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This book disentangles the complex meanings of responsibility in nanotechnology development by focusing on its theoretical and empirical dimensions. The notion of responsibility is extremely diversified in the public discourse of nanoscale technologies. Addressed are major disciplinary perspectives working on nanotechnology, e. g. philosophy, sociology, and political science, as well as the major multidisciplinary areas relevant to the innovation process, e. g. technology assessment and ethics. Furthermore, the interplay between such expertises, disciplines, and research programmes in providing a multidisciplinary understanding of responsibility is emphasized.
This edited volume presents ethical and economic analyses of agrifood competition. By systematically examining fairness and openness in agricultural markets, it seeks to answer the question of whether there is adequate competition in the agrifood industry and whether the system is fair to all participants. It outlines ethical and economic principles important for understanding agrifood competition, presents arguments for and against consolidation, globalization and the integration of agrifood industries, and looks at the implications of globalization on the nature of competition in specific agricultural contexts.
Focused manuscript on the potential use/role of miRNAs in bioprocessing, specifically the production of complex proteins in mammalian cells. With that in mind I propose a draft list of topics/chapters along the following lines: Intro on CHO/bioprocessing/engineering challenges to set scene, Genomic organization, biogenesis and mode of action, Identifying miRNA targets: Computational prediction, transcriptomics, proteomices, UTR analysis, etc., miRNA expression in Chinese Hamster Ovary cells, miRNAs as engineering targets: pathway manipulation to impact bioprocess phenotypes, miRNAs as biomarkers, Detection methods: Northern, PCR, hybridization arrays, Next Gen Seq, Manipulation of expression in cultured cells: Transient/stable disregulation, Knockout.
The present volume presents scholarly study into Old French as it is practiced today, in all of its forms, within a variety of theoretical frameworks, from Optimality Theory to Minimalism to Discourse Analysis. Many of the chapters are corpus-based, reflecting a new trend in the field, as more electronic corpora become available. The chapters contribute to our understanding of both the synchronic state and diachronic evolution, not only of Old French, but of language in general. Its breadth is extensive in that contributors pursue research on a wide variety of topics in Old French focusing on the various subsystems of language. All examples are carefully glossed and the relevant characteristics of Old French are clearly explained, which makes it uniquely accessible to non-specialists and linguists at all levels of training.
Rhetorical Ways of Thinking focuses on how the co-construction of learning models the interpretation of a mathematical situation. It is a comprehensive examination of the role of sociocultural-historical theory developed by Vygotsky. This book puts forward the supposition that the major assumptions of sociocultural-historic theory are essential to understanding the theory's application to mathematical pedagogy, which explores issues relevant to learning and teaching mathematics-in-context, thus providing a valuable practical tool for general mathematics education research. The most important goal, then, is to exemplify the merging of the theory with practice and the subsequent applications to mathematics teaching and learning. This monograph contains five chapters, including a primer to Vygotsky's sociocultural historic theory, three comprehensive empirical studies examining: prospective teachers' perception of mathematics teaching and learning and the practice of scaffolded instruction to assist practicing teachers in developing their understanding of pedagogical content knowledge. Finally, the book concludes with a contextualization of the theory, linking it to best practices in the classroom.
This volume brings together two parallel fields of interest. One is the understanding among psychologists and other social scientists of the limits to psychometric measurement, and the challenges in generating information about quality of life and wellbeing that enable comparison across time and place, at both individual and population levels. The second is the interest among anthropologists and others in the lived experience of chronic illness and disability, including the unpredictable fluctuations in perceived health and capability. Chronic conditions and physical impairments are assumed to impact negatively on people's quality of life, affecting them psychologically, socially and economically. While some of these conditions have declined in prevalence, as a result of prenatal diagnosis, early successful interventions, and changes in medical technology and surgery, many of these conditions are on the increase as a consequence of improved life-saving medication and technology, and greater longevity. 'Quality of life' is often used as an indicator for successful and high quality health services, and good access to medical attention and surgery - for hip replacements or laser surgery to improve vision, for instance. But it is also used as an argument against interventions, when such interventions are seen to prolong life for its own sake. Yet we also know that people vary their idea of quality as a result of the context of fluctuations in their own health status, the presence or absence of pain or discomfort, and as a result of variations in social and economic contextual factors. In exploring these questions, this volume contributes to emerging debates related to individual health outcomes, but also to the social and other individual determinants that influence everyday life. Understanding these broader contextual factors will contribute to our knowledge of the kinds of services, support systems, and infrastructure that provide people with good 'quality of life' and a sense of wellbeing, regardless of their physical health, capability and functioning. The volume includes scholars from all continents who have been encouraged to think critically, and to engage with the descriptive, methodological, social, policy and clinical implications of their work.
