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The United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Carriage of Goods Wholly or Partly by Sea: An Appraisal of the "Rotterdam Rules"by Meltem Deniz Güner-Özbek
The international carriage of goods by sea has been regulated by international conventions. These include the "International Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules of Law relating to Bills of Lading" ("Hague Rules"); the "Protocol to Amend the International Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules of Law Relating to Bills of Lading" ("Visby Rules"); and the "UN Convention on the Carriage of Goods by Sea." They were adopted in 1924, 1968 and 1978 respectively and the transport industry's commercial needs have since substantially changed. Furthermore the advent of subsequent regimes has resulted in the uniformity in the carriage of goods by sea once provided by the Hague Rules being lost. In order to update and modernize existing regimes the "UN Convention on Contracts for the International Carriage of Goods Wholly or Partly by Sea" ("Rotterdam Rules") was adopted on December 11, 2008 by the UN General Assembly and opened for signature on September 23, 2009. Since then drafters of the Rotterdam Rules, academics and practitioners have been publicizing, discussing, and evaluating the Rules. This book is an effort to further explore those same goals.
Managing and transferring knowledge - at the right time, in the right place and with the right quality for customers - enables companies to survive in times of fierce competition. The focus of this work is therefore on Knowledge Management and Customer Relationship Management. The theoretical part comprises several approaches to knowledge, its transfer and the barriers to be overcome when sharing knowledge. This is followed by a description of CRM and CKM (Customer Knowledge Management), outlining how crucial their successful use is. The practical part explores on the one hand the dependence on knowledge and on the other hand its availability for a good customer relationship. It includes a case study that investigates both the administrative and the operational area of a concrete company. The survey results are then discussed in detail, key success factors identified and mistakes pointed out. After this critical analysis, final recommendations are given that every company can benefit from.
Harmony is an integral part of our auditory environment. Resonances characterised by harmonic frequency relationships are found throughout the natural world and harmonic sounds are essential elements of speech, communication and, of course, music. Providing neurophysiological data and theories that are suitable to explain the neural code of pitch and harmony, the author demonstrates that musical pitch is a temporal phenomenon and musical harmony is a mathematical necessity based on neuronal mechanisms. Moreover, he offers new evidence for the role of an auditory time constant for speech and music perception as well as for similar neuronal processing mechanisms of auditory and brain waves. Successfully relating current neurophysiological results to the ancient ideas of Pythagoras, this unique title will appeal to specialists in the fields of neurophysiology, neuroacoustics, linguistics, behavioural biology and musicology as well as to a broader audience interested in the neural basis of music perception.
Preparing and Delivering Scientific Presentations: A Complete Guide for International Medical Scientistsby Ramón Ribes John Giba
The latest in Springer's "Medical English" series, aimed at health care professionals who need English for their work but do not speak English on a day-to-day basis. Although much of the information provided will be useful for scientists of all backgrounds and nationalities, the book is aimed especially at non-native English-speaking physicians and biomedical scientists. It offers clear advice on a variety of topics relevant to the successful preparation and delivery of scientific presentations. Alongside guidance on the actual preparation and delivery of talks, helpful information is provided on such potential difficulties as dealing with questions, chairing sessions, and use of appropriate English. The book will offer encouragement for those embarking on a career in international science as well as practical advice on how to deal with a wide range of situations that may develop in the context of an international congress.
This book is the first to take a comprehensive view of the challenges that population ageing present in the near future taking Sweden as the case. Can the increasing number of retirees per worker be stopped by immigration or increasing fertility or will we need to increase pension age instead? Cost for the social-care system is readily increasing; even more is the costs for health care. Can the galloping costs be funded by an increase in taxes or do we need to make reforms, similar to the ones already made in the pension system, which has been used as a model for many other countries. The fact that it is difficult to make health care dependent on personal contributions, as is the case of the pension system, funding of health care is a true test of solidarity across generations. The book ends with a discussion on whether the demographic challenge to the welfare system is also a threat to the welfare state as such.
