.
Mycotoxins are substances produced from fungal secondary metabolic processes. They impair animal health, thereby causing great economic losses of livestock through disease. Livestock come into contact with mycotoxins through contaminated feedstuff. Feedstuff is any of the constituent nutrients of an animal ration. The plants used in feed, such as grains, oil seeds, nuts, and root crops, are susceptible to mycotoxin contamination. Mycotoxins in Feedstuffs lists (in the style of a dictionary) feeds which have been reported to have been contaminated with mycotoxins, including data on the degree of contamination, the concentration of the toxins, and the country of origin and/or detection of the contaminated feed. This second edition will feature: - More than 180 new publications concerning mycotoxins in feedstuffs. - A more efficient organization of the content, making the book easier to use in daily practice. - A single-chapter overview of mycotoxins in the corresponding feedstuffs.
Along with psychopathology, cognition has been one of the primary phenotypic focal points of the field of behavior genetics since its inception. Francis Galton's 1874 examination of eminent families in Britain was among the earliest attempts to investigate whether cognitive achievements run in families. This volume presents current methodologies for understanding cognitive abilities that move beyond the outdated nature vs. nurture paradigm. Recent advances in both collection and statistical modeling of twin data, particularly longitudinal twin data, make this an especially advantageous moment to produce a work that presents a collection of the groundbreaking research on cognitive abilities across the lifespan. This volume presents an overview of the current state of quantitative and molecular genetic investigations into the many facets of cognitive performance and functioning across the lifespan.
Today's children face a multitude of pressures, from the everyday challenges of life to the increasing threats of poverty, exploitation, and trauma. Central to growing up successfully is learning to deal with stress, endure hardships, and thrive despite adversity. Resilience - the ability to cope with and overcome life's difficulties - is a quality that can potentially be nurtured in all young people. The second edition of the Handbook of Resilience in Children updates and expands on its original focus of resilience in children who overcome adversity to include its development in those not considered at risk, leading to better outcomes for all children across the lifespan. Expert contributors examine resilience in relation to environmental stressors, as a phenomenon in child and adolescent disorders, and as a means toward positive adaptation into adulthood. New and revised chapters explore strategies for developing resilience in the family, the therapist's office, and the school as well as its nurturance in caregivers and teachers. Topics addressed include: Resilience in maltreated children and adults. Resilience and self-control impairment. Relational resilience in young and adolescent girls. Asset-building as an essential component of treatment. Assessment of social and emotional competencies related to resilience. Building resilience through school bullying prevention programs. Large-scale longitudinal studies on resilience. The second edition of the Handbook of Resilience in Children is a must-have reference for researchers, clinicians, allied practitioners and professionals, and graduate students in school and clinical psychology, education, pediatrics, psychiatry, social work, school counseling, and public health.
Passivity-based Model Predictive Control for Mobile Vehicle Navigation represents a complete theoretical approach to the adoption of passivity-based model predictive control (MPC) for autonomous vehicle navigation in both indoor and outdoor environments. The brief also introduces analysis of the worst-case scenario that might occur during the task execution. Some of the questions answered in the text include: * how to use an MPC optimization framework for the mobile vehicle navigation approach; * how to guarantee safe task completion even in complex environments including obstacle avoidance and sideslip and rollover avoidance; and * what to expect in the worst-case scenario in which the roughness of the terrain leads the algorithm to generate the longest possible path to the goal. The passivity-based MPC approach provides a framework in which a wide range of complex vehicles can be accommodated to obtain a safer and more realizable tool during the path-planning stage. During task execution, the optimization step is continuously repeated to take into account new local sensor measurements. These ongoing changes make the path generated rather robust in comparison with techniques that fix the entire path prior to task execution. In addition to researchers working in MPC, engineers interested in vehicle path planning for a number of purposes: rescued mission in hazardous environments; humanitarian demining; agriculture; and even planetary exploration, will find this SpringerBrief to be instructive and helpful.
