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The focus of this book is on three influentialcognitive motives: achievement, affiliation, and power motivation. Incentive-based theories of achievement, affiliation and power motivation arethe basis for competence-seeking behaviour, relationship-building, leadership,and resource-controlling behaviour in humans. In this book we show how thesemotives can be modelled and embedded in artificial agents to achievebehavioural diversity. Theoretical issues are addressed for representing andembedding computational models of motivation in rule-based agents, learningagents and evolutionary agents. Practical issues are addressed for defininggames, mini-games or in-game scenarios for virtual worlds in whichcomputer-controlled, motivated agents can participate alongside human players. The book is structured into four parts: game playingin virtual worlds by humans and agents; comparing human and artificial motivesin rule-based agents; game scenarios for motivated learning agents; andevolution and the future of motivated game playing agents. It will provide gameprogrammers, and those with an interest in artificial intelligence, with theknowledge required to develop diverse, believable game playing agents forvirtual worlds.
This book presents 20 peer-reviewed chapters on current aspects of derivatives markets and derivative pricing. The contributions, written by leading researchers in the field as well as experienced authors from the financial industry, present the state of the art in: * Modeling counterparty credit risk: credit valuation adjustment, debit valuation adjustment, funding valuation adjustment, and wrong way risk. * Pricing and hedging in fixed-income markets and multi-curve interest-rate modeling. * Recent developments concerning contingent convertible bonds, the measuring of basis spreads, and the modeling of implied correlations. The recent financial crisis has cast tremendous doubts on the classical view on derivative pricing. Now, counterparty credit risk and liquidity issues are integral aspects of a prudent valuation procedure and the reference interest rates are represented by a multitude of curves according to their different periods and maturities. A panel discussion included in the book (featuring Damiano Brigo, Christian Fries, John Hull, and Daniel Sommer) on the foundations of modeling and pricing in the presence of counterparty credit risk provides intriguing insights on the debate.
This book presents a pioneering critical study of Complicite's work throughout the years. Drawing on an extensive overview of the available research material - including interviews, manuscripts and the company's own archive - the book is framed within a clearly defined research perspective and explores the singularity of theatre communication. The book results from an encounter between the London-based - but cosmopolitan in scope - company, and a fresh application of the form-oriented scholarship of Eastern Europe, Yuri Lotman's semiosphere in particular. Focused on the aesthetics of Complicite, this study achieves a critical distance and undertakes multidimensional scrutiny of the available research material. By identifying the principles of Complicite's aesthetics, the book attempts to grasp the company's artistic paradigm. It focuses on ways of creating, preserving, and decoding meanings, rather than on the nuances of performance or contextual issues.
This text was created to fill a void in the practice of pediatric neuropathology. It is a practical and well-illustrated book representing a collection of interesting, common and unusual tumors for a diagnostic exercise by the reader. The wide reception of the first edition by the pathology community is testament to its relevance and utility in the pathologic diagnosis of pediatric brain tumors. This edition covers topics ranging from neuroimaging, the use of crush and touch preps during intraoperative consultation, classic histological features of pediatric brain tumors, tumor variants, and a miscellaneous group of challenging tumors. Chapters consist of essential diagnostic information and features highlighting recognized variants and their differential diagnoses. A section on molecular pathology and electron microscopy is also included for each tumor category, along with a list of classic reviews and innovative articles on each of the tumor entities as suggested reading at the end of each chapter. Atlas of Pediatric Brain Tumors, Second Edition represents the state of the art in pediatric neuropathology with easy utility beside the microscope.
This book examines the ethics, politics and aesthetics of veganism in contemporary culture and thought. Traditionally a lifestyle located on the margins of western culture, veganism has now been propelled into the mainstream, and as agribusiness grows animal issues are inextricably linked to environmental impact as well as to existing ethical concerns. This collection connects veganism to a range of topics including gender, sexuality, race, the law and popular culture. It explores how something as basic as one's food choices continue to impact on the cultural, political, and philosophical discourse of the modern day, and asks whether the normalization of veganism strengthens or detracts from the radical impetus of its politics. With a Foreword by Melanie Joy and Jens Tuidor, this book analyzes the mounting prevalence of veganism as it appears in different cultural shifts and asks how veganism might be rethought and re-practised in the twenty-first century.
