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The Socioecological Educator: A 21st Century Renewal of Physical, Health,Environment and Outdoor Educationby Amy Cutter-Mackenzie Justen O'Connor Ruth Jeanes Trent Brown Laura Alfrey Brian Wattchow
This volume offers an alternative vision for education and has been written for those who are passionate about teaching and learning, in schools, universities and in the community, and providing people with the values, knowledge and skills needed to face complex social and environmental challenges. Working across boundaries the socio-ecological educator is a visionary who strives to build community connections and strengthen relationships with the natural world. The ideas and real-world case studies presented in this book will bring that vision a step closer to reality.
Autoimmune Disease: Pathogenesis, Genetics, Immunotherapy, Prophylaxis and Principles for Organ Transplantationby Duncan Dartrey Adams Christopher Dartrey Adams
This book describes how the Jerne-Burnet Forbidden Clone Theory and the Adams-Knight H Gene Theory, solved the pathogenesis and genetics of the autoimmune diseases showing how specific immunotherapy and prophylaxis can be developed. Furthermore, Ebringer's discovery of two microbial triggers of autoimmune diseases is described and the conclusion drawn that all autoimmune diseases have microbial triggers, so will be preventable by the finding of the triggers and vaccination against them.
This book addresses environmental and climate change induced migration from the vantage point of migration studies, offering a broad spectrum of approaches for considering the environment/climate/migration nexus. Research on the subject is still frequently narrowed down to climate change vulnerability and the environmental push factor. The book establishes the interconnections between societal and environmental vulnerability, and migration and capability, allowing appreciation of migration in the frame of climate as a case of spatial and social mobility, that is, as a strategy of persons and groups to deal with a grossly unequal distribution of life chances across the world. In their introduction, the editors fan out the current debate and state the need to transcend predominantly policy-oriented approaches to migration. The first section of the volume focuses on "Methodologies and Methods" and presents very distinct approaches to think climate induced migration. Subsequent chapters explore the sensitivity of existing migration flows to climate change in Ghana and Bangladesh, the complex relationship between migration, demographic change and coping capacities in Canada, methodological challenges of a household survey on the significance of migration and remittances for adaptation in the Hindu Kush region and an econometric study of the aftermath of the 1998 floods in Bangladesh. The second part, "Areas of Concern: Politics and Human Rights", deepens the analysis of discourses as well as of the implications of proposed and implemented policies. Contributors discuss such topics as environmental migration as a multi-causal problem, climate migration as a consequence in an alarmist discourse and climate migration as a solution. A study of an integrated relocation program in Papua New Guinea is followed by chapters on the promise and the flaws of planned relocation policy, global policy on protection of environmental migrants including both internally displaced peoples and those who cross international borders. A concluding chapter places human agency at centre stage and explores the interplay between human rights, capability and migration.
This book is focused on geometrical models of robot mechanisms. Rotation and orientation of an object are described by Rodrigues's formula, rotation matrix and quaternions. Pose and displacement of an object are mathematically dealt with homogenous transformation matrices. The geometrical robot model is based on Denavit Hartenberg parameters. Direct and inverse model of six degrees of freedom anthropomorphic industrial robots are also presented.
Iron is essential for the growth of most bacteria because it serves as a cofactor for vital enzymes and for the components of the electron transport chain. Moreover, Iron plays an important role in bacterial pathogenicity; in fact, the iron transport systems in bacteria works as target for designing novel antibiotics. Because iron is not soluble under aerobic conditions, bacteria have had to find ways to overcome iron deficiency. One of them is producing an iron-chelating small organic molecule called siderophore. Indeed, most bacteria and fungi produce structurally and chemically diverse siderophores which are transported back to the cytoplasm using complex energy dependent transport systems. Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas were the first ones to be tested; however, nowadays iron transport systems have been investigated in many other bacteria. Iron Uptake in Bacteria with Emphasis on E. coli and Pseudomonas reviews the recent advancements in the field of iron transport systems in bacteria. Chapter 1 is dedicated to Dr. Dick van der Helm's contribution to the field of siderophore biology. It then describes and discusses the structural advances in the components and the mechanism of siderophore mediated iron transport systems in E.coli. Chapter 2 details the variety of iron transport and iron regulatory systems of both gram negative and gram positive bacteria. Finally, chapter 3 describes the iron transport systems of Pseudomonas. This book is aimed at researchers in the fields of iron metabolism in multiple organisms, and to those who are interested in studying iron transport systems of bacteria. It appeals also to scientists researching structure and function relationship of proteins.