Irrigated agriculture, a vital component of general agriculture, supplies fruits, vegetables, and cereals consumed by humans and grains fed to animals. Consequently, agriculture is the largest user of fresh water globally, and irrigation practices in many parts of the world are biologically, economically, and socially unsustainable. Water management should balance the need for agricultural water and the need for a sustainable environment. Water-use efficiency is the prime challenge in worldwide farming practices where problems of water shortages are widespread. Currently, agriculture is undergoing significant changes in innovative irrigation, fertilizer technology, and agronomic expertise. These elements constitute a vital platform for sustainable agricultural success and for preventing environmental damage. This review presents several processes linked to environmental irrigation, balancing environmental protection with improved agricultural production.
Statistics are everywhere. Their power and their undoubted efficacy in many areas have given rise to faith in measurement and metrics. More of them will tell us all that we need to know. Their use carries with it a number of presuppositions: that reality can be satisfactorily represented and that it can be controlled or the risks managed. The papers in this book interpret the ethics and aesthetics of statistics in terms of representation, visualisation and accessibility, focus on the appeal of 'simplicity', of technical languages, numbers, diagrams and pictures, and pay attention to their connection with action plans. The book explores what has made educational researchers dependent on statistics, and deals with their use in areas such as the prevalence of maltreatment of children, European citizenship, well-being and happiness, illegal migrants, and university expansion. There is discussion of how the quest for more and better statistics finds its voice in policy initiatives that become slogans, and how public opinion polls are used to rationalise political decision-making. Can a more limited and modest use be made of statistics which does not deflect attention away from education's core business and which does not destroy the local practical knowledge that on which good education is based? 'Smeyers and Depaepe continue to bring together a significant international group of educational philosophers and historians on topics of importance to researchers. This fifth volume in their series takes up the 'gold standard' use of statistics in case studies not contributed elsewhere. I highly recommend this text to counter a current over-emphasis on technique in research methodology. Use of statistics remains but herein under new, insightful conceptualizations.' Lynda Stone, Philosophy of Education, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA 'Once again, Depaepe and Smeyers succeeded in bringing together distinguished international and cross-disciplinary scholars exploring very timely and critical issues in current educational research. This is a groundbreaking book on a theme that can't be ignored by educational researchers and those interested in a better understanding of the culture of science and science as culture. Moreover, the present book instigates to study history of educational research, a limited but developing field, and invites reflection to those who are sometimes too reliant on number crunching as a mode of interpretation and rather credulous in the acceptance of institutional records. Frank Simon, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Ghent University, Belgium
Circumcision affects 15.3 million children and young adults annually. In terms of gender, 13.3 million boys and 2 million girls are subjected to the involuntary removal of part or all of their external sexual organs every year. The problem of female circumcision has been addressed on an international level, but male circumcision remains a controversial subject that many academics have been reluctant to examine. Circumcision is tolerated today because it has been practiced for millennia by a small but vocal minority of religious and ethnic groups, however, when the practice is examined through the lens of modern legal, ethical, and human rights advancements, no place remains in civilized society for this body-altering ritual. In Genital Autonomy: Protecting Personal Choice, international experts address various types of genital modifications, the impact of these harmful traditional practices on the child, on human rights, and on the development of the concept of bodily integrity. The papers presented in this volume address these topics from a variety of angles. They question and dissects the true motivations of the doctors, witch doctors, and "holy men" who promote and profit from circumcision.