Designing Public Policies: An Approach Based on Multi-Criteria Analysis and Computable General Equilibrium Modelingby M. Alejandro Cardenete Carlos Romero Francisco J. André
This book presents a methodological approach for the joint design of economic and environmental policies. The starting point is the observation that, in practice, policy makers do not usually have a well-defined objective, but they are typically concerned about a number of economic and environmental indicators that conflict with each other. In view of this, policy making is addressed by combining two separate analytical approaches: multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) and computable general equilibrium (CGE) modeling. The aim is to come up with a methodological framework for policy design which is both operational and consistent with economic theory. In short, this book offers a unified view of this novel approach, paying special attention to the connections between economic and environmental objectives. The methodological foundations are presented as well as some real applications that illustrate the pragmatic value of the theoretical proposal.
Natural monopolies are not subject to the market-based principle of competition. Consequently, it is necessary to control companies in such monopoly positions with regard to their pricing. In the future, it will become more and more important to consider a possible change in the regulation regime when the future-oriented costs of equity - both in terms of price regulation and for conducting capital market-oriented business valuations - are to be determined. Based on the principal-agent problem, the book explains this topic. The effect of a change in the regulation regime is presented in the form of two studies: an international secondary analysis of the effects on cost of equity based on event studies of the Anglo-Saxon area and a primary analysis based on the Austrian regulation policy for electricity and gas supply systems. The two studies arrive at similar results: The change from a rate-of-return regulation to incentive regulation systems leads to a significant increase in systematic risk.
First comprehensive English-language book on the largest city in the Americas before the 1400s. Teotihuacan is a UNESCO world heritage site, located in highland central Mexico, about twenty-five miles from Mexico City, visited by millions of tourists every year. The book begins with Cuicuilco, a predecessor that arose around 400 BCE, then traces Teotihuacan from its founding in approximately 150 BCE to its collapse around 600 CE. It describes the city's immense pyramids and other elite structures. It also discusses the dwellings and daily lives of commoners, including men, women, and children, and the craft activities of artisans. George L. Cowgill discusses politics, economics, technology, art, religion, and possible reasons for Teotihuacan's rise and fall. Long before the Aztecs and 800 miles from Classic Maya centers, Teotihuacan was part of a broad Mesoamerican tradition but had a distinctive personality that invites comparison with other states and empires of the ancient world.
Allergy is an increasing health issue. It often targets the respiratory tract and entwines with respiratory ailments, which makes it difficult to discern the cause-effect linkage. Nonetheless, measures to counter the allergic background are a linchpin in preserving respiratory health. This book is an update on current advances in clinical and basic science on allergy and related topics. The diagnostics of allergy requires a multidisciplinary approach, including molecular examinations aimed at unraveling the intracellular control cascades. Chapters give insight into the innovations concerning modern pulmonary function tests, discuss pharmacological paradigms, and tackle the overlapping infectious aspects and clinical symptoms and markers. Environmental and genetic factors elicit a spectrum of inflammatory phenotypes linked to differential body responses to allergic perturbations. The book is intended for healthcare professionals, notably pulmonologists, primary care physicians, and medical researchers.
This book aims to find a workable interpretation of the non-appropriation principle that is compatible with both the existing international space law framework and the move of the private space industry towards the mining of asteroids and other celestial bodies. It does so by analysing the rules on the use of orbits as limited natural resources as a concrete indication of how space resources can be exploited by one user while respecting the non-appropriation principle and the interests of other users in space. This analysis is complemented by a thorough review of the meaning of property rights in the context of the existing international space law regime. This allows the author to distinguish between the lawful exploitation and unlawful appropriation of resources in a manner that could pave the way for a workable asteroid mining regime that takes into account the needs of individual companies and the international community. Exclusive use in an inclusive environment frames the legal regime of the exploitation of natural resources in outer space as the most pressing example to date of the tension that arises between the rights of a single spacefaring actor and the interests of the broader international community. Though academic in its approach in dealing with one of the most fundamental issues of space law to date, the book has very practical ambitions. By offering a pragmatic interpretation of the space law principles that are likely to remain the legal foundations of asteroid mining for the foreseeable future, Exclusive use in an inclusive environment hopes to inform academics, practitioners and policymakers alike in their future attempts at working out a fair, equitable and effective management regime for the exploitation of natural resources in outer space.