Java Closures and Lambda introduces you to significant new changes to the Java language coming out of what is termed Project Lambda. These new changes make their debut in Java 8, and their highlight is the long-awaited support for lambda expressions in the Java language. You'll learn to write lambda expressions and use them to create functional interfaces and default methods for evolving APIs, among many other uses. The changes in Java 8 are significant. Syntax and usage of the language are changed considerably with the introduction of closures and lambda expressions. This book takes you through these important changes from introduction to mastery. Through a set of clear examples, you'll learn to refactor existing code to take advantage of the new language features. You'll learn what those features can do for you, and when they are best applied. You'll learn to design and write new code having these important new features in mind from the very beginning. Clearly explains the fantastic benefits resulting from Project Lambda Explains the syntax and IDE support for the new features Shows how to streamline your code by bringing some of the benefits of functional programming to the Java language Illustrates parallelism in closures through Stream and Spliterator objects Explains API evolution by adding methods to existing interfaces without breaking existing interface implementations, a technique addressing potential multiple inheritance issues
Nanak Kakwani and Hyun Hwa Son make use of social welfare functions to derive indicators of development relevant to specific social objectives, such as poverty- and inequality-reduction. Arguing that the measurement of development cannot be value-free, the authors assert that if indicators of development are to have policy relevance, they must be assessed on the basis of the social objectives in question. This study develops indicators that are sensitive to both the level and the distribution of individuals' capabilities. The idea of the social welfare function, defined in income space, is extended to the concept of the social well-being function, defined in capability space. Through empirical analysis from selected developing countries, with a particular focus on Brazil, the authors shape techniques appropriate to the analysis of development in different dimensions. The focus of this evidence-based policy analysis is to evaluate alternative policies affecting the capacities of people to enjoy a better life.
Greening Airports considers the "greening", i.e., more sustainable development, of the entire air transport system - airports, air traffic control, and airlines - that could be achieved by the development and implementation of advanced operations and technologies. A broad overview of the general concept is given at the start of Greening Airports, which then goes on to provide a system for monitoring and assessing the level of greening of both the air transport system and individual airports. These are followed by analysis and modelling of the potential effects of particular advanced operations and technologies on the greening of airports and their local airspace. These include: the development of a large airport into a multimodal transport node by connecting it to a high speed rail network;the use of operations supported by new and existing air traffic control technologies to increase landing capacity of existing runways;the use of liquid hydrogen as a commercial aviation fuel; andthe improvement of airport ground accessibility by a light rail rapid transit system. Greening Airports is written for researchers, planners, operators and policy makers in air transport.
This indispensable guide provides a roadmap to the broad and varied career development opportunities in bioengineering, biotechnology, and related fields. Eminent practitioners lay out career paths related to academia, industry, government and regulatory affairs, healthcare, law, marketing, entrepreneurship, and more. Lifetimes of experience and wisdom are shared, including "war stories," strategies for success, and discussions of the authors' personal views and motivations.
People with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS)/ME experience extreme tiredness and a range of other symptoms, including pain, headaches, impaired concentration and memory, anxiety, sleep problems, and palpitations. The condition can affect all areas of a sufferer's life and, in turn, the lives of those who are close to them. This book provides the families and friends of people with CFS/ME with an accessible introduction to the condition, and explains what can be done to support those who have it. It offers useful advice on how to help a loved one cope with the illness, and suggests ways to help them with everyday issues such as personal hygeine, nutrition, finances, and relationships. Recognising that coping with the impact of CFS/ME can be just as difficult for the relatives and friends of those with the condition, it addresses the emotional, social, and practical aspects of having a loved one with CFS/ME, explains how to understand the changes in their relationship with the sufferer, how to manage stress, and where to go for further help and support. The book also includes detailed case studies and practical advice from a wide range of people with mild, moderate, and severe CFS/ME, and their loved ones. This book offers much-needed information and support to the friends, families, and carers of people with CFS/ME. It will also be a useful resource for health professionals who wish to deepen their understanding of CFS/ME, including home helps, care staff, counsellors, therapists, doctors, and nurses.
