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This book explores the dispositional and categorical debates on the metaphysics of properties. It defends the view that all fundamental properties and relations are contingently categorical, while also examining alternative accounts of the nature of properties. Drawing upon both established research and the author's own investigation into the broader discipline of the metaphysics of science, this book provides a comprehensive study of the many views and opinions regarding a most debatable topic in contemporary metaphysics. Science in Metaphysics will be of interest to metaphysicians of science, analytic metaphysicians and philosophers of science and physics alike.
In this book, a series of granular algorithms are proposed. A nature inspired granular algorithm based on Newtonian gravitational forces is proposed. A series of methods for the formation of higher-type information granules represented by Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Sets are also shown, via multiple approaches, such as Coefficient of Variation, principle of justifiable granularity, uncertainty-based information concept, and numerical evidence based. And a fuzzy granular application comparison is given as to demonstrate the differences in how uncertainty affects the performance of fuzzy information granules.
This book presents the deterministic view of quantum mechanics developed by Nobel Laureate Gerard 't Hooft. Dissatisfied with the uncomfortable gaps in the way conventional quantum mechanics meshes with the classical world, 't Hooft has revived the old hidden variable ideas, but now in a much more systematic way than usual. In this, quantum mechanics is viewed as a tool rather than a theory. The author gives examples of models that are classical in essence, but can be analysed by the use of quantum techniques, and argues that even the Standard Model, together with gravitational interactions, might be viewed as a quantum mechanical approach to analysing a system that could be classical at its core. He shows how this approach, even though it is based on hidden variables, can be plausibly reconciled with Bell's theorem, and how the usual objections voiced against the idea of 'superdeterminism' can be overcome, at least in principle. This framework elegantly explains - and automatically cures - the problems of the wave function collapse and the measurement problem. Even the existence of an "arrow of time" can perhaps be explained in a more elegant way than usual. As well as reviewing the author's earlier work in the field, the book also contains many new observations and calculations. It provides stimulating reading for all physicists working on the foundations of quantum theory.
As discussed in this book, a large body of evidence indicates that selenium is a cancer chemopreventive agent. Further evidence points to a role of this element in reducing viral expression, in preventing heart disease, and other cardiovascular and muscle disorders, and in delaying the progression of AIDS in HIV infected patients. Selenium may also have a role in mammalian development, in male fertility, in immune function and in slowing the aging process. The mechanism by which selenium exerts its beneficial effects on health may be through selenium-containing proteins. Selenium is incorporated into protein as the amino acid selenocysteine. Selenocysteine utilizes a specific tRNA, a specific elongation factor, a specific set of signals, and the codeword, UGA, for its cotranslational insertion into protein. It is indeed the 21st naturally occurring amino acid to be incorporated into protein and marks the first and only expansion of the genetic code since the code was deciphered in the mid 1960s.
This contributed volume explores the emerging intersection between big data analytics and genomics. Recent sequencing technologies have enabled high-throughput sequencing data generation for genomics resulting in several international projects which have led to massive genomic data accumulation at an unprecedented pace. To reveal novel genomic insights from this data within a reasonable time frame, traditional data analysis methods may not be sufficient or scalable, forcing the need for big data analytics to be developed for genomics. The computational methods addressed in the book are intended to tackle crucial biological questions using big data, and are appropriate for either newcomers or veterans in the field. This volume offers thirteen peer-reviewed contributions, written by international leading experts from different regions, representing Argentina, Brazil, China, France, Germany, Hong Kong, India, Japan, Spain, and the USA. In particular, the book surveys three main areas: statistical analytics, computational analytics, and cancer genome analytics. Sample topics covered include: statistical methods for integrative analysis of genomic data, computation methods for protein function prediction, and perspectives on machine learning techniques in big data mining of cancer. Self-contained and suitable for graduate students, this book is also designed for bioinformaticians, computational biologists, and researchers in communities ranging from genomics, big data, molecular genetics, data mining, biostatistics, biomedical science, cancer research, medical research, and biology to machine learning and computer science. Readers will find this volume to be an essential read for appreciating the role of big data in genomics, making this an invaluable resource for stimulating further research on the topic.
