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The book is an up-to-date basic reference for natural gas hydrate (NGH) in the Arctic Ocean. Geographical, geological, environmental, energy, new technology, and regulatory matters are discussed