The terrorist use of diseases as bioweapons has been one of the major security concerns in recent years, particularly after the anthrax letter attacks in the USA in 2001. This uncertain threat of intentional outbreaks of diseases exists side by side with the constantly changing very real threat from diseases, epidemics and pandemics as recently illustrated by the H1N1 influenza pandemic, SARS, and H5N1 bird influenza events. This publication contains case studies on the public health planning for (un)usual disease outbreaks for 11 large and small countries with a focus on South Eastern Europe. In many countries, military entities traditionally play an important role in emergency response to disease outbreaks. In smaller countries, very little exists, however, in terms of specific biopreparedness efforts (in both the military and civilian area), which is at least partly due to a relatively low bioterrorism threat perception, and serious resource constraints. The uncertainty associated with the bioterrorism threat makes public health preparedness planning for such events politically and financially very difficult. The similarity of responding to bioterrorism events and natural disease outbreaks from a public health point of view suggests the merit of looking at biopreparedness as a part of overall health emergency planning, not as a separate effort.
The integrated theory of dynamic interpretation set out here will be a surprise to advanced researchers in linguistics. It combines classical formal semantics and modern dynamic semantics without altering the fundamental paradigm. At the book's core lies a pragmatically motivated notion of a dynamic conjunction of meanings, an idea that is worked out in full formal detail. This is applied to linguistic phenomena that involve anaphora, quantification and modality. The author demonstrates that in each area of application existing data can be neatly combined with new dynamic insights, but more importantly, there is a genuine further pay-off: the work generates treatments of phenomena that were not initially intended, with functional readings of pronouns and quantifiers, 'Hob-Nob' sentences, and insights into what we now call 'Pierce's Puzzle'. The outcome of a decade of work by the Amsterdam School of dynamic semantics, this volume condenses and reflects upon a vital body of research.
This book covers important aspects of the field of food security and safety, ranging from fundamental production, through advanced water treatment technologies and detection of novel pollutants, to management and policy making. The discussion strives to develop an integrated approach to solving the associated problems by simultaneously considering sociological, ecological and economic aspects. Special focus is on the environmental management systems that should be integrated in the processes of environmental risk assessment. Also addressed are other technologies applied in the service of detecting, preventing and monitoring possible threats to food security and safety. With its variety of subjects, this volume can serve both as a textbook for advanced studies and as a useful reference source for professionals.
Mediation, the facilitated discussion of disputes and conflicts, is a flexible approach that can be used at all levels of intervention to move us toward a global peace that is both inclusive and fair. This volume, edited by Jan Marie Fritz, brings together mediators, scholar-practitioners, and a veteran diplomat to discuss the life and times of mediation in very different settings. The 14 chapters include three essays about culture, creativity, and models/theories/approaches. And there are ten chapters about practice: community mediation, mediation by police, special education mediation; interventions on behalf of widows in Nigeria; capacity-building work in Burundi; mediation in Israel; the creative facilitation of meetings; community conferencing; UN Security Council Resolution 1325 (Women and Peace and Security) and the role of civil society organizations in peacebuilding. This volume discusses the expanding roles - from prevention through societal transformation - assumed by mediators and the urgent need for mediators working at different intervention levels to learn from each other. This volume is a must read for scholars, researchers, policymakers, civil society representatives and practitioners with interests in effective dispute and conflict intervention. It particularly is recommended for those managing dispute and conflict intervention processes.
Rural areas are often viewed as isolated and stagnating areas and urban areas as their opposites. Against such a backdrop, this book seeks to unveil a set of dynamics that view rural areas as 'translocal' in the sense that they are 'changing' and 'interconnected'. Social transformations take place in rural areas as the result of intense exchanges between different people, settings and geographies. Accordingly, rural-urban but also rural-rural interrelations on international and national scales are strongly contributing to rural change. Translocal ruralism is exemplified through the analysis of local and global migratory flows, the activities of rural firms in national and global arenas, the spread of different forms of transportation and dislocation, and the growing information society, which enables rural spaces to be connected to the world and improves new ways of interconnection and sociability practices. The book is structured into two parts, which intertwine the dynamics of rural spaces. The first part, 'Linking nodes: people and networks connecting places', is concerned with mobilities such as migration and commuting, and the establishment of national and global networks. The second part, 'International mobilities: a tension between scales', analyses the dynamics of international migration and mobilities in rural areas.