Living with ADD/ADHD can be hectic, and parenting a child with this disorder can feel like an uphill struggle when even the simplest of tasks causes havoc. This book addresses the issues of organization and time management in relation to ADD/ADHD, suggesting practical ways of organizing your child's day and turning chaos into calm. Accommodating short attention spans and short fuses, Cheryl Carter shows how, by using the F. I. R. S. T method (Fun, Individualism, Rules, Simplicity and Time management), even the most hyperactive and easily distracted of children can be taught to make their bed, pack their school bag, and generally get organized! The author recognizes that children hate anything that is boring, and finds fun ways around even the most mundane of tasks. Her no-nonsense, step-by-step strategies, in combination with positive affirmations and realistic demands, will get ADD/ADHD children organized, and from A to B without a hitch. This book is a must-have for any flagging parent struggling to structure their child's life (and indeed their own!). It will also be of interest to family members, teachers, and anybody close to a child with ADD/ADHD.
Leaving home and moving to college or university can be a daunting experience. In this easy-to-use book, Rosemary Martin provides guidelines and invaluable advice for every student on the Autism Spectrum as he or she thinks about, and plans for, entry into student life. Packed with tried and tested methods for coping and succeeding away from home that cover every aspect of student life, this book focuses on the particular needs of people with AS - from how to get up on time for lectures, to the art of living with other people and attending to the basics of personal hygiene - and encourages everyone to make the most of student life in a style that suits them. Handy hints and tips reassure the reader that going to college is a big deal for every student, regardless of whether or not they are on the autism spectrum. This friendly and useful book is an absolute must for any student on the spectrum about to begin a university or college degree.
Reminiscence is a valuable tool for the professional carer as well as those who are looking after a family member or friend. It enhances and enriches the care relationship, and benefits both the person being cared for and the carer. This fully-updated fourth edition is full of practical information on planning and running successful reminiscence work. It will enable carers and health and social care practitioners to develop the attitude, knowledge, understanding, values and skills they need to use reminiscence with people of all ages, either individually or in groups, and in residential or community settings. Topics covered include reminiscence with individuals and couples, inter-generational reminiscence, reminiscence with individuals from minority ethnic groups and reminiscence with people with sensory and learning disabilities, dementia, depression and terminal illness. This book is the ideal starting point for any professional taking up reminiscence work, as well as for those who wish to deepen their knowledge and increase their ability to help those they care for in less formal ways.
Children with pervasive developmental disorders often do not learn from conventional methods, which can result in social isolation, behavior problems, limitations in communication, and slow academic growth. Greater integration into home and school activities, improved behavior and academic success can be achieved using alternative-augmentative communication (AAC), and this book explains exactly how to make it happen. Exploring the various communication and intervention options available and offering straightforward techniques and strategies for using them effectively, this book clearly explains everything families, teachers, therapists and other professionals need to know in order to improve a child's communication, behavior, social and academic skills. Chapters follow a consistent, user-friendly format, answering the questions Who, What, Why, How, Where and When about every technique. This book will be essential reading for anyone looking to improve social interaction between children with pervasive developmental disorders and those around them.
Violence against women is a pervasive problem in society and responding appropriately to those who experience it and those who perpetrate it is a constant challenge for social work, health and related professions today. This volume seeks to address issues surrounding violence against women at all levels, from its root causes to the specific needs arising in victims of gendered abuse from a particular social or ethnic group. Drawing on the expertise of a range of 'front line' service providers and practitioners as well as academic researchers, it seeks to provide those working in social work and related professions with up-to-date coverage of the major issues pertaining to violence against women, and suggest ways to tackle the rise in violence against women by translating knowledge into effective training and practice. This important book will be essential reading for practising social workers and allied professions, as well as academics and students.