This book critically examines the European Union's "Unity in Diversity" mantra with regard to language. It uses a theoretical framework based on hegemony both as a system and as a relationship. Operating within sociolinguistics, the book replaces the notion of ideology in poststructuralist thought with that of hegemony. The authors argue that forging unity across language communities contradicts the tenets of classical liberal theory. Global neo-liberalism influences this orthodoxy, shifting the parameters of power and political control. Over nine chapters, the authors cover topics such as globalization and social change, justice, governance and education. The book will be of interest to sociolinguists, political scientists, sociologists, as well as scholars of language and globalization and European studies.
The authors present a new formal framework for finding the long-run competitive market equilibrium through short-run equilibria by exploiting the operating policies and plant valuations. This "short-run approach" develops ideas of Boiteux and Koopmans. Applied to the peak-load pricing of electricity generated by thermal, hydro and pumped-storage plants, it gives a sound and practical method of valuing the fixed assets--in this case, the river flows and the geological sites suitable for reservoirs. Its main mathematical basis is the producer's short-run profit maximization programme and its dual; their solutions have relatively simple forms that can greatly ease the fixed-point problem of solving for the general equilibrium. Since the optimal values (profit and cost functions) are usually nondifferentiable--this is so when there are joint costs of production such as capacity constraints--nonsmooth calculus is employed to resolve long-standing discrepancies between textbook theory and industrial reality by giving subdifferential extensions of basic results of microeconomics, including the Wong-Viner Envelope Theorem.
This book is a remarkablecollection of chapters covering a wider range of topics, including unsupervisedtext mining, anomaly and Intrusion Detection, Self-reconfiguring Robotics,application of Fuzzy Logic to development aid, Design and Optimization, Context-AwareReasoning, DNA Sequence Assembly and Multilayer Perceptron Networks. Thetwenty-one chapters present extended results from the SAI Intelligent SystemsConference (IntelliSys) 2015 and have been selected based on highrecommendations during IntelliSys 2015 review process. This book presentsinnovative research and development carried out presently in fields ofknowledge representation and reasoning, machine learning, and particularly inintelligent systems in a more broad sense. It provides state - of - the - artintelligent methods and techniques for solving real world problems along with avision of the future research.
This book elaborates on the asymptotic behaviour, when N is large, of certain N-dimensional integrals which typically occur in random matrices, or in 1+1 dimensional quantum integrable models solvable by the quantum separation of variables. The introduction presents the underpinning motivations for this problem, a historical overview, and a summary of the strategy, which is applicable in greater generality. The core aims at proving an expansion up to o(1) for the logarithm of the partition function of the sinh-model. This is achieved by a combination of potential theory and large deviation theory so as to grasp the leading asymptotics described by an equilibrium measure, the Riemann-Hilbert approach to truncated Wiener-Hopf in order to analyse the equilibrium measure, the Schwinger-Dyson equations and the boostrap method to finally obtain an expansion of correlation functions and the one of the partition function. This book is addressed to researchers working in random matrices, statistical physics or integrable systems, or interested in recent developments of asymptotic analysis in those fields.
This book analyses two key topics within international politics: the responsibility to protect (R2P) and the commercialization and privatization of security. In a world of ungoverned spaces, state failure and erupting humanitarian crises, the international community is increasingly called upon to exercise its responsibility to protect communities under threat. Here, Krieg explains the civil-military dynamics behind the state's failure to effectively intervene in humanitarian crises overseas using its serviceman. The central question that follows is: would the private military contractor be a better alternative agent of the state in humanitarian intervention? This book demonstrates that given his professional identity and role towards client state and public, the contractor can be employed effectively in humanitarian intervention to generate more ethical outcomes. This volume is essential reading for researchers and post-graduate students of R2P, International Security Studies and privatization, as well as Peace and Conflict studies and International Relations more broadly.