This book assesses the institutional, technical and market constraints as well as opportunities for smallholders, notably, emerging farmers in disadvantaged areas such as the former homelands of South Africa. Emerging farmers are previously disadvantaged black people who started or will start their business with the support of special government programs. Public support programs have been developed as part of the Black Economic Empowerment strategy of the South African government. These programs aim to improve the performance of emerging farmers. This requires, first and foremost, upgrading the emerging farmers skills by providing access to knowledge about agricultural and entrepreneurial practices. To become or to remain good farmers they also need access to suitable agricultural land and sufficient water for irrigation and for feeding their cattle. Finally, for emerging farmers to be engaged in viable farming operations, various factors need to be in place such as marketing and service institutions to give credit for agricultural inputs and investments; input markets for farm machinery, farm implements, fertilizers and quality seeds; and accessible output markets for their end products. This book develops a policy framework and potential institutional responses to unlock the relevant markets for smallholders.
It was in 1660s England, according to the received view, in the Royal Society of London, that science acquired the form of empirical enquiry we recognize as our own: an open, collaborative experimental practice, mediated by specially-designed instruments, supported by civil discourse, stressing accuracy and replicability. Guided by the philosophy of Francis Bacon, by Protestant ideas of this worldly benevolence, by gentlemanly codes of decorum and by a dominant interest in mechanics and the mechanical structure of the universe, the members of the Royal Society created a novel experimental practice that superseded former modes of empirical inquiry, from Aristotelian observations to alchemical experimentation. This volume focuses on the development of empiricism as an interest in the body - as both the object of research and the subject of experience. Re-embodying empiricism shifts the focus of interest to the 'life sciences'; medicine, physiology, natural history. In fact, many of the active members of the Royal Society were physicians, and a significant number of those, disciples of William Harvey and through him, inheritors of the empirical anatomy practices developed in Padua during the 16th century. Indeed, the primary research interests of the early Royal Society were concentrated on the body, human and animal, and its functions much more than on mechanics. Similarly, the Académie des Sciences directly contradicted its self-imposed mandate to investigate Nature in mechanistic fashion, devoting a significant portion of its Mémoires to questions concerning life, reproduction and monsters, consulting empirical botanists, apothecaries and chemists, and keeping closer to experience than to the Cartesian standards of well-founded knowledge. These highlighted empirical studies of the body, were central in a workshop in the beginning of 2009 organized by the unit for History and Philosophy of Science in Sydney. The papers that were presented by some of the leading figures in this area are presented in this volume.
Facilitating Sustainable Innovation through Collaboration, takes an unusually international perspective of sustainable innovation with contributions from Australia, Europe, and North America. Prominent policy makers, scientific researchers and practitioners in this field provide various inputs and analyses relating to the development of sustainable innovations. It is expected that policy makers, organizations, individual researchers, students and even communities can further develop and implement concepts and practices by drawing on the variety of projects and theoretical foundations presented in this volume.
Prenatal life is the period of maximal development in animals, and it is well recognised that factors that alter development can have profound effects on the embryonic, fetal and postnatal animal. Scientists involved in research on livestock productivity have for decades studied postnatal consequences of fetal development on productivity. Recently, however, there has been a surge in interest in how to manage prenatal development to enhance livestock health and productivity. This has occurred largely due to the studies that show human health in later life can be influenced by events during prenatal life, and establishment of the Fetal Origins and the Thrifty Phenotype Hypotheses. This book, Managing the Prenatal Environment to Enhance Livestock Productivity reviews phenotypic consequences of prenatal development, and provides details of mechanisms that underpin these effects in ruminants, pigs and poultry. The chapters have been divided into three parts: Quantification of prenatal effects on postnatal productivity, mechanistic bases of postnatal consequences of prenatal development and regulators of fetal and neonatal nutrient supply. Managing the Prenatal Environment to Enhance Livestock Productivity is a reference from which future research to improve the level of understanding and capacity to enhance productivity, health and efficiency of livestock in developing and developed countries will evolve. It is particularly timely given the development of molecular technologies that are providing new insight into regulation and consequences of growth and development of the embryo, fetus and neonate.