The Handbook of Descriptive Linguistic Fieldwork is the most comprehensive reference on linguistic fieldwork on the market bringing together all the reader needs to carry out successful linguistic fieldwork. Based on the experiences of two veteran linguistic fieldworkers and advice from more than a twenty active fieldwork researchers, this handbook provides an encyclopedic review of current publications on linguistic fieldwork and surveys past and present approaches and solutions to problems in the field, and the historical, political, and social variables correlating with fieldwork in different areas of the world. The discussion of the ethical dimensions of fieldwork, as well as what constitutes the "typical" linguistic fieldwork setting or consultant is explored from multiple perspectives relevant to fieldwork on every continent. Included is information omitted in most other texts on the subject such as the collection, representation, management, and methods of extracting grammatical information from discourse and conversational data as well as the relationship between questionnaire-based elicitation, text-based elicitation, and philology, and the need for combinations of these methods. The book is useful before, during and after linguistic field trips since it provides extensive practical macro and micro organization and planning fieldwork tips as well as a handy sketch of major typological features for use in linguistic analysis. Comprehensive references are provided at the end of each chapter as resources relevant to the reader's particular interests.
Besides generating wealth, globalization makes victims, including victims of new forms of crime. In this edited book of scholarly essays, international lawyers and criminologists reflect on the legal challenges posed by these dark sides of globalization. Examples include transnational organised crime, human trafficking and corruption, cyber crimes, international terrorism, global corporate crime and cross-border environmental crimes. The authors reflect on the limits of domestic systems of justice in providing protection, empowerment and redress to the victims of these emerging forms of global insecurity. They argue for the need of better international or supra-national institutional arrangements such as legal instruments and actions of the United Nations or regional organizations such as the European Union. In part I Jan Van Dijk and Rianne Letschert present an overview of trends in criminal victimization against the backdrop of globalization using a unique set of statistical indicators. By placing this issue in the framework of the human security concept, the authors draw out its broader political and normative implications. Theologist Ralf Bodelier explains how modern communication technologies have heightened sensitivities among the general public for human insecurities anywhere in the world. In his view, a new global conscience is in the making that may become the cornerstone of international solidarity and action. Marc Groenhuijsen and Rianne Letschert describe the emergence of national and international legal and institutional arrangements to offer remedies to victims of crime in an era of globalization. In part II a selection of experts analyse the specific issues surrounding the protection and empowerment of victims of different types of international crimes such as human trafficking, organised crime/corruption, terrorism, global corporate crime and cross border environmental crimes. In part III focused attention is given to the special challenges and opportunities of protecting and assisting crime victims in cyberspace. Part IV deals with emerging victim issues in humanitarian law such as the accountability of private military companies and the implementation of the ambitious victim provisions in the statute of the International Criminal Court including the establishment of a global fund for reparations. In the final part of the book some of its core authors formulate their ideas about the international institutional arrangements that should be put in place to offer justice to the victims of globalization. A concrete proposal is made for the transformation of the United Nations 1985 Declaration on the Principles of Justice for Victims of Crime and Abuse of Power into a full-fledged UN convention. In the final chapter further proposals are made for the increased involvement of regional organisations such as the European Union in the protection of victims of global crime.
Chemotherapy has made a dramatic difference to improved survival in patients with cancer. However, not all patients respond and some experience serious side effects. "Pharmacogenetics: Making cancer treatment safer and more effective" is an up to date summary of the exciting new field of how genetic testing can tailor more effective prescription in oncology. It is targeted at oncologists and professionals involved in the treatment of patients with cancer. It provides a core background in genetics and pharmacological principles before providing chapters from acknowledged experts in the field on genetic tests in specific cancer types, including breast, bowel and lung cancer. Clinical cases are used to illustrate the practical application of this knowledge. Chapters on ethics, health economics and the industry aspects of pharmacogenetics set out the challenges and opportunities afforded by this new science.
The essays in this volume take up the history of philosophy of religion and contemporary problems within the discipline. They pursue these tasks as opportunities to correct Eurocentric biases that distort knowledge not only of religions originating beyond the West, but of the West's own traditions. This is the first collection of its kind. The contributions re-examine colonial experience in India and the Americas, offering discussion of broad methodological issues, critical re-readings of influential Western interpreters of religion, and arguments that explore blindspots and insights typical of colonial difference when viewed through "non-Western" eyes. The volume is aimed at advanced undergraduates, graduate students, and professional scholars in philosophy, religion, and related fields. Readers will benefit from its broad coverage of regions, traditions and problems, and the balance of philosophical critique and reconstruction.