People who are detained in or who use forensic mental health services are defined by the fact that they have violated boundaries, often in many ways. For clinicians employed to work therapeutically with this client group however, the capacity to initiate and maintain boundaries is critical to safety as well as to good treatment outcomes. This book provides a thorough introduction to the subject of professional and therapeutic boundaries and their particular complexities within forensic mental health settings. The contributors, all experts in their respective fields, address the challenges of establishing working boundaries within forensic mental health services from multiple perspectives. They explore the ways in which boundaries can be initiated and maintained in different areas of forensic mental health work, including in psychotherapy, mental health nursing, arts therapies, forensic psychiatry and family therapy, and when working with different client groups, including children and adolescents, offenders with severe personality disorders in high security settings and sex offenders. Consideration is also given to boundaries and homicide, maternal boundary violations and boundaries in a forensic learning disability service. This authoritative, interdisciplinary resource will support all forensic mental health practitioners in this crucial aspect of their work.
Young people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often feel uncomfortable and anxious in social situations, but socializing with classmates and colleagues can be made easier - and more enjoyable - with Guiding Toward Growth group sessions. John Merges' simple yet effective program for teaching social enjoyment skills is based on the concept that there are ten hurdles that make it challenging for people with ASD to enjoy social interaction. This book guides the reader through planning, running, and assessing group sessions that have been designed to help participants overcome these hurdles, interact with confidence, and ultimately enjoy more independent and fulfilling lives. As social interaction is a vital element of any work environment, this book also teaches young adults with ASD an important employment skill. This adaptable book can be used with a wide range of ages and communicative abilities, and will be an invaluable resource for all professionals working with groups of children and young people with ASD.
Fighting, biting, screaming and other behaviours that challenge the people dealing with them are often triggered by unsuitable surroundings or unrealistic demands. In this fresh and effective approach, Bo Hejlskov Elvén shows how identifying and adapting these problem areas can dramatically improve behaviour in people with autism and other developmental disabilities. This practical book explains how to reassess difficult situations and offers easy and effective strategies for eliciting positive responses without resorting to restraint and punishment. Based on the successful low-arousal approach, it is a proven method of stepping away from distress and towards calm, improving the quality of life of everyone involved. Helpful examples covering a wide range of developmental disabilities from autism to Down's Syndrome illustrate the positive changes that can be achieved. This empowering book will be invaluable to anyone attempting to deal with unproductive behaviour in individuals with developmental disabilities, whether at home or in a professional environment.
Placing motivation at the heart of all encounters and therapeutic activities, this book presents a groundbreaking, evidence-based model for working with children, including those with physical disabilities, learning disabilities and emotional and behavioural difficulties. Drawing on Self-Determination Theory (SDT), the authors describe this innovative paradigm - the model of Synthesis of Child, Occupational Performance and Environment - in Time (SCOPE-IT) - and explain how it can be used to sustain the child's motivation and active involvement in the therapeutic process. They suggest ways of using language and of structuring and working with the environment to maximise engagement and autonomy and achieve the best possible treatment outcomes. The challenges professionals may face when working with children are also clearly addressed, and engaging case studies and photographs place the key theoretical concepts in a richly human and personal context. Combining accessible theory with a wealth of tools and strategies for practice, this book is essential reading for all those working therapeutically with children, including occupational therapists, speech and language therapists, psychologists and psychotherapists.
Rebuilding Lives after Domestic Violence examines in-depth the long-term outcomes for women who have suffered domestic violence and abuse, based on interviews conducted over seven years. Through these interviews the author reveals the factors which help or hinder a successful transition from abusive relationship to independent living. The women interviewed provide an insight into the lengthy and difficult process of rebuilding their lives, and offer messages and advice to those working with women who have endured similar experiences. The author examines issues the women commonly face such as finding safe and independent accommodation, building practical and emotional support systems and relationships, and issues surrounding their children. She also discusses service provision and draws together the factors that contribute to a successful and independent life. This unique book will be essential reading for all those involved in working with women who have experienced domestic violence and abuse as well as those responsible for service provision and policy development.
