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For the first time, the authors provide a comprehensive and consistent presentation of all techniques available in this field. They rigorously analyze the behavior of different electrochemical single and multipotential step techniques for electrodes of different geometries and sizes under transient and stationary conditions. The effects of these electrode features in studies of various electrochemical systems (solution systems, electroactive monolayers, and liquid-liquid interfaces) are discussed. Explicit analytical expressions for the current-potential responses are given for all available cases. Applications of each technique are outlined for the elucidation of reaction mechanisms. Coverage is comprehensive: normal pulse voltammetry, double differential pulse voltammetry, reverse pulse voltammetry and other triple and multipulse techniques, such as staircase voltammetry, differential staircase voltammetry, differential staircase voltcoulommetry, cyclic voltammetry, square wave voltammetry and square wave voltcoulommetry.
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Distributed, Ambient and Pervasive Interactions, DAPI 2013, held as part of the 15th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, HCII 2013, held in Las Vegas, USA in July 2013, jointly with 12 other thematically similar conferences. The total of 1666 papers and 303 posters presented at the HCII 2013 conferences was carefully reviewed and selected from 5210 submissions. These papers address the latest research and development efforts and highlight the human aspects of design and use of computing systems. The papers accepted for presentation thoroughly cover the entire field of human-computer interaction, addressing major advances in knowledge and effective use of computers in a variety of application areas. The total of 54 contributions was carefully reviewed and selected for inclusion in the DAPI proceedings. The papers are organized in the following topical sections: natural interaction; context-awareness in smart and intelligent environments; design and evaluation of smart and intelligent environments; smart cities; multi-user, group and collaborative interaction; smart everyday living and working environments.
The two-volume set LNCS 9172 and 9173 constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Human Interface and the Management of Information thematic track, held as part of the 17th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, HCII 2015, held in Los Angeles, CA, USA, in August 2015, jointly with 15 other thematically similar conferences. The total of 1462 papers and 246 posters presented at the HCII 2015 conferences were carefully reviewed and selected from 4843 submissions. These papers address the latest research and development efforts and highlight the human aspects of design and use of computing systems. The papers accepted for presentation thoroughly cover the entire field of human-computer interaction, addressing major advances in knowledge and effective use of computers in a variety of application areas. This volume contains papers addressing the following major topics: information visualization; information presentation; knowledge management; haptic, tactile and multimodal interaction; service design and management; user studies.
The LNCS volume 9192 constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Second International Conference on Learning and Collaboration Technologies, LCT 2015, held as part of the 17th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, HCII 2015, in Los Angeles, CA, USA in August 2015, jointly with 15 other thematically similar conferences. The total of 1462 papers and 246 posters presented at the HCII 2015 conferences were carefully reviewed and selected from 4843 submissions. These papers address addressing the following major topics: technology-enhanced learning, adaptive and personalised learning and assessment, virtual worlds and virtual agents for learning, collaboration and Learning Serious Games and ICT in education.
The book provides readers with a snapshot of recent research and technological trends in the field of condition monitoring of machinery working under a broad range of operating conditions. Each chapter, accepted after a rigorous peer-review process, reports on an original piece of work presented and discussed at the 4th International Conference on Condition Monitoring of Machinery in Non-stationary Operations, CMMNO 2014, held on December 15-16, 2014, in Lyon, France. The contributions have been grouped into three different sections according to the main subfield (signal processing, data mining or condition monitoring techniques) they are related to. The book includes both theoretical developments as well as a number of industrial case studies, in different areas including, but not limited to: noise and vibration; vibro-acoustic diagnosis; signal processing techniques; diagnostic data analysis; instantaneous speed identification; monitoring and diagnostic systems; and dynamic and fault modeling. This book not only provides a valuable resource for both academics and professionals in the field of condition monitoring, it also aims at facilitating communication and collaboration between the two groups.
This volume provides case studies about successful strategies employed in diverse world areas for the protection of archaeological heritage resources. Some chapters focus on a search for solutions arrived at by diverse groups of people working in specific areas rather than simply describing loss of cultural heritage. Other chapters provide a long-term view of intensified efforts at protection of archaeological resources. The authors describe challenges and solutions derived by concerned people in eastern Asia (China, Japan, Thailand), West Africa, Easter Island, Jordan, Honduras and more than one area of Peru. All of the authors draw upon deep, personal involvement with the protection of cultural heritage in each area. This volume is a timely addition to a growing number of conferences and publications about the management of cultural heritage--both archaeological and historical.
The mountain regions in Southeastern Europe are unique natural regions of great beauty and ecological value, and home of the head waters of major rivers. They constitute a major ecological, economic, cultural, recreational and living environment in Europe, shared by numerous cultures and countries. The Southeastern European Mountain Regions are an important reservoir for biodiversity and habitats in Europe. A great number of protected areas - national parks, nature parks, reserves and nature monuments are located in these regions. From a socio-economic point of view the mountain regions are among the poorest areas in the Southeastern European countries, but they have potential for the implementation of successful economic activities. There are opportunities for development of these regions and, in particular, for trans-border integration and co-operation. This book brings together research results from experts from all Balkan countries working on the problems of the mountain regions in Southeastern Europe. The volume focuses on the challenges taking place along the rapid transformation in land use, biodiversity, tourism, nature risk and bio-productivity due to the global changes and particularly due to the local impacts of climate change. The key questions for discussion are: - Biodiversity, nature protection and conservation - Natural disasters and risk management - Social-economical development of the mountain regions - Spatial planning in the development of the mountain regions - Sustainable practices and politics for land use - Transborder co-operation.
The aim of this book is fourfold: to describe the basic principles of Dual Energy CT (DECT) imaging, to explain how post-processing is utilized, to critically appraise the strengths and weaknesses of the technique in oncologic imaging, and above all, to demonstrate the contribution of DECT in the management of oncologic patients. Information is provided on the practice and interpretation of DECT and its impact on clinical decision making in a variety of oncological settings, including tumors of the head and neck, lung, liver, pancreas, gastrointestinal system, kidney, and musculoskeletal system. DECT is an innovative imaging technique in which the application of two distinct energy settings provides a transition from density-based image to spectral imaging. As detailed in this book, DECT acquisition allows the simultaneous generation of multiple datasets which enable the radiologist to address varied diagnostic problems in oncologic imaging using a multiparametric approach, having clear advantages in tumor detection, lesion characterization and evaluation of treatment response.
This book presents the results of a unique macroscopic and radiological analysis, by X-ray and CT scan, of the bone pathologies of about 1800 subjects who lived at the time of the Roman Empire (first and second centuries A. D. ) and whose remains were recovered during the excavation of a suburban necropolis of Rome. The survey, which represents a collaboration between the Italian Society of Orthopaedics and Traumatology and the Special Superintendent for the Archaeological Heritage of Rome, has yielded incredible images of different orthopaedic diseases in a period when no surgical treatment was available: there are cases of infection (osteomyelitis), metabolic disease (gout), hematologic disease (multiple myeloma), traumatic lesions and their complications and degenerative pathology (osteoarthritis, particularly secondary and overload). A multidisciplinary team including orthopaedists, paleopathologists, radiologists and medical historians has evaluated the major groups of bone disease in the population finding out incredible cases and picture of ortho-traumatologic pathologies in a pre-surgical era. The homogeneity of the sample and the number of subjects make this a study of fundamental importance.
This highly anticipated second edition features new chapters and sections, 225 new references, and comprehensive R software. In keeping with the previous edition, this book is about the art and science of data analysis and predictive modeling, which entails choosing and using multiple tools. Instead of presenting isolated techniques, this text emphasizes problem solving strategies that address the many issues arising when developing multivariable models using real data and not standard textbook examples. It includes imputation methods for dealing with missing data effectively, methods for fitting nonlinear relationships and for making the estimation of transformations a formal part of the modeling process, methods for dealing with "too many variables to analyze and not enough observations," and powerful model validation techniques based on the bootstrap. The reader will gain a keen understanding of predictive accuracy and the harm of categorizing continuous predictors or outcomes. This text realistically deals with model uncertainty and its effects on inference, to achieve "safe data mining. " It also presents many graphical methods for communicating complex regression models to non-statisticians. Regression Modeling Strategies presents full-scale case studies of non-trivial datasets instead of over-simplified illustrations of each method. These case studies use freely available R functions that make the multiple imputation, model building, validation and interpretation tasks described in the book relatively easy to do. Most of the methods in this text apply to all regression models, but special emphasis is given to multiple regression using generalized least squares for longitudinal data, the binary logistic model, models for ordinal responses, parametric survival regression models and the Cox semi parametric survival model. A new emphasis is given to the robust analysis of continuous dependent variables using ordinal regression. As in the first edition, this text is intended for Masters' or Ph. D. level graduate students who have had a general introductory probability and statistics course and who are well versed in ordinary multiple regression and intermediate algebra. The book will also serve as a reference for data analysts and statistical methodologists, as it contains an up-to-date survey and bibliography of modern statistical modeling techniques. Examples used in the text mostly come from biomedical research, but the methods are applicable anywhere predictive models ("analytics") are useful, including economics, epidemiology, sociology, psychology, engineering and marketing.
This book provides information to the state of art of research in nanotechnology and nano medicine and risks of nano technology. It covers an interdisciplinary and very wide scope of the latest fundamental research status and industrial applications of nano technologies ranging from nano physics, nano chemistry to biotechnology and toxicology. It provides information to last legislation of nano usage and potential social impact too. The book contains also a reference list of major European research centers and associated universities offering licences and master of nano matter. For clarity and attractivity, the book has many illustrations and specific inserts to complete the understanding of the scientific texts.
This book offers a proven approach for reliable mapping of soil-landscape relationships to derive information for policy, planning and management at scales ranging from local to regional. It presents the theoretical and conceptual framework of the geopedologic approach and a bulk of applied research showing its application and benefits for knowledge generation relevant to geohazard studies, land use conflict analysis, land use planning, land degradation assessment, and land suitability analysis. Soil is a vital resource for society at large and an important determinant of the economic status of nations. The intensification of natural disasters and the increased land use competition for food and energy have raised awareness of the relevant role the pedosphere plays in natural and anthropogenic environments. Recent papers and global initiatives show a renewed interest in soil research and its applications for improved planning and management of this fragile and finite resource.
In this book, leading world authorities on brain edema and neurological disorders/injuries and experts in preconditioning join forces to discuss the latest progress in basic sciences, translational research, and clinical management strategies relating to these conditions. The range of topics covered is wide, including microglia, energy metabolism, trace metals and ion channels, vascular biology, cellular treatment, hemorrhagic stroke, novel technological advances, anesthesia and medical gases, pediatric brain edema, neuroimaging, behavioral assessment, clinical trials, peripheral to central signaling pathways, preconditioning translation, and animal models for preconditioning and brain edema research. The book comprises presentations from Brain Edema 2014, the joint meeting of the 16th International Conference on Brain Edema and Cellular Injury and the 3rd Symposium on Preconditioning for Neurological Disorders, held in Los Angeles on September 27-30, 2014.
This book by Helmut Wiedemann is a well-established, classic text, providing an in-depth and comprehensive introduction to the field of high-energy particle acceleration and beam dynamics. The present 4th edition has been significantly revised, updated and expanded. The newly conceived Part I is an elementary introduction to the subject matter for undergraduate students. Part II gathers the basic tools in preparation of a more advanced treatment, summarizing the essentials of electrostatics and electrodynamics as well as of particle dynamics in electromagnetic fields. Part III is an extensive primer in beam dynamics, followed, in Part IV, by an introduction and description of the main beam parameters and including a new chapter on beam emittance and lattice design. Part V is devoted to the treatment of perturbations in beam dynamics. Part VI then discusses the details of charged particle acceleration. Parts VII and VIII introduce the more advanced topics of coupled beam dynamics and describe very intense beams - a number of additional beam instabilities are introduced and reviewed in this new edition. Part IX is an exhaustive treatment of radiation from accelerated charges and introduces important sources of coherent radiation such as synchrotrons and free-electron lasers. The appendices at the end of the book gather useful mathematical and physical formulae, parameters and units. Solutions to many end-of-chapter problems are given. This textbook is suitable for an intensive two-semester course starting at the senior undergraduate level.
The purpose of this introductory book is to couple the teaching of chaotic circuit and systems theory with the use of field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). As such, it differs from other texts on chaos: first, it puts emphasis on combining theoretical methods, simulation tools and physical realization to help the reader gain an intuitive understanding of the properties of chaotic systems. Second, the "medium" used for physical realization is the FPGA. These devices are massively parallel architectures that can be configured to realize a variety of logic functions. Hence, FPGAs can be configured to emulate systems of differential equations. Nevertheless maximizing the capabilities of an FPGA requires the user to understand the underlying hardware and also FPGA design software. This is achieved by the third distinctive feature of this book: a lab component in each chapter. Here, readers are asked to experiment with computer simulations and FPGA designs, to further their understanding of concepts covered in the book. This text is intended for graduate students in science and engineering interested in exploring implementation of nonlinear dynamical (chaotic) systems on FPGAs.
This book presents an Assessment of Physical Sciences and Engineering Advances in Life Sciences and Oncology (APHELION) by a panel of experts. It covers the status and trends of applying physical sciences and engineering principles to oncology research in leading laboratories and organizations in Europe and Asia. The book elaborates on the six topics identified by the panel that have the greatest potential to advance understanding and treatment of cancer, each covered by a chapter in the book. The study was sponsored by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) at the National Institute of Health (NIH), the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering at the NIH in the US under a cooperative agreement with the World Technology Evaluation Center (WTEC).
This book covers all aspects of plant physiology: plant cell physiology, water regime of plants, photosynthesis, mineral nutrition, plant respiration, plant growth and development, movements in plants, signal perception and transduction etc. It focuses on the fundamental principles of plant physiology and biochemistry from the molecular level to whole plants, on the mechanisms of plant-environment interactions. The book is intended for students (biologists, physiologists, biochemists, biophysicists, ecologists, geneticists), teachers and researchers. Particular emphasis is given to recent research advances made on national and international levels, as well as to personal experimental results of the author that are relevant for a deeper understanding of processes and for practical implementation of gained knowledge. An essential amount of illustrative material (graphics, images, schemes, illustrations) completes the text and supplies additional information in an accessible manner. At the end of each chapter, glossary and evaluation tests are presented.
Jonathan Ward takes the reader deep into the facilities at Kennedy Space Center to describe NASA's first computer systems used for spacecraft and rocket checkout and explain how tests and launches proceeded. Descriptions of early operations include a harrowing account of the heroic efforts of pad workers during the Apollo 1 fire. A companion to the author's book Countdown to a Moon Launch: Preparing Apollo for Its Historic Journey, this explores every facet of the facilities that served as the base for the Apollo/Saturn missions. Hundreds of illustrations complement the firsthand accounts of more than 70 Apollo program managers and engineers. The era of the Apollo/Saturn missions was perhaps the most exciting period in American space exploration history. Cape Canaveral and Kennedy Space Center were buzzing with activity. Thousands of workers came to town to build the facilities and launch the missions needed to put an American on the Moon before the end of the decade. Work at KSC involved much more than just launching rockets. It was a place like none other on Earth. Technicians performed intricate operations, and hazards abounded everywhere, including lightning, fire, highly-toxic fuels, snakes, heat, explosives, LOX spills, and even plutonium. The reward for months of 7-day workweeks under intense pressure was witnessing a Saturn V at liftoff. For anyone who ever wished they had worked at Kennedy Space Center during the Apollo era, this book is the next best thing. The only thing missing is the smell of rocket fuel in the morning.
Design of Intelligent Systems Based on Fuzzy Logic, Neural Networks and Nature-Inspired Optimizationby Janusz Kacprzyk Oscar Castillo Patricia Melin
This book presents recent advances on the design of intelligent systems based on fuzzy logic, neural networks and nature-inspired optimization and their application in areas such as, intelligent control and robotics, pattern recognition, time series prediction and optimization of complex problems. The book is organized in eight main parts, which contain a group of papers around a similar subject. The first part consists of papers with the main theme of theoretical aspects of fuzzy logic, which basically consists of papers that propose new concepts and algorithms based on fuzzy systems. The second part contains papers with the main theme of neural networks theory, which are basically papers dealing with new concepts and algorithms in neural networks. The third part contains papers describing applications of neural networks in diverse areas, such as time series prediction and pattern recognition. The fourth part contains papers describing new nature-inspired optimization algorithms. The fifth part presents diverse applications of nature-inspired optimization algorithms. The sixth part contains papers describing new optimization algorithms. The seventh part contains papers describing applications of fuzzy logic in diverse areas, such as time series prediction and pattern recognition. Finally, the eighth part contains papers that present enhancements to meta-heuristics based on fuzzy logic techniques.
This exciting primer on Solar Racing literally starts from the ground up, describing how the interactions of a vehicle with its environment circumscribe its ultimate success, from aerodynamics to resistance and propulsion. By demonstrating how to mathematically model these underlying physical phenomena, the author helps solar racing competitors carefully select key characteristics of the vehicle, such as weight and shape, to produce optimal speed. Energy conversion and demand are given particular attention, followed by chapters devoted to examining solar racers' design, manufacture and testing using a structured problem-solving process to keep projects on track and on schedule. A chapter devoted to energy management strategies provides invaluable tips on maximizing average speed during a race. Complex issues such as ventilation system analysis and performance simulation are covered in dedicated appendices. The financial aspect of project design is not neglected, as both fund-raising and cost estimation are given in-depth consideration.
This book provides the vitreoretinal surgeon with advice and guidance on how to treat and manage the unpredictable complexities and potential intra- and postoperative complications that are encountered during the course of vitreoretinal surgery. Internationally renowned surgeons share their extensive surgical experience in a clearly written and well-illustrated format, delivering helpful practical answers to the important problems frequently confronted in this ever-challenging area of ophthalmic surgery. Management of Complicated Vitreoretinal Diseases will appeal to surgeons young and old, and will find its home not only in the library but also in the office and the operating room itself. The open and positive way in which the many scenarios and difficulties encountered in surgery are confronted will improve the expertise of the surgeon and, most importantly, the outcomes for patients.
This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Information Security and Cryptology, Inscrypt 2014, held in Beijing, China, in December 2014. The 29 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 93 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on privacy and anonymity, multiparty and outsource computation, signature and security protocols, lattice and public key cryptography, block cipher and hash function, authentication and encryption, elliptic curve, and cryptographic primitive and application.
This book provides a multidisciplinary perspective (ranging from chemistry to physics and biology) of the current research and applications of organic and hybrid photonic crystals. The authors detail the chemical and physical tools used to develop organic photonic crystals, explain methods for engineering new nano-structures, and propose novel physical phenomena or technological applications based on such materials. Organic and Hybrid Photonic Crystal lasers, sensors, photovoltaic devices and stimuli responsive devices are discussed.
Maximizing reader insights into interior design as a conceptual way of thinking, which is about ideas and how they are formulated. The major themes of this book are the seven concepts of planning, circulation, 3D, construction, materials, colour and lighting, which covers the entire spectrum of a designer's activity. Analysing design concepts from the view of the range of possibilities that the designer can examine and eventually decide by choice and conclusive belief the appropriate course of action to take in forming that particular concept, the formation and implementation of these concepts is taken in this book to aid the designer in his/her professional task of completing a design proposal to the client. The purpose of this book is to prepare designers to focus on each concept independently as much as possible, whilst acknowledging relative connections without unwarranted influences unfairly dictating a conceptual bias, and is about that part of the design process called conceptual analysis. It is assumed that the site, location, building and orientation, as well as the client's brief of activities and needs have been digested and analysed to provide the data upon which the design process can begin. Designed as a highly visual illustrative book, as the interior design medium demands, the hands-on creative process of designing is detailed with original drawn illustrations. Concentrating on the conceptual process of designing interiors, and defining what these concepts are, this book will help the designer to organise his/her process of designing and to sharpen the links between the various skill bases necessary to do the job. This book will be stimulating for students and instructors alike and is aimed at any student who maybe majoring in interior design, interior architecture, architecture, design thinking or furniture design. It could also be a useful reference for students of design management and design leadership.
This book reviews the available information on bacterial disinfection in endodontics, with emphasis on the chemical treatment of root canals based on current understanding of the process of irrigation. It describes recent advances in knowledge of the chemistry associated with irrigants and delivery systems, which is of vital importance given that chemical intervention is now considered one of the most important measures in eliminating planktonic microbes and biofilms from the infected tooth. Recommendations are made regarding concentrations, exposure times and optimal sequences. Possible complications related to the use of the different solutions are highlighted, with guidance on response. In addition, clinical protocols are suggested on the basis of both clinical experience and the results of past and ongoing research. Throughout, a practical, clinically oriented approach is adopted that will assist the practitioner in ensuring successful endodontic treatment.
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