This is the first book to examine the late Byzantine peasantry through written, archaeological, ethnographic, and painted sources. Investigations of the infrastructure and setting of the medieval village guide the reader into the consideration of specific populations. The village becomes a micro-society, with its own social and economic hierarchies. In addition to studying agricultural workers, mothers, and priests, lesser-known individuals, such as the miller and witch, are revealed through written and painted sources. Placed at the center of a new scholarly landscape, the study of the medieval villager engages a broad spectrum of theorists, including economic historians creating predictive models for agrarian economies, ethnoarchaeologists addressing historical continuities and disjunctions, and scholars examining power and female agency.
British Musical Modernism explores the works of eleven key composers to reveal the rapid shifts of expression and technique that transformed British art music in the post-war period. Responding to radical avant-garde developments in post-war Europe, the Manchester Group composers - Alexander Goehr, Peter Maxwell Davies, and Harrison Birtwistle - and their contemporaries assimilated the serial-structuralist preoccupations of mid-century internationalism to an art grounded in resurgent local traditions. In close readings of some thirty-five scores, Philip Rupprecht traces a modernism suffused with the formal elegance of the 1950s, the exuberant theatricality of the 1960s, and - in the works of David Bedford and Tim Souster - the pop, minimalist, and live-electronic directions of the early 1970s. Setting music-analytic insights against a broader social-historical backdrop, Rupprecht traces a British musical modernism that was at once a collective artistic endeavor, and a sounding myth of national identity.
How does the brain regulate sexual behavior, or control our body weight? How do we cope with stress? Addressing these questions and many more besides, this thoroughly revised new edition reflects the significant advances that have been made in the study of neuroendocrinology over the last twenty years. The text examines the importance of the hypothalamus in regulating hormone secretion from the endocrine glands, describing novel sites of hormone release including bone, heart, skeletal muscle and liver. The role of steroid hormone, neurotransmitter and peptide receptors, and the molecular responses of target tissues, is integrated into the discussion of the neuroendocrine brain, especially through changes in gene expression. Particular attention is attached to neuropeptides, including their profound influence on behavior. Complete with new full-color figures throughout, along with review and essay questions for each chapter, this is an ideal resource for undergraduate and graduate students of neuroscience, psychology, biology and physiology.
Comprising a single repository of knowledge andscientific evidence in the field, this book provides strategies to mitigatefall risk by providing information on the complex interactions between agingprocesses, co-morbid conditions and prescribed medications in older patients. Geriatric health is becoming a more prominentissue as the population ages, and balancing the beneficial effects of medicationagainst the potential and real side-effects in these patients involves adeliberate and thoughtful task: physiologic aging, the accumulation ofco-morbidities, and the use of drugs to manage various conditions and symptomsgenerates a unique set of problems for each patient. Falls are a dreaded event in older people. Theevent can affect a person in a physical, and psychological manner, resulting insoft tissue and bony injury, fear of falling, and depression. Theidentification of and reduction in fall risks in older people is a worldwideconcern, and reducing the incidence of falls is a ubiquitous quality measure ofhealth care delivery. Heterogeneity amongst older people precludes a singlesolution. However, physicians and others involved in the care of geriatricpatients will benefit from the presented insights into how medication use canbe modified to limit its impact as a contributing factor.
Children are extremely gifted in acquiring their native languages, but languages nevertheless change over time. Why does this paradox exist? In this study of creole languages, Enoch Aboh addresses this question, arguing that language acquisition requires contact between different linguistic sub-systems that feed into the hybrid grammars that learners develop. There is no qualitative difference between a child learning their language in a multilingual environment and a child raised in a monolingual environment. In both situations, children learn to master multiple linguistic sub-systems that are in contact and may be combined to produce new variants. These new variants are part of the inputs for subsequent learners. Contributing to the debate on language acquisition and change, Aboh shows that language learning is always imperfect: learners' motivation is not to replicate the target language faithfully but to develop a system close enough to the target that guarantees successful communication and group membership.