This thesis presents a combination of material synthesis and characterization with process modeling. In it, the CO2 adsorption properties of hydrotalcites are enhanced through the production of novel supported hybrids (carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide) and the promotion with alkali metals. Hydrogen is regarded as a sustainable energy carrier, since the end users produce no carbon emissions. However, given that most of the hydrogen produced worldwide comes from fossil fuels, its potential as a carbon-free alternative depends on the ability to capture the carbon dioxide released during manufacture. Sorption-enhanced hydrogen production, in which CO2 is removed as it is formed, can make a major contribution to achieving this. The challenge is to find solid adsorbents with sufficient CO2 capacity that can work in the right temperature window over repeated adsorption-desorption cycles. The book presents a highly detailed characterization of the materials, together with an accurate measurement of their adsorption properties under dry conditions and in the presence of steam. It demonstrates that even small quantities of graphene oxide provide superior thermal stability to hydrotalcites due to their compatible layered structure, making them well suited as volume-efficient adsorbents for CO2. Lastly, it identifies suitable catalysts for the overall sorption-enhanced water gas shift process.
The book explores the central question facing humanity today: how can we best survive the ten great existential challenges that are now coming together to confront us? Besides describing these challenges from the latest scientific perspectives, it also outlines and integrates the solutions, both at global and individual level and concludes optimistically. This book brings together in one easy-to-read work the principal issues facing humanity. It is written for the two next generations who will have to deal with the compounding risks they inherit, and which flow from overpopulation, resource pressures and human nature. The author examines ten intersecting areas of activity (mass extinction, resource depletion, WMD, climate change, universal toxicity, food crises, population and urban expansion, pandemic disease, dangerous new technologies and self-delusion) which pose manifest risks to civilization and, potentially, to our species' long-term future. This isn't a book just about problems. It is also about solutions. Every chapter concludes with clear conclusions and consensus advice on what needs to be done at global level --but it also empowers individuals with what they can do for themselves to make a difference. Unlike other books, it offers integrated solutions across the areas of greatest risk. It explains why Homo sapiens is no longer an appropriate name for our species, and what should be done about it.
The introduction to the 1st International Conference on Computers for Han- cappedPersons(Vienna,1989)byAMinTjoa(UniversityofVienna)andRoland Wagner(UniversityofLinz)?nishedwiththefollowingmissionstatementonthe "Future Direction on Computers for Handicapped Persons": "The di'erent themes show that a lot of problems are solved by the usage of computer technology for helping handicapped persons, for instance for the blind and visually handicapped. A consequence of the discussed themes there are two directions which should be done in the next years. One direction is obvious. The tools must be improved and research and development work should be extended to all groups of handicapped (even if they are numerically not so large as for instancetheblindorvisuallyhandicappedpersons). Ontheothersideinthearea of social implications there is an increasing demand on social science studies on overall computer use among disabled persons. Because sources are in principle missing today about disabled persons work tasks, research in this ?eld must begin by trying to survey this aspect. Particular attention should be paid to the extent and character of computer use among the handicapped in work life. There are a lot of questions, which should be answered during the next years for reaching the aim of rehabilitation. " Fifteen years later the 9th International Conference on Computers Helping People with Special Needs (Paris, 2004) o'ered a comprehensive and deepened view on general awareness,special research and individual applications conce- ing disabled people and their participation in our society.
This thought-provoking monograph analyzes long- medium- and short-term global cycles of prosperity, recession, and depression, plotting them against centuries of important world events. Major research on economic and political cycles is integrated to clarify evolving relationships between the global center and its periphery as well as current worldwide economic upheavals and potential future developments. Central to this survey are successive waves of industrial and, later, technological and cybernetic progress, leading to the current era of globalization and the changes of the roles of both Western powers and former minors players, however that will lead to the formation of the world order without a hegemon. Additionally, the authors predict what they term the Great Convergence, the lessening of inequities between the global core and the rest of the world, including the wealth gap between First and Third World nations. Among the topics in this ambitious volume: #65533; Why politics is often omitted from economic analysis. #65533; Why economic cycles are crucial to understanding the modern geopolitical landscape. #65533; How the aging of the developed world will affect world technological and economic future. #65533; The evolving technological forecast for Global North and South. #65533; Where the U. S. is likely to stand on the future world stage. Economic Cycles, Crises, and the Global Periphery will inspire discussion and debate among sociologists, global economists, demographers, global historians, and futurologists. This expert knowledge is necessary for further research, proactive response, and preparedness for a new age of sociopolitical change.