This edited volume covers new ground bybringing together perspectives from symbolic legislation theory on the onehand, and from biolaw and bioethics on the other hand. Symbolic legislation has a bad name. It usually refers toinstances of legislation which are ineffective and that serve other politicaland social goals than the goals officially stated. Recently, a more positivenotion of symbolic legislation has emerged in legislative theory. From thisperspective, symbolic legislation is regarded as a positive alternative to themore traditional, top-down legislative approach. The legislature no longer merely issuescommands backed up with severe sanctions, as in instrumental legislation. Instead, lawmakers provide open and aspirational norms that are meant to changebehavior not by means of threat, but indirectly, through debate and socialinteraction. Since the 1990s, biomedical developments have revived discussionson symbolic legislation. One of the reasons is that biomedical legislationtouches on deep-rooted, symbolic-cultural representations of the biologicalaspects of human life. Moreover, as it is often impossible to reach consensuson these controversial questions, legislators have sought alternative ways todevelop legal frameworks. Consequently, communicative and interactive approachesto legislation are prominent within the governance of medical biotechnology. The symbolic dimensions of biolaw are often overlooked. Yet,it is clear that the symbolic is at the heart of many legal-political debateson bioethical questions. Since the rise of biomedical technologies, human bodymaterials have acquired a scientific, medical and even commercial value. Thesenew approaches, which radically question existing legal symbolizations of thehuman body, raise the question whether and how the law should continue toreflect symbolic values and meanings. Moreover, how can we decide what thesesymbolic values are, given the fact that we live in a pluralistic society?
This handbook provides detailed, state of the art information on simple and complex rotator cuff tears that will be of value in daily clinical practice. It covers all relevant aspects, including basic science, pathogenesis, clinical and instrumental evaluation, and treatment techniques. Drawing on the results of recent studies, the book will enable the reader to better understand how tears occur and what treatment should be employed in different circumstances. Rotator cuff tear has always attracted great interest because it may cause shoulder pain, loss of strength, simple or complex disabilities, and partial or total inability to work, reducing quality of life. The goals of cuff repair are to restore footprint anatomy with biomechanically secure, tension-free construction that promotes biological healing at the tendon-to-bone interface. Even today, there is cause for discussion about when and how to perform surgical repair and on what to do in cases of irreparable rupture. This book casts light on such issues. It is especially designed for shoulder surgeons and rehabilitation specialists and will also be of value for residents and shoulder fellows.
This book reports onthe results of an extended survey conducted across Europe within the frameworkof the APPRAISAL FP7 projectto determine the extent to which an integrated assessment approach toair quality is being adopted, on the one hand, by regional and local authorities to develop airquality plans and, on the other, by researchers. Followinga detailed analysis of the role and structure of the components of anintegrated assessment study, the results of the survey are considered from avariety of perspectives. Aboveall, the book discusses the new light the survey sheds on emissionabatement policies and measures planned at regional and local scales, and on their synergies/trade-offs with measures implementedat the national scale. Detailed consideration is given to the currently available modelingmethodologies foridentifying emissionsources, assessing theeffectiveness of emission reduction measures, and evaluating the impacts of emissionabatement measures on human health. Current strengths and weaknesses revealedby the survey are explored, and the application of an integrated assessment tool in two case studies (in Brussels and Porto) is discussed. The book will appeal to all those interested in the use of integratedassessment in connection withthe sources, effects and control of air pollution.