Alcohol misuse is becoming an increasingly significant issue for people aged 55 and over, and providing effective counselling services to this growing client group requires a unique and specialised approach. This practical guide explores the factors that differentiate older drinkers, and introduces an innovative person-centred model that will help counsellors and other healthcare professionals to give older people with alcohol problems the help and support they need. Older people with alcohol problems often have complex personal histories, and are particularly vulnerable to long-term dependency, social isolation and self-medication. This book explores the influences, patterns and triggers that affect the development and progression of alcohol dependency in this age group, and provides a detailed description of a theoretical model and therapeutic process that has proved successful in practice. Informative case studies demonstrate the approach in action and guidance is also given for working with clients with dementia or mental health problems. This book will prove an invaluable resource for counsellors and other healthcare professionals who encounter alcohol problems in their clinical practice, including clinical psychologists, social workers, occupational therapists and community psychiatric nurses.
In her new book, Wendy Lawson examines traditional theories about the autism spectrum (AS) and reveals their gaps and shortcomings. Showing that a completely different way of thinking about AS is needed, she sets forward the theory of Single Attention and Associated Cognition in Autism (SAACA), an approach that explains autism in terms of the unique learning style of AS individuals. The SAACA approach suggests that whereas neurotypical people can easily shift their attention from one task to another, those on the autism spectrum tend to use just one sense at a time, leading to a deep, intense attention. From the perspective of this new approach, Wendy describes practical outcomes for individuals, families, and places of education and employment, and shows that when the unique learning style of AS is understood, valued, and accommodated, AS individuals can be empowered to achieve their fullest potential. This is a fascinating read for anyone with a personal or professional interest in the autism spectrum, including clinical practitioners, educators, researchers, individuals on the spectrum and their families, teachers, occupational therapists, and other professionals.
Poetry and short stories can act as powerful springboards to growth, self-enhancement and healing. With the guidance of a skilled facilitator, participants can engage with their own creative expression, and with that of others, and in doing so find opportunities to voice their truth, affirm their strengths, and find new ways of coping with challenges. This book explores the therapeutic possibilities of poetry and stories in turn, describing how to select appropriate works for discussion, and providing techniques for facilitating personally-relevent and growth-enhancing sessions. The author provides ideas and suggestions for personal writing activities that emerge from or intertwine with this discussion, and explains how participants can create their own poetic and narrative pieces using non-literary stimuli, such as music, photographs, paintings, objects, and physical movement. A useful appendix contains titles of individual poems, stories, and literary anthologies that the author has found particularly beneficial in her work, as well as useful further resources and contact details for readers who would like to train to be registered or certified poetry therapists or facilitators. Combining theory with innovative ideas for practical, experiential exercises, this book is a valuable tool for creative arts therapy students and practitioners, mental health and medical professionals, and anyone else interested in the healing possibilities of creative expression.
Potty training a child with developmental disorders can be a real challenge, and sometimes the extra difficulties make you feel as though you've tried everything, and failed. In this book, Brenda Batts shows how you can overcome problems, big and small, and provides tried and tested methods that really work, tailored to each individual child. Bursting with ideas on how to see past conventional strategies and adapt toilet training to suit your child, this book outlines methods that have helped even the most despairing of parents and caregivers. Examples of success stories range from two-year-olds to adults aged 20, and show that no matter how difficult it may seem, a little creativity and adaptation can get anyone toilet trained, however many previous attempts have failed. The program itself is supported by plenty of helpful hints and tips, as Brenda covers all you need to get your child past the diaper stage and help them to achieve a big step towards independence. This book is a must for anybody looking to toilet train someone with developmental disorders.