This book compiles and presents new developments in statistical causal inference. The accompanying data and computer programs are publicly available so readers may replicate the model development and data analysis presented in each chapter. In this way, methodology is taught so that readers may implement it directly. The book brings together experts engaged in causal inference research to present and discuss recent issues in causal inference methodological development. This is also a timely look at causal inference applied to scenarios that range from clinical trials to mediation and public health research more broadly. In an academic setting, this book will serve as a reference and guide to a course in causal inference at the graduate level (Master's or Doctorate). It is particularly relevant for students pursuing degrees in statistics, biostatistics, and computational biology. Researchers and data analysts in public health and biomedical research will also find this book to be an important reference.
This volume offers insights from modeling relations between teacher quality, instructional quality and student outcomes in mathematics across countries. The relations explored take the educational context, such as school climate, into account. The International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement's Trends in Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) is the only international large-scale study possessing a design framework that enables investigation of relations between teachers, their teaching, and student outcomes in mathematics. TIMSS provides both student achievement data and contextual background data from schools, teachers, students and parents, for over 60 countries. This book makes a major contribution to the field of educational effectiveness, especially teaching effectiveness, where cross-cultural comparisons are scarce. For readers interested in teacher quality, instructional quality, and student achievement and motivation in mathematics, the comparisons across cultures, grades, and time are insightful and thought-provoking. For readers interested in methodology, the advanced analytical methods, combined with application of methods new to educational research, illustrate interesting novel directions in methodology and the secondary analysis of international large-scale assessment (ILSA).
This book discusses canine and feline skin cytology and the importance of this diagnostic tool in interpreting skin lesions. With more than 600 clinical and cytological color pictures, it explains the cytological patterns observed in all cutaneous inflammatory and neoplastic lesions in cats and dogs, as well as cutaneous metastasis of non-primary skin neoplasms. The first part of the book describes cell morphology and cytological patterns, providing an overview of the normal structure of the skin. In the second chapter, readers learn how to choose the best techniques for different types of lesions. Further chapters present the cytological findings in the main inflammatory and neoplastic skin diseases. By focusing on the macroscopic aspects of the lesions from which the cells are collected, it helps readers to interpret cytological specimens. The final chapter explores the cytology of cutaneous metastasis from internal organs or accessory glands. This book offers veterinary students and practitioners alike an essential diagnostic tool.
This 35-chapter book is based on several oral and poster presentations including both invited and contributory chapters. The book is thematically based on four pillars of sustainability, with focus on sub-Saharan Africa (SSA): Environment, Economic, Social and Institutional. The environmental sustainability, which determines economic and social/institutional sustainability, refers to the rate of use of natural resources (soil, water, landscape, vegetation) which can be continued indefinitely without degrading their quality, productivity and ecosystem services for different ecoregions of SSA. This book will help achieve the Sustainable Development Goals of the U. N. in SSA. Therefore, the book is of interest to agriculturalists, economists, social scientists, policy makers, extension agents, and development/bilateral organizations. Basic principles explained in the book can be pertinent to all development organizations.
This book is the thirteenth volume in the International Papers in Political Economy (IPPE) series which explores the latest developments in political economy. A collection of eight papers, the book concentrates on the deregulation of domestic financial markets and discusses financial liberalisation in terms of its past performance, current progress and future developments. The chapters have been written by expert contributors in the field and focus on topics such as past records of financial liberalisation, future policies of regulation, and current account imbalances. Other papers examine capital account regulations in developing and emerging countries, and capital controls in the Eurozone after the 2007 financial crisis. This collection of papers invites readers to consider the impact of financial liberalisation both during and after the global economic crisis. Scholars and students with an interest in political economy, financialisation, and economic performance will find this collection stimulating and informative.
This volume provides a snapshot of the current and future trends in turbulence research across a range of disciplines. It provides an overview of the key challenges that face scientific and engineering communities in the context of huge databases of turbulence information currently being generated, yet poorly mined. These challenges include coherent structures and their control, wall turbulence and control, multi-scale turbulence, the impact of turbulence on energy generation and turbulence data manipulation strategies. The motivation for this volume is to assist the reader to make physical sense of these data deluges so as to inform both the research community as well as to advance practical outcomes from what is learned. Outcomes presented in this collection provide industry with information that impacts their activities, such as minimizing impact of wind farms, opportunities for understanding large scale wind events and large eddy simulation of the hydrodynamics of bays and lakes thereby increasing energy efficiencies, and minimizing emissions and noise from jet engines. Elucidates established, contemporary, and novel aspects of fluid turbulence - a ubiquitous yet poorly understood phenomena; Explores computer simulation of turbulence in the context of the emerging, unprecedented profusion of experimental data,which will need to be stewarded and archived; Examines a compendium of problems and issues that investigators can use to help formulate new promising research ideas; Makes the case for why funding agencies and scientists around the world need to lead a global effort to establish and steward large stores of turbulence data, rather than leaving them to individual researchers.