This book collects multiple disciplinary voices which explore current research and perspectives to discuss how spirituality is understood, interpreted and applied in a range of contexts. It addresses spirituality in combination with such topics as Christian mysticism, childhood and adolescent education, midwifery, and sustainability. It links spirituality to a variety of disciplines, including cognitive neuroscience, sociology, and psychology. Finally, it discusses the application of spirituality within the context of social work, teaching, health care, and occupational therapy. A final chapter provides an analytical discussion of the different voices that appear in the book and offers a holistic description of spirituality which has the potential to bring some unity to the meaning, expression and practice of spirituality across a variety of disciplines as well as across cultural, religious and secular worldviews. "A strength of the book is that each chapter is characterized by a fearless confronting of oppositional perspectives and use of the latest research in addressing them. The book takes the difficult topic of spirituality into almost every nook and cranny of personal and professional life. There is a persistent grasping of the contentiousness of the topic, together with addressing counter positions and utilizing updated research across a range of fields in doing this. The opening and closing chapters serve as book ends that keep the whole volume together. " Terence Lovat, The University of Newcastle, Australia "The interdisciplinary nature of the work is by far the strongest aspect of this volume. It has the potential to contribute to a dialogue between different professions and disciplines. This prospective publication promises to promote a more holistic approach to the study of spirituality. This volume takes into consideration a wide variety of issues. The way the editors have structured the sequence of chapters contributes to facilitate any possible dialogue between the different areas. " Adrian-Mario Gellel, University of Malta, Malta
Volume 1 of The Cambridge World History is an introduction to both the discipline of world history and the earliest phases of world history up to 10,000 BCE. In Part I leading scholars outline the approaches, methods, and themes that have shaped and defined world history scholarship across the world and right up to the present day. Chapters examine the historiographical development of the field globally, periodization, divergence and convergence, belief and knowledge, technology and innovation, family, gender, anthropology, migration, and fire. Part II surveys the vast Paleolithic era, which laid the foundations for human history, and concentrates on the most recent phases of hominin evolution, the rise of Homo sapiens and the very earliest human societies through to the end of the last ice age. Anthropologists, archaeologists, historical linguists and historians examine climate and tools, language, and culture, as well as offering regional perspectives from across the world.
This comprehensive review of vascular disease in the vertebrobasilar circulation is based on Dr Louis R. Caplan's extensive experience and observation of patients from the New England Medical Center posterior circulation stroke registry. It benefits from an organized, uniform, and coherent analysis of all types of vascular disease involving the posterior circulation, presented by a single author who is one of the world's leading authorities on this topic. This new edition is fully updated throughout, including a review of all the literature published on this topic since the previous edition in 1996. There are major rewrites for the chapters on diagnosis and therapy, inclusion of modern imaging techniques, and extensive illustrations. Essential reading for stroke physicians and neurologists, the book will also be an important source of reference for neurosurgeons, vascular surgeons and endovascular radiologists.
This book introduces the reader to a clear and consistent method for in-depth exploration of subjective psychopathological experiences with the aim of helping to restore the ability within psychiatry and clinical psychology to draw qualitative distinctions between mental symptoms that are only apparently similar, thereby promoting a more precise characterization of experiential phenotypes. A wide range of mental disorders are considered in the book, each portrayed by a distinguished clinician. Each chapter begins with the description of a paradigmatic case study in order to introduce the reader directly to the patient's lived world. The first-person perspective of the patient is the principal focus of attention. The essential, defining features of each psychopathological phenomenon and the meaning that the patient attaches to it are carefully analyzed in order to "make sense" of the patient's apparently nonsensical experiences. In the second part of each chapter, the case study is discussed within the context of relevant literature and a detailed picture of the state of the art concerning the psychopathological understanding of the phenomenon at issue is provided. An Experiential Approach to Psychopathology, and the method it proposes, may be considered the result of convergence of classic phenomenological psychopathological concepts and updated clinical insights into patients' lived experiences. It endorses three key principles: subjective phenomena are the quintessential feature of mental disorders; their qualitative study is mandatory; phenomenology has developed a rigorous method to grasp "what it is like" to be a person experiencing psychopathological phenomena. While the book is highly relevant for expert clinical phenomenologists, it is written in a way that will be readily understandable for trainees and young clinicians.