"New Visions of Nature" focuses on the emergence of these new visions of complex nature in three domains. The first selection of essays reflects public visions of nature, that is, nature as it is experienced, encountered, and instrumentalized by diverse publics. The second selection zooms in on micro nature and explores the world of contemporary genomics. The final section returns to the macro world and discusses the ethics of place in present-day landscape philosophy and environmental ethics. The contributions to this volume explore perceptual and conceptual boundaries between the human and the natural, or between an 'out there' and 'in here.' They attempt to specify how nature has been publicly and genomically constructed, known and described through metaphors and re-envisioned in terms of landscape and place. By parsing out and rendering explicit these divergent views, the volume asks for a re-thinking of our relationship with nature.
Innovation, training and research are the pillars that support a process deriving from basic science and multi-professional/multidisciplinary interventions. The APICE 2012 yearbook deals with several innovations for optimising prevention and management measures for the critically ill, by integrating diagnostic procedures with pharmacological and technological options. Peri- and postoperative managements as well as treatment of surgical infections and of pain, new and old artificial ventilation strategies are some of the most relevant topics the volume deal with in this new edition. The volume focuses also on the improvement standards and quality of care; on the expanding concept of clinical governance and professionalism and on the importance of ethical principles for establishing a process of patient-centered and evidence-based care.
This book describes the dietary habits (such as use of probiotics, synbiotics, prebiotics and dietary fiber) that could modify and reduce the risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC). The book will be of practical and scientific use to academicians, research scholars, students, health professionals, nutritionists, etc. and could support the cause of preventing CRC by adopting smarter food habits. CRC is the third leading cause of death, in terms of both incidence and mortality, among men and women. Excess consumption of red and processed meat, roasted coffee, etc. have shown an increase in CRC, indicating that compounds formed in food containing free amino acids and sugars interact at elevated temperatures to form mutagens or carcinogens. Standard treatment options for CRC include invasive surgery and chemotherapy or radiation. Several lifestyle and dietary factors could prevent this ailment. Probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics that are found in functional foods, health supplements and nutraceuticals and short chain fatty acids that are formed in the colon as a result of microbial fermentation of undigested bioactive carbohydrates by Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus inhibit colonic epithelial cells and minimize inflammation, thereby exhibiting immunomodulatory effects. This book tries to address the novel unexplored benefits and mechanism of action of these functional foods.
The volume evaluates major developments in psychiatry in India from the 1950s, and highlights the areas where Indian psychiatry has contributed to the development of the subject worldwide. The chapters review international as well as Indian developments in psychiatry and its sub-specialities. A wide range of clinical, research and policy-related topics have been covered in the volume, which begins with an overview of the history of psychiatry in India, moving on to developments in various sub-specialities of psychiatry in the last 60 years or so. It then specifically discusses developments in psychology and psychodynamics, general adult and child psychiatry, substance use psychiatry, community psychiatry, liaison psychiatry, and other psychiatric sub-specialities. Developments in treatment, the status of training and service in psychiatry and legal issues related to the practice of psychiatry in India are also included. The contributors to this volume are nationally and internationally recognized experts in different areas of psychiatry. Most of them have had some association, or are currently associated, with the Department of Psychiatry at the Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.
This book offers an in-depth analysis of borrowing and risk taking behavior of rural people, with the aim of designing effective financial products and service delivery in the rural market. Includes analysis of government schemes to promote rural development.
Seeds provide an efficient means in disseminating plant virus and viroid diseases. The success of modern agriculture depends on pathogen free seed with high yielding character and in turn disease management. There is a serious scientific concern about the transmission of plant viruses sexually through seed and asexually through plant propagules. The present book provides the latest information along with the total list of seed transmitted virus and viroid diseases at global level including, the yield losses, diagnostic techniques, mechanism of seed transmission, epidemiology and virus disease management aspects. Additional information is also provided on the transmission of plant virus and virus-like diseases through vegetative propagules. It is also well known that seed transmitted viruses are introduced into new countries and continents during large-scale traffic movements through infected germplasm and plant propogules. The latest diagnostic molecular techniques in different virus-host combinations along with disease management measures have been included. The book shall be a good reference source and also a text book to the research scientists, teachers, students of plant pathology, agriculture, horticulture, life sciences, green house managers, professional entrepreneurs, persons involved in quarantines and seed companies. This book has several important features of seed transmitted virus diseases and is a good informative source and thus deserves a place in almost all university libraries, seed companies and research organizations.