This thesis presents several significant new results that shed light on two major puzzles of modern cosmology: the nature of inflation, the very early phase of the universe that is thought to have given rise to the large-scale structures that we observe today; and that of the current accelerated expansion. In particular, it develops a clean method for characterizing linear cosmological perturbations for general theories where gravity is modified and/or affected by a new component, called dark energy, responsible for the accelerated expansion. It proposes a new extension to what were long thought to be the most general scalar field theories devoid of instabilities, and demonstrates the robustness of the relation between the energy scale of inflation and the predicted amplitude of gravitational waves. Finally, it consolidates a set of consistency relations between correlation functions of the cosmological density field and investigates the phenomenological consequences of their potential violation. Presented in a clear, succinct and rigorous style, each of these original results is both profound and important and will leave a deep mark on the field.
This textbook for a one-semester course in Digital Systems Design describes the basic methods used to develop "traditional" Digital Systems, based on the use of logic gates and flip flops, as well as more advanced techniques that enable the design of very large circuits, based on Hardware Description Languages and Synthesis tools. It was originally designed to accompany a MOOC (Massive Open Online Course) created at the Autonomous University of Barcelona (UAB), currently available on the Coursera platform. Readers will learn what a digital system is and how it can be developed, preparing them for steps toward other technical disciplines, such as Computer Architecture, Robotics, Bionics, Avionics and others. In particular, students will learn to design digital systems of medium complexity, describe digital systems using high level hardware description languages, and understand the operation of computers at their most basic level. All concepts introduced are reinforced by plentiful illustrations, examples, exercises, and applications. For example, as an applied example of the design techniques presented, the authors demonstrate the synthesis of a simple processor, leaving the student in a position to enter the world of Computer Architecture and Embedded Systems.
This textbook provides a fast-track pathway to numerical implementation of phase-field modeling--a relatively new paradigm that has become the method of choice for modeling and simulation of microstructure evolution in materials. It serves as a cookbook for the phase-field method by presenting a collection of codes that act as foundations and templates for developing other models with more complexity. Programming Phase-Field Modeling uses the Matlab/Octave programming package, simpler and more compact than other high-level programming languages, providing ease of use to the widest audience. Particular attention is devoted to the computational efficiency and clarity during development of the codes, which allows the reader to easily make the connection between the mathematical formulism and the numerical implementation of phase-field models. The background materials provided in each case study also provide a forum for undergraduate level modeling-simulations courses as part of their curriculum.
This book introduces readers to a wide range of applications for elements in Group 16 of the periodic table, such as, optical fibers for communication and sensing, X-ray imaging, electrochemical sensors, data storage devices, biomedical applications, photovoltaics and IR detectors, the rationale for these uses, the future scope of their applications, and expected improvements to existing technologies. Following an introductory section, the book is broadly divided into three parts--dealing with Sulfur, Selenium, and Tellurium. The sections cover the basic structure of the elements and their compounds in bulk and nanostructured forms; properties that make these useful for various applications, followed by applications and commercial products. As the global technology revolution necessitates the search for new materials and more efficient devices in the electronics and semiconductor industry, Applications of Chalcogenides: S, Se, and Te is an ideal book for a wide range of readers in industry, government and academic research facilities looking beyond silicon for materials used in the electronic and optoelectronic industry as well as biomedical applications.
