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This book is focused on the development of a data integration framework for retrieval of biodiversity information from heterogeneous and distributed data sources. The data integration system proposed in this book links remote databases in a networked environment, supports heterogeneous databases and data formats, links databases hosted on multiple platforms, and provides data security for database owners by allowing them to keep and maintain their own data and to choose information to be shared and linked. The book is a useful guide for researchers, practitioners, and graduate-level students interested in learning state-of-the-art development for data integration in biodiversity.
This edited volume with selected papers from extinguished experts and professors in the field of learning technology and the related fields who are far-sighted and have his/her own innovative thoughts on the development of learning technology. This book will addresses the main issues concerned with the trend and future development of learning processes, innovative pedagogies changes, effects of new technologies on education, future learning content. Learning technology has been affected by advances in technology development and changes in the field of education. Nowadays we cannot afford to sense the changes and then make adaption to it. What we should do is to predict the changes and make positive and active reactions to help the trend go smoothly and in a more beneficial way. This book aims to gather the newest ideas on the frontiers and future development of learning education from the aspects of learning, pedagogies, and technologies in learning in order to draw a picture of learning education in the near future.
This newly-translated book takes the reader from the basic principles and conservation laws of hydrodynamics to the description of general atmospheric circulation. Among the topics covered are the Kelvin, Ertel and Rossby-Obukhov invariants, quasi-geostrophic equation, thermal wind, singular Helmholtz vortices, derivation of the Navier-Stokes equation, Kolmogorov's flow, hydrodynamic stability, and geophysical boundary layers. Generalizing V. Arnold's approach to hydrodynamics, the author ingeniously brings in an analogy of Coriolis forces acting on fluid with motion of the Euler heavy top and shows how this is used in the analysis of general atmospheric circulation. This book is based on popular graduate and undergraduate courses given by F.V.Dolzhansky at the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, and is the result of the author's highly acclaimed work in Moscow's Laboratory of Geophysical Hydrodynamics. Each chapter is full of examples and figures, exercises and hints, motivating and illustrating both theoretical and experimental results. The exposition is comprehensive yet user-friendly in engaging and exploring the broad range of topics for students and researchers in mathematics, physics, meteorology and engineering.
In recent years, remarkable progress in the fabrication of novel mesoscopic devices has produced a revival of interest in quantum Hall physics. New types of measurements, more precise and efficient than ever, have made it possible to focus closely on the electronic properties of quantum Hall edge states. This is achieved by applying charge and heat currents at mesoscopic length scales, attaching metallic gates and Ohmic contacts, and splitting edge channels with the help of quantum point contacts. The experiments reveal fascinating new phenomena, such as the interference, statistics, and topological phase shifts of fractionally charged quasi-particles, strong interaction and correlation effects, and phase transitions induced by non-Gaussian fluctuations. The thesis discusses some puzzling results of these experiments and presents a coherent picture of mesoscopic effects in quantum Hall systems, which accounts for integer and fractional filling factors and ranges from microscopic theory to effective models, and covers both equilibrium and non-equilibrium phenomena.
To exercise the translator the following tests are provided: Eliminated contractions, new contractions, unwanted contractions, contracted words, punctuation symbols and spacing, format and capitalization, fractions, numeric indicators, ETC. Several sample documents previously translated into Unified English Braille by the Braille Authority of North America are included so that our output can be compared with their's.
Nanobioelectrochemistry covers the modern aspects of bioelectrochemistry, nanoscience and materials science. The combination of nanostructured materials and biological molecules enables the development of biodevices capable to detect specific substances. Furthermore, by using the bioelectrochemistry approach, the interaction between bio-systems and nanostructured materials can be studied at the molecular level, where several mechanisms of molecular behavior are elucidate from redox reactions. The combination of biological molecules and novel nanomaterials components is of great importance in the process of developing new nanoscale devices for future biological, medical and electronic applications. This book describes some of the different electrochemical techniques that can be used to study new strategies for patterning electrode surfaces with enzymes, organelles, cells and biomimetic systems. Also, it focuses on how enzymes and microorganisms can be used as biological catalysts in fuel cells for green power generation. By bringing together these different aspects of nanobioelectrochemistry, this book provides a valuable source of information for many students and scientists.