This book provides a comprehensive review of the recent advances in the research of systemic sclerosis (scleroderma). Systemic sclerosis is a complex autoimmune disease characterized by vasculopathy, fibrosis, and immune activation. This disease is also associated with certain susceptibility genes and is affected by epigenetic regulation. Recent studies have revealed a variety of new evidence suggestive of the pathogenesis of the disease. These include endothelial progenitor cells, cytokines and growth factors, and B cells. Studies using animal models have also provided novel insight into the pathomechanisms. In addition to these topics, the book covers clinical research regarding biomarkers and autoantibodies. This volume will benefit all rheumatologists and dermatologists as well as basic scientists, especially immunologists, molecular biologists, and biochemists.
As the number of patients with colitis-associated cancer (CAC) is on the increase, the purpose of this book is to review the latest topics concerning management of the disease. In recent years, the diagnostic power of endoscopy and molecular pathology has also grown tremendously, as a result of which they now have a far greater influence on the treatment of CAC. At the moment, appropriate monitoring programs for ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease remain uncertain. At the same time, the latest findings on DNA methylation and microRNAs hold the promise of making revolutionary changes in these areas. Moreover, recent drug advances in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases have changed surgical indications. On the other hand, the indication of mucosectomy on colorectal cancer in ulcerative colitis and prophylactic abdominoperineal resection for Crohn's disease remain controversial. This book provides the latest information on the remaining issues of CAC from the point of view of expert surgeons.
This book describes the history of the IMF from its birth, through the Bretton Woods era, and in the aftermath. Special attention is paid to integrating IMF history with the macro-economic policies of member countries and of other international institutions as well. This collection of work presents a clear understanding, inter alia, of the influence of the United States over IMF policy via the National Advisory Committee; the dealings of the IMF with the UK on pound sterling policy; the institutional change of the IMF brought about by Per Jacobsson, the third managing director; and France, Italy, Germany, Canada, and Japan vis-à-vis IMF consultations. It also provides the reader with topics concerning the bankers' acceptance market function and international liquidity issues in relation to IMF policy; the final chapter sheds light on the long-standing relations between the IMF and China, from the Bretton Woods Agreement to the contemporary period. All the chapters are archive-based academic studies providing deep insights with historical background, which makes this book the first thoroughly independent achievement in the field of IMF history. This book is highly recommended to readers interested in contemporary monetary and financial history and those who seek to obtain a coherent image of postwar international institutions and markets.
This is the book to focus on a new phenomenon emerging in the twenty-first century: the rapidly aging and decreasing population of a well-developed country, namely, Japan. The meaning of this phenomenon has been successfully clarified as the possible historical consequence of the demographic transition from high birth and death rates to low ones. Japan has entered the post-demographic transitional phase and will be the fastest-shrinking society in the world, leading other Asian countries that are experiencing the same drastic changes. The author used the historical statistics, compiled by the Statistic Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications in 2006 and population projections for released in 2012 by the National Institute of Population and Social Security Research, to show the past and future development of the dependency ratio from 1891 to 2060. Then, utilizing the population life table and net reproduction rate, the effects of increasing life expectancy and declining fertility on the dependency ratio were observed separately. Finally, the historical relationships among women's survival rates at reproductive age, the theoretical fertility rate to maintain the replacement level and the recorded total fertility rate (TFR) were analyzed. Historical observation showed TFR adapting to the theoretical level of fertility with a certain time lag and corresponding to women's survival rates at reproductive age. Women's increasing lifespan and survival rates could have influenced decision making to minimize the risk of childbearing. Even if the theoretical fertility rate meets the replacement level, women's views of minimizing the risk may remain unchanged because for women the cost-benefit imbalance in childbearing is still too high in Japan. Based on the findings, the author discusses the sustainability of Japanese society in relation to national finances, social security reform, family policies, immigration policies and community polices.
Modern Europe has rural roots. Even today, as much as 90 per cent of Europe (EU25) consists of rural areas in which half of the population lives. While different rural areas often face different challenges, the shift from agricultural production towards a multifunctional landscape and the increasing value assigned to environmental values affect all rural areas. The ambition to develop a more diversified rural economy, as well as the bottom-up approach and local focus of many rural policies, require a clear knowledge of the current socio-economic function of towns and town-hinterland linkages. Therefore, the aim of this study is to contribute to the understanding of the current function of towns in Europe in general and in the Netherlands more specifically. By using both micro- and macro-approaches, the multifaceted relationships between town-hinterland and the rural economy are explored at different spatial levels and for different actors, in particular for households, farms and firms.
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