This text presents difficult management issues surrounding women with epilepsy in a unique format. The Editors provide several controversial cases in adolescence, pre-conception, pregnancy and menopause with invited experts offering their differing opinions. The Editors compare the clinical approaches and build a consensus based on the best available evidence. Professionals charged with managing this challenging patient group will be given insights on providing the best possible care based on current available data and expert opinion.
The era from 1400 to 1800 saw intense biological, commercial, and cultural exchanges, and the creation of global connections on an unprecedented scale. Divided into two books, Volume 6 of The Cambridge World History considers these critical transformations. The first book examines the material and political foundations of the era, including global considerations of the environment, disease, technology, and cities, along with regional studies of empires in the eastern and western hemispheres, crossroads areas such as the Indian Ocean, Central Asia, and the Caribbean, and sites of competition and conflict, including Southeast Asia, Africa, and the Mediterranean. The second book focuses on patterns of change, examining the expansion of Christianity and Islam, migrations, warfare, and other topics on a global scale, and offering insightful detailed analyses of the Columbian exchange, slavery, silver, trade, entrepreneurs, Asian religions, legal encounters, plantation economies, early industrialism, and the writing of history.
Thistextbook raises thought-provoking questions regarding our rapidly-evolvingcomputing technologies, highlighting the need for a strong ethical framework inour computer science education. Ethicsin Computing offers a concise introduction to this topic, distilled fromthe more expansive Ethical and SocialIssues in the Information Age. Features: introduces the philosophical framework for analyzingcomputer ethics; describes the impact of computer technology on issues ofsecurity, privacy and anonymity; examinesintellectual property rights in the context of computing; discusses suchissues as the digital divide, employee monitoring in the workplace, and healthrisks; reviews the history ofcomputer crimes and the threat of cyberbullying;provides coverage of the ethics of AI, virtualization technologies, virtualreality, and the Internet; considers the social, moral and ethical challengesarising from social networks and mobile communication technologies; includesdiscussion questions and exercises.
This book traces the long-term genesis of the sixth-century Roman legal penalty of forced monastic penance. The late antique evidence on this penal institution runs counter to a scholarly consensus that Roman legal principle did not acknowledge the use of corrective punitive confinement. Dr Hillner argues that forced monastic penance was a product of a late Roman penal landscape that was more complex than previous models of Roman punishment have allowed. She focuses on invigoration of classical normative discourses around punishment as education through Christian concepts of penance, on social uses of corrective confinement that can be found in a vast range of public and private scenarios and spaces, as well as on a literary Christian tradition that gave the experience of punitive imprisonment a new meaning. The book makes an important contribution to recent debates about the interplay between penal strategies and penal practices in the late Roman world.
This volume addresses the topic of circular migration with regard to its multiple dimensions and human, political and civil rights implications from a global perspective. It combines theoretical and empirical studies and presents different case studies illustrating circular migration patterns and policies in different world regions. Circular migration processes - understood as the back-and-forth movement of people between countries and regions- form part of the changing nature of migration movements across the world at the beginning of the 21st century. Over the past decades, international, regional and internal migration flows have shown a quantitative increase and have changed in scope, context, origin and nature. Migration projects are every time more open-ended, multi-directional and flexible and often include some type of circularity. Instead of mere "push-pull-scenarios", people migrate for many different reasons, including personal, family, professional, academic or political ones. In the 21st century migration journeys and the reasons underlying them are multiple and more diverse than ever before.
This book examines EUEastern Partnership taking into account geopolitical challenges of EUintegration. It highlights reasons for limited success, such as systematicconflict of EU External Action. In addition, the book analyses country-specificissues and discusses EaP influence on them, investigating political, economicand social factors, while seeking for potential solutions to existing problems. The reluctance of the Eastern countries to the European reforms should notreduce political pro-activeness of the EU. The authors suggest that EaPstrategies should be reviewed to be more reciprocal and not based solely on theEU-laden agenda. This book is one of the good examples of cooperation betweenscholars not only from EaP and EU countries, but also from differentdisciplines, bringing diversity to the discussion process.