This book discusses social entrepreneurship, especially in context of India. It focuses on understanding the whole process of social value creation, i. e. social entrepreneurship - opportunity identification, resource mobilisation, social value, capabilities of social entrepreneurs and innovation in three different types of social enterprises - (i) non-profit or charitable ones; (ii) non-profit social enterprise, sustainable with the combined income of grants, subsidies and own earned income; self-sustainable not-for-profit social enterprise; and hybrid social enterprise; and (iii) for-profit social enterprises. Sample cases of social entrepreneurs (Ashoka Fellows) were selected from three inter-linked sectors -- health, education and livelihood. To provide a comprehensive view, interviews were taken not only from the founders (social entrepreneurs), management personnel, and other employees, but also from the beneficiaries. The book comprises how, on the basis of cross-comparison between three types of social enterprises, several propositions and finally theoretical framework on social entrepreneurship have been developed. It proposes that social entrepreneurship can be acquired and that these social entrepreneurs can help solve the larger social problems faced both by developing and developed nations.
This book focuses on land and disaster governance in Asian countries. The Asian region has become increasingly vulnerable to natural disasters, including floods, cyclones, storms, earthquakes, drought, typhoons and tsunamis. Further, as a result of unsustainable changes being made in patterns of land use, catchment and coastal zones, increasing population density, migration patterns, and the spread of consumer culture across countries, the impact of natural disasters has increased manifold. The book addresses two major concerns in this field. Firstly, it discusses topics intended to raise awareness among all stakeholders of the critical aspects of disaster management in the context of Asia. Secondly, it calls upon policymakers, researchers, academics, practitioners, private enterprises and civil society organizations, as well as all those who have been, are and will be affected by natural disasters to search for innovative and novel approaches to reducing risk and managing disasters.
Kinetic studies have traditionally being extremely useful in characterizing several physical and chemical phenomena in organic, inorganic and metallic systems. It provides valuable qualitative, quantitative and kinetic information on phase transformations, solid state precipitation, crystallization, oxidation and decomposition. Unfortunately, no single reference comprehensively presents nonisothermal kinetic analysis method for the study of complex processes, determining the actual mechanism and kinetic parameters. This book provides a new method for nonisothermal kinetics and its application in heterogeneous solid state processes. In the backdrop of limitations in existing methods, the book presents a brief review of the widely used isothermal and nonisothermal kinetic analysis methods.
This book is a compilation of the entire research work on the topic of Complex Binary Number System (CBNS) carried out by the author as the principal investigator and members of his research groups at various universities during the years 2000-2012. Pursuant to these efforts spanning several years, the realization of CBNS as a viable alternative to represent complex numbers in an "all-in-one" binary number format has become possible and efforts are underway to build computer hardware based on this unique number system. It is hoped that this work will be of interest to anyone involved in computer arithmetic and digital logic design and kindle renewed enthusiasm among the engineers working in the areas of digital signal and image processing for developing newer and efficient algorithms and techniques incorporating CBNS.
What changes are occurring at the macro and the sectoral levels, how the labour market changes are taking place and what impact is felt on the low income households are some of the questions that the present volume focuses on. It begins by examining the sectoral composition of growth, revisiting the issues related to industry-services balance, and also brings out the spatial dimension of growth. On the one hand the industry does not seem to have played a major role in the context of employment generation as imported technology is by and large capital intensive in nature. On the other hand, the services-led growth is seen to have reduced the pace of poverty reduction. Given the services-led growth the possible impact of trade in services on employment both in the formal and informal sectors have been worked out, indicating limited positive spill-over effects. The labour market outcomes are brought out with great details suggesting that rapid economic growth in India could not result in productive employment generation on a large scale. The gender dimensions of employment are brought out to verify if reduction in labour market inequality can result in improving the position of women in other spheres encompassing the decision making process both within the household and outside the household. Issues relating to urbanisation and rural-urban migration are also covered to understand the dynamics of urban poverty and to bring out the challenges of population transfer given the spatial concentration of growth. The job search practices pursued by the low income households are often pursued in terms of informal networks. What problems are associated with such mechanisms in experiencing improvements in wellbeing levels are covered in the present volume. On the whole, the volume offers an explanation of limited poverty reduction in a situation of rapid economic growth on the basis of an inter-disciplinary framework though efforts are being made to keep the methodology quantitatively rigorous.