This book is an introduction to both offensive and defensive techniques of cyberdeception. Unlike most books on cyberdeception, this book focuses on methods rather than detection. It treats cyberdeception techniques that are current, novel, and practical, and that go well beyond traditional honeypots. It contains features friendly for classroom use: (1) minimal use of programming details and mathematics, (2) modular chapters that can be covered in many orders, (3) exercises with each chapter, and (4) an extensive reference list. Cyberattacks have grown serious enough that understanding and using deception is essential to safe operation in cyberspace. The deception techniques covered are impersonation, delays, fakes, camouflage, false excuses, and social engineering. Special attention is devoted to cyberdeception in industrial control systems and within operating systems. This material is supported by a detailed discussion of how to plan deceptions and calculate their detectability and effectiveness. Some of the chapters provide further technical details of specific deception techniques and their application. Cyberdeception can be conducted ethically and efficiently when necessary by following a few basic principles. This book is intended for advanced undergraduate students and graduate students, as well as computer professionals learning on their own. It will be especially useful for anyone who helps run important and essential computer systems such as critical-infrastructure and military systems.
This book asks: what are extreme television media, and are they actually bad for American politics? Taylor explores these questions, and how these media affect political knowledge, trust, efficacy, tolerance, policy attitudes, and political behaviors. Using experiments and data from the National Annenberg Election Study, this book shows how extreme media create both positive and negative externalities in American politics. Many criticize these media because of their bombastic nature, but bombast and affect also create positive effects for some consumers. Previous research shows partisan media exacerbate polarization, and those findings are taken further on immigration policy here. However, they also increase political knowledge, increase internal efficacy, and cause their viewers to engage in informal political behaviors like political discussion and advocacy. The findings suggest there is much to be gained from these media market entrepreneurs, and we should be wary of painting with too broad a brush about their negative effects.
This book examines the roles that public space plays in gentrification. Considering both cultural norms of public behavior and the municipal regulation of behavior in public, it shows how commonplace acts in everyday public spaces like sidewalks, streets, and parks work to establish neighborhood legitimacy for newcomers while delegitimizing once authentic public practices of long-timers. With evidence drawn from the formerly Latino neighborhood of Highland in Denver, Colorado, this ethnographic study demonstrates how the regulation of public space plays a pivotal role in neighborhood change. First, there is often a profound disharmony between how people from different cultural complexes interpret and sanction behavior in everyday public spaces. Second, because regulations, codes, urban design, and enforcement protocols are deliberately changed, commonplace activities longtime neighborhood residents feel they have a right to do along sidewalks and streets and within their neighborhood parks sometimes unexpectedly misalign with what is actually possible or legal to do in these publicly accessible spaces.
This edited volume is an anthology of institutional ethnography (IE) inquiries into psychiatry--the first ever to be written. It focuses on a large variety of different geographic locations and constitutes a major contribution to anti/critical psychiatry, as well as institutional ethnography. Themes include the DSM, the use and protection of problematic psychiatric research, the penetration of psychiatry into the workplace. Adding depth and breath, the contributors, while all are schooled in IE, come from a large variety of walks of life, authors including: academics, psychiatric survivors, investigative reporters, activists, nurses, artists, and lawyers--each bringing their own unique expertise/standpoint to bear. The result is an intellectually rigorous book, contributions to several disciplines, ammunition for activism, and a compelling read that cannot be put down.
This book provides a comprehensive guide to analyzing and solving optimal design problems in continuous media by means of the so-called sub-relaxation method. Though the underlying ideas are borrowed from other, more classical approaches, here they are used and organized in a novel way, yielding a distinct perspective on how to approach this kind of optimization problems. Starting with a discussion of the background motivation, the book broadly explains the sub-relaxation method in general terms, helping readers to grasp, from the very beginning, the driving idea and where the text is heading. In addition to the analytical content of the method, it examines practical issues like optimality and numerical approximation. Though the primary focus is on the development of the method for the conductivity context, the book's final two chapters explore several extensions of the method to other problems, as well as formal proofs. The text can be used for a graduate course in optimal design, even if the method would require some familiarity with the main analytical issues associated with this type of problems. This can be addressed with the help of the provided bibliography.
This book provides a systematic examination of the relationship between industrial clusters and poverty, which is analyzed using a multidimensional framework. It examines the often-neglected concept of social protection as a means of mitigating the risks and vulnerabilities faced by workers and citizens in poor countries. By analyzing the case of the Otigba Information and Communications Technology cluster in Lagos, Nigeria, the author shows under which conditions firms in productive clusters can pass on benefits to workers in ways that improve their living standards in the wider socio-economic and spatial context of the region. The results presented provide substantial evidence of opportunities for economic development, helping planners to explore different avenues for integrating firm-driven social protection into social policy.
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