This book offers a comprehensive overview of studies on youth agency across various parts of the world. It explores diverse perspectives on education, citizenship and future livelihoods, modernity and tradition, gender equality, and social norms and transformations as they relate to how young people construct their agency. Drawing on case studies of young women and men from Africa, the Americas and South Asia, this book illustrates the different ways in which education affects youth's beliefs, engagement, action, and identities in broader historical, social, cultural, economic, and political contexts. Chapters argue for education as a potential force for equity and explore how both formal schooling and informal educational programs may challenge and inspire youth through individual and collective action to change the social conditions affecting their lives and their communities. The global nature of this book gives readers a deeper understanding of youth agency as a dynamic process in relation to changing economic, political, and social environments. Featured topics include: The role of community context and relationships in shaping U. S. youth's citizen agency. Malala Yousafzai and media narratives of girls' education within Islam and modernity. Social capital, sexual relationships, and agency for Tanzanian youth. Boys' agency toward higher education in urban Jamaica. Children's economic agency in Kanchipuram, India. Vocational training and agency among Kenyan youth. Education and Youth Agency is an essential resource for researchers, educators, practitioners, and undergraduate and graduate students across such related disciplines as developmental psychology, international and comparative education, family studies as well as public health, educational policy and politics, youth studies, and social policy.
This text provides a high level, comprehensive but concise review of adult surgical critical care. It can be used to review complex topics of critical illness in surgical patients, as a reference tool, or as preparation for a board examination. It is focused on the surgical patient including high yield facts, evidence-based guidelines, and critical care principles. To remain succinct, it concentrates on surgically relevant care. Further, the text is written with an expectation that reader already possesses a basic understanding of critical care pathophysiology and clinical practices such as those acquired during residency. Organized by organ system, each section contains several chapters addressing relevant disorders, monitoring and treatment modalities, and outcomes. Principles of Adult Surgical Critical Care will be of use to intensivists caring for surgical patients regardless of parent training domain. Additionally, this work is intended to be used by surgical critical care fellowship trainees as well as other advanced practice providers such as nurse practitioners and physician assistants who provide care in ICUs and emergency departments alike.
This book explores the contributions of Italian Americans employed by the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) during World War II. Italian Americans fluent in Italian language and customs became integral parts of intelligence operations working behind enemy lines. These units obtained priceless military information that significantly helped defeat the Axis. They parachuted into frozen mountains tops to link up with Italian guerilla units in northern Italy or hovered in small patrol torpedo boats and row boats across the Mediterranean Sea in pitch black darkness to destroy railroad junctions.
The first of a multi-volume set, this textbook covers sinonasal and nasopharyngeal pathology. An ideal sign-out resource for head and neck pathology, it includes anatomy, staging, diagnostic, and prognostic information. Richly illustrated and well-structured, the easily accessible format includes glossaries, boxes of key points, and self-assessment questions at the end of each chapter. Nose, Paranasal Sinuses, and Nasopharynx: Textbook of Head and Neck Pathology: Volume 1 is aimed at trainees and practicing pathologists worldwide, and will also be of interest to oral pathologists and oral pathology trainees.
This new edition is a comprehensive, yet concise text that provides current treatment protocols and practical pharmacological information for GI Disease. Each chapter addresses a specific GI disease or condition and provides a list of all agents available for that condition, including all brand and generic names, indications, contraindications, lactation and pregnancy information, doses, routes of administration, duration, and relative cost. The text is also supplemented with tables, algorithms, and key references. Written by experts in the field, Pocket Handbook of GI Pharmacotherapeutics, Second Edition is a valuable and portable resource of use to anyone involved in the treatment of patients with GI disease.
This book concentrates on one- and multi-dimensional nonlinear integral and discrete Gronwall-Bellman type inequalities. It complements the author's book on linear inequalities and serves as an essential tool for researchers interested in differential (ODE and PDE), difference, and integral equations. The present volume is part 2 of the author's two-volume work on inequalities. Integral and discrete inequalities are a very important tool in classical analysis and play a crucial role in establishing the well-posedness of the related equations, i. e. , differential, difference and integral equations.
This book focuses on one- and multi-dimensional linear integral and discrete Gronwall-Bellman type inequalities. It provides a useful collection and systematic presentation of known and new results, as well as many applications to differential (ODE and PDE), difference, and integral equations. With this work the author fills a gap in the literature on inequalities, offering an ideal source for researchers in these topics. The present volume is part 1 of the author's two-volume work on inequalities. Integral and discrete inequalities are a very important tool in classical analysis and play a crucial role in establishing the well-posedness of the related equations, i. e. , differential, difference and integral equations.
This book analyses how China overcame its meagre reputation in the early 1990s to become an aggressively growing military power and rising threat to the international system. The author focuses on China's new multilateral foreign policy approach, ambitious military build-up programme and economic cooperation initiatives. This book presents a much-needed comparative perspective of China in terms of foreign policy, seeking to develop analytical tools to assess China's motivations and moves. The author suggests that understanding China's new foreign policy, its tactics in multilateral organisations, and approaches to conflict resolutions are elementary to grasp the new realities of international relations, particularly relevant to newly established institutions in the evolving Asian political system which require basic knowledge for analysing the politics in this continent. This book uses an innovative approach, a qualitative analysis of China's foreign policy addressing criteria of reputation management, to overcome the perceived 'China threat'.
The complexity of decision making in medicine, and in surgery in particular, is growing exponentially. As new technology is introduced, physicians from nonsurgical specialties offer alternative and competing therapies for what was once the exclusive province of the surgeon. In addition, there is increasing knowledge regarding the efficacy of traditional surgical therapies. How to select among these varied and complex approaches is becoming increasingly difficult. The first two editions of "Difficult Decisions in Thoracic Surgery: An Evidence Based Approach" have found wide acceptance among practicing surgeons, trainees, and educators. Chapters from them are regularly cited by the Thoracic Surgery Directors Association as valuable resources for their weekly curriculum exercises. Downloads of individual chapters have been very popular. The 3rd edition is in production. Based on this success, this book is part of a series of such books covering other surgical specialties. The volumes will be multi-authored, containing brief chapters, each of which will be devoted to one or two specific questions or decisions within that specialty that are difficult or controversial. The volumes are intended as a current and timely reference source for practicing surgeons, surgeons in training, and educators that describe the recommended ideal approach, rather than customary care, in selected clinical situations.
This volume explores recent advances in the use of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) and adult stem cells (ASCs) in basic and clinical applications. The chapters discuss use of PSCs for drug screening, genome editing, modeling of kidney, motor neuron diseases, and diabetes as well as their application in cancer; ASCs are discussed in the contexts of banking of umbilical cord stem cells, use of multipotential stromal cells (MSCs) for bone repair, cellular interactions during fracture repair stages, and therapeutic applications of neural crest stem cells and lung stem cells. The text is organized by sections dealing with PSCs and ASCs specifically, presenting the reader with a comprehensive examination of both these forms of stem cells. Expertly authored and drawing from a wealth of international perspectives, Recent Advances in Stem Cells: From Basic Research to Clinical Applications presents a succinct yet detailed review of cutting-edge research in this rapidly expanding field. This installment of Springer's Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine series is essential reading for academics, researchers, and clinicians in the fields of cell biology, genetics, nephrology, osteology, oncology, and pulmonology.
This book explores the potential educational technologies have for transforming education in the Middle East. Although technology has increasingly become a part of classrooms around the globe over recent decades, its application in classrooms in the MENA region remains underused and this book draws on a case study from the Arabian Gulf to examine the beneficial impact technologies have on teaching and learning. The book identifies the many social and cultural pressures that prevent government technology policies to be implemented in the way that the international community would find recognisable and acceptable and how education policy from the Global North is transplanted into a separate context without considering the different requirements. The study seeks to address the ways in which educational technology policy in government schools plays a part in the enactment of education reforms and how government policy aspirations are played out in practice. iv>
This book explores health and leisure as a holistic phenomenon with individual and social dimensions. Contributors to this edited volume explore the physical, mental, emotional, sexual and social aspects of health and leisure as well as the influence of moral and religious principles. The connections between the individual and the social structure, social integration, the social division of labor, and the natural environment are also analysed. The volume studies this relationship from a range of disciplinary backgrounds, including sociology, psychology, psychiatry, medical sciences, sport sciences, education, policy making, and from both national and international perspectives. As such, the collection will be of interest to scholars and students across a range of disciplines, including Leisure Studies, Health Studies, Health Promotion, Psychology and Mental Health, Sociology and Sport Studies.
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