This book contributes to the theoretical and empirical literature on Asian regionalism, with a focus on the innovations needed to reform the current institutional architecture in Asia. After reviewing the key issues and challenges related to the political economy of Asia's economic cooperation and integration, the book discusses various aspects of regionalism from political and economic perspectives. It looks at the rationale for regional collective action and reviews the trend of economic integration with a focus on the implications of the global financial crisis. In addition to reviewing the key issues related to the development of regional institutions for integration, the book analyzes issues such as trade and finance and deals with the implications of regionalism in terms of the introduction of domestic reforms in Asian countries before discussing the possible formation of a region-wide economic community. The eight chapters of the book are based on respective papers initially prepared for the Asian Development Bank Institute Conference 2010.
Economic development and environmental issues in China are attracting more and more attention internationally as the country's large population and vast demands for food, energy, water, minerals, and other resources play an increasingly important role in deciding the fate of the world. There is great interest in learning more about environmental issues in China, but it is not easy to obtain accurate, relevant information because the issues are diverse and are complex phenomena resulting from the interconnections among natural resource constraints and political, social, and institutional systems. This book originally was published in Japanese with the aim of providing Japanese readers with a holistic picture of what was taking place in China with respect to its air, water, energy, and land. The author then prepared an English edition of the same material to use as a book of readings for the Global Environmental Leaders Program at Nagoya University, where he taught many students from Asia and Europe. The book covers the most important environmental issues in China--climatic change, water, air, energy, and resources--together with ongoing policy responses, based on the author's active involvement in a number of study projects and international cooperation projects in that country. This volume will help readers to understand the causes and results of environmental problems in China and will encourage them to think more deeply about the environmental implications of the country's rapid economic growth.
This book addresses an essential need felt by many who seek to promote best business practices in China and East Asia - namely the need for culturally appropriate instructional materials (basic information, case studies and ethical perspectives) that will allow managers and entrepreneurs to understand and embrace the challenge of moral leadership in business. In an era characterized by globalization and the increasing importance of the economies of China, India, Japan and SE Asia, international business ethics must reflect the concerns of the people living and working in this area, the moral and spiritual traditions that have nurtured them and their specific contributions to sustainable development. This book presents twenty important case studies, taken from newsworthy events of the past few years, in which Asians and others have attempted to respond to this challenge. Each case study has been selected and shaped in order to highlight various aspects of doing business in Asia, starting with basic principles and moving on to the specific responsibilities that businesses have towards their various stakeholders. The authors contend that the best way to appreciate the relevance of Asian moral and spiritual traditions is to determine their specific contribution to virtue ethics, where the ancient traditions of both East and West converge in their focus on the qualities of moral leadership that form the basis of best business practice. Exploring the case studies will enable readers to appreciate the continued relevance of these ethical perspectives in Asian business. Best business practice clearly involves learning to do business and playing the game according to the rules; but the necessity of playing by the rules is not likely to become clear until one takes up the path that leads to a virtuous life in business, developing a moral character chiefly based on integrity.
Protecting Human Rights in the EU: Controversies and Challenges of the Charter of Fundamental Rightsby Tanel Kerikmäe
Human rights are much talked about and much written about, in academic legal literature as well as in political and other social sciences and the general political debate. This book argues that the universality of basic human rights is one of the values of the concept of rights. It points out the risk of a certain "inflation" caused by the current habit of talking so much and so often about human rights and of using them as a basis for claims of various kinds. These rights, their understanding and interpretation may need to become more "purist" to ensure that universal human rights as a concept survive. Another chapter concentrates on the analysis of the frames of "EU protected human rights" from the perspective of effective implementation. Further, the book not only deals with the complicated relations between the EU and international law, but also seeks to show the horizontal effect. To that end, the fears and hopes of the member states and interest groups are categorized and commented on. Lastly, the gaps in theory and practice are addressed, current trends related to implementation are pointed out, and suggestions are made concerning how to make the best out of the Charter.
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