Complex, microstructured materials are widely used in industry and technology and include alloys, ceramics and composites. Focusing on non-destructive evaluation (NDE), this book explores in detail the mathematical modeling and inverse problems encountered when using ultrasound to investigate heterogeneous microstructured materials. The outstanding features of the text are firstly, a clear description of both linear and nonlinear mathematical models derived for modelling the propagation of ultrasonic deformation waves, and secondly, the provision of solutions to the corresponding inverse problems that determine the physical parameters of the models. The data are related to nonlinearities at both a macro- and micro- level, as well as to dispersion. The authors' goal has been to construct algorithms that allow us to determine the parameters within which we are required to characterize microstructure. To achieve this, the authors not only use conventional harmonic waves, but also propose a novel methodology based on using solitary waves in NDE. The book analyzes the uniqueness and stability of the solutions, in addition to providing numerical examples.
Heavy metals are severe environmental pollutants, and many of them are toxic even at very low concentrations. With industrial development, soil pollution with heavy metal elements have dramatically increased. The uptake of heavy metals via plants that are exposed to contaminated soils is a risk for human health and a major hazard for the ecosystem as a whole, including soil microorganisms. On the other hand, plants may be used in the decontamination of soils. The topics presented in this book include: sources of heavy metals contaminants in soils; plant species that can grow on contaminated soils; the phytoremediation of contaminated soils; tolerance, accumulation and detoxification mechanisms of zinc, copper, arsenic, cadmium and vanadium in plants; the critical role of sulfur metabolism in heavy metal tolerance; the role of aquatic macrophytes, plant growth-promoting bacteria, sugar crops and earthworms in detoxification; and heavy metal stabilization by promoting zeolite synthesis in soils.
The future of agriculture strongly depends on our ability to enhance productivity without sacrificing long-term production potential. An ecologically and economically sustainable strategy is the application of microorganisms, such as the diverse bacterial species of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB). The use of these bio-resources for the enhancement of crop productivity is gaining worldwide importance. "Bacteria in Agrobiology: Plant Nutrient Management" focus on the management of plant nutrient to support plant growth and development. The topics treated in this book include mechanisms of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, zinc and phosphate solubilizing microorganisms, sulfur oxidizing bacteria, ACC deaminase, siderophores, phytohormones, quorum-sensing, biofilms, antibiotics, volatiles, denitrification and integrated nutrient management.
Information sharing is frequently promoted as a mean to improve the supply chain performance. This work shows the results of behavioral experiments, in which the participants share private information in order to influence the contract terms in a Just-in-Time environment. It is shown that the impact of information sharing is ambiguous, and dependent on several factors, such as contract flexibility and complexity or the interacting behavioral types. The experimental results form the basis for a behavioral principal-agent model that gives valuable insights on how the interaction of trust, trustworthiness and the information sharing strategy impacts the supply chain performance.
Key Building Blocks via Enzyme-Mediated Synthesis, by Thomas Fischer and Jörg Pietruszka * Engineered Biosynthesis of Plant Polyketides: Structure-Based and Precursor-Directed Approach, by Ikuro Abe * Enzymatic and Chemo-Enzymatic Approaches Towards Natural and Non-Natural Alkaloids: Indoles, Isoquinolines, and Others, by Joachim Stöckigt, Zhong Chen, and Martin Ruppert * Chemoenzymatic and Bioenzymatic Synthesis of Carbohydrate Containing Natural Products, by Bohdan Ostash, Xiaohui Yan, Victor Fedorenko, and Andreas Bechthold * Total (Bio)Synthesis: Strategies of Nature and of Chemists, by Alexandra A. Roberts, Katherine S. Ryan, Bradley S. Moore, and Tobias A.M. Gulder
This book has been written on the basis of the research done between 2008 and 2010 as part of the European Commission funded FREIGHTVISION project. The "FREIGHTVISION - Freight Transport 2050 Foresight" project was funded by the Directorate General MOVE to design a long term vision for European freight transport in 2050 and to identify actions and research to progress appropriate freight transport measures in Europe. The project was carried out as a foresight process encompassing four conferences in which the project team identified and developed with the aid of more than 100 experts an action plan for securing long term freight transport in Europe. The book provides insights into the freight transport visions and Backcasts identified for 2035 and 2050, issues which need to be addressed and measures which were assessed to be part of future paths to assure an economical, environmental, and social freight transport system.
This book describes the interlaced histories of life and oxygen. It opens with the generation of oxygen in ancient stars and its distribution to newly formed planets like the Earth. Free O2 was not available on the early Earth, so the first life forms had to be anaerobic. Life introduced free O2 into the environment through the evolution of photosynthesis, which must have been a disaster for many anaerobes. Others found ways to deal with the toxic reactive oxygen species and even developed a much more efficient oxygen-based metabolism. The authors vividly describe how the introduction of O2 allowed the burst of evolution that created today's biota. They also discuss the interplay of O2 and CO2, with consequences such as worldwide glaciations and global warming. On the physiological level, they present an overview of oxidative metabolism and O2 transport, and the importance of O2 in human life and medicine, emphasizing that while oxygen is essential, it is also related to aging and many disease states.
Many plants produce enzymes collectively known as ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs). RIPs catalyze the removal of an adenine residue from a conserved loop in the large ribosomal RNA. The adenine residue removed by this depurination is crucial for the binding of elongation factors. Ribosomes modified in this way are no longer able to carry out protein synthesis. Most RIPs exist as single polypeptides (Type 1 RIPs) which are largely non-toxic to mammalian cells because they are unable to enter them and thus cannot reach their ribosomal substrate. In some instances, however, the RIP forms part of a heterodimer where its partner polypeptide is a lectin (Type 2 RIPs). These heterodimeric RIPs are able to bind to and enter mammalian cells. Their ability to reach and modify ribosomes in target cells means these proteins are some of the most potently cytotoxic poisons found in nature, and are widely assumed to play a protective role as part of the host plant's defenses. RIPs are able to further damage target cells by inducing apoptosis. In addition, certain plants produce lectins lacking an RIP component but which are also cytotoxic. This book focuses on the structure/function and some potential applications of these toxic plant proteins.
Measuring and managing the performance of a business is one of the most genuine desires of management. Balanced scorecard, the performance prism and activity-based management are the most popular frameworks in this setting. Based on the findings of R.G. Eccles' acclaimed "Performance Measurement Manifesto (1991)" this book introduces new contexts and themes of application and presents emerging research areas related to business performance measurement and management, e.g. SMEs and sustainability. As a result of the 1st International Summer School Piero Lunghi on "Perspectives of Business Performance Management" this book is written both for students and academics, as well as for practitioners looking for new, yet proven ways to measure and manage business performance.
This thesis presents a systematic discussion of experimental approaches to investigating the nonlinear interaction of ultrashort visible strong fields with dielectrics directly in the time domain. The key finding is the distinctly different peak-intensity dependence of the light-matter energy transfer dynamics on the one hand, and the observed transient optical and electronic modifications on the other. As the induced electron dynamics evolve on sub-femtosecond timescales, real-time spectroscopy requires attosecond temporal resolution. This allows a range of parameters to be identified where the optical properties of the samples exposed to ultrashort light fields suffer dramatic changes allowing signal metrology while real absorption leading to dissipation is essentially absent. These findings indicate the feasibility of efficient optical switching at frequencies several orders of magnitude faster than current state-of-the-art electronics and thus have far-reaching technological consequences.
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Hybrid Metaheuristics, HM 2016, held in Plymouth, UK, in June 2016. The 15 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 43 submissions. The selected papers are of interest for all the researchers working on integrating metaheuristics with other areas for solving both optimization and constraint satisfaction problems. They represent as well a sample of current research demonstrating how metaheuristics can be integrated with integer linear programming and other operational research techniques for tackling difficult and relevant problems.
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Fourth Computer Games Workshop, CGW 2015, and the Fourth Workshop on General Intelligence in Game-Playing Agents, GIGA 2015, held in conjunction with the 24th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence, IJCAI 2015, Buenos Aires, Argentina, in July 2015. The 12 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 27 submissions. The papers address all aspects of artificial intelligence and computer game playing. They discuss topics such as Monte-Carlo methods; heuristic search; board games; card games; video games; perfect and imperfect information games; puzzles and single player games; multi-player games; combinatorial game theory; applications; computational creativity; computational game theory; evaluation and analysis; game design; knowledge representation; machine learning; multi-agent systems; opponent modeling; planning; reasoning; search.
This book brings together a rich selection of studies in mathematical modeling and computational intelligence, with application in several fields of engineering, like automation, biomedical, chemical, civil, electrical, electronic, geophysical and mechanical engineering, on a multidisciplinary approach. Authors from five countries and 16 different research centers contribute with their expertise in both the fundamentals and real problems applications based upon their strong background on modeling and computational intelligence. The reader will find a wide variety of applications, mathematical and computational tools and original results, all presented with rigorous mathematical procedures. This work is intended for use in graduate courses of engineering, applied mathematics and applied computation where tools as mathematical and computational modeling, numerical methods and computational intelligence are applied to the solution of real problems.
This book offers an overview of our current understanding of host defense peptides and their potential for clinical applications as well as some of the obstacles to this. The chapters, written by leading experts in the field, detail the number and diversity of host defense peptides, and discuss the therapeutic potential not only of antibacterial, but also of antifungal, antiviral, plant antimicrobial and anticancer host defense peptides. The authors provide new insights into their mechanisms of action and their immunomodulatory properties, and review recent advances in the design of novel therapeutic molecules. Lastly, their potential to prevent preterm births and Staphylococcus aureus infections is highlighted. The book is of interest to researchers, industry and clinicians alike.
This authored monograph supplies empirical evidence for the Bayesian brain hypothesis by modeling event-related potentials (ERP) of the human electroencephalogram (EEG) during successive trials in cognitive tasks. The employed observer models are useful to compute probability distributions over observable events and hidden states, depending on which are present in the respective tasks. Bayesian model selection is then used to choose the model which best explains the ERP amplitude fluctuations. Thus, this book constitutes a decisive step towards a better understanding of the neural coding and computing of probabilities following Bayesian rules. The target audience primarily comprises research experts in the field of computational neurosciences, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students who want to specialize in this field.
Themain purpose of this book is to introduce black rice to a wider circle ofpeople. Although there have been research on different aspects of black rice, theinformation is scattered and not easily accessible to laypersons. The book intendsto cover all the aspects of black rice from research, history, to itsdevelopment. As such, the book will be suitable for both rice researchers and non-professionals who want to know more about this unique rice crop. Black rice,also known as forbidden rice, is packed with high level of nutrients andantioxidants. The antioxidants found in black rice is higher than theblueberries (that contain highest amount of anthocyanins). Black rice is blackdue to anthocyanin content in the outer layer of its kernel. Legend tells thatthis rice was consumed only by royals in China and it was expected that thisrice would increase life span of the king. Consumption of black rice withoutapproval was hanged. Ordinary individuals were not allowed to consume blackrice. Thus this rice is also known as forbidden rice and Emperor's rice. Nowthis black heirloom rice is widely available in different parts of the world. Researchers have found that black rice reduce Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS),the free radicals produced in the body which is the cause of many diseases. This rice also reduce diabetes, inflammation, heart attack, allergy andobesity; reduce the growth of cancer, improves digestive system and is panaceaof many health problems. Thus this rice is also known as long life rice. Foodnutritionists consider black rice as modern super foods. The cultivation methodof black rice is similar to general rice cultivation practices. There are manyvarieties available in black rice which is of different Asian origin butChinese black rice is the most famous among them. Black rice has a wide rangeof applications because its bran is used as a natural food colouring dye, andit is also used to prepare noodles, pasta, porridge, wine etc. This rice takesslightly longer time to cook than widely available white rice. In modern era,black rice serve as one of the best food materials available to us to maintainour health with regular physical exercise.
This text properly considers the most recent and relevant advances in molecular RB of GB, taking into account the related topics of pathobiology, and underscores the most promising translational perspectives from the preclinical to the clinical domain. Section I (From Bedside to Bench) discusses conditions associated with RT resistance of GB and the consequent RB hints, technology improvements intended to overcome RT-resistance of GB, mathematical modeling of RB parameters from clinical studies, the present impact of molecular prognostic factors in therapy of GB, and RT tolerance of normal brain. Section II (Preclinical Research and Pathobiology Topics) presents the traditional and mechanistic/molecular approaches to RB of GB, genetic and epigenetic studies on GB, issues of cell-death pathways, stem-like cells, invasiveness, tumor microenvironment, hypoxia, mi-RNA manipulations, and nanoparticle technology. Section III (Translational Perspectives) presents RB issues related to molecular profiling and classification of GB as frames of reference for clinical studies, translational perspectives of gene therapy, evolving protocols based on pre-clinical data and large data-bases and ontologic models. Radiobiology of Glioblastoma: Recent Advances and Related Pathobiology will be of great value to pathologists, medical oncologists, radiation oncologists as well as basic researchers and clinical investigators.
This book contains a collection of thoroughly refereed papers presented at the 5th International Conference on Evaluation of Novel Approaches to Software Engineering, ENASE 2010, held in Athens, Greece, in July 2010. The 19 revised and extended full papers were carefully selected from 70 submissions. They cover a wide range of topics, such as quality and metrics; service and Web engineering; process engineering; patterns, reuse and open source; process improvement; aspect-oriented engineering; and requirements engineering.
This book constitutes the proceedings of the SecondOpenSHMEM Workshop, held in Annapolis, MD, USA, in August 2015. The 12 technical papers and one short position paperspresented in this book were carefully reviewed and selected from 17submissions. The topics of the workshop included extensions to the OpenSHMEMAPI, implementation of the API for current and emerging architectures, tools todebug and profile OpenSHMEM programs, experience porting applications to theOpenSHMEM programming model, and changes to the OpenSHMEM specification toaddress the needs of programming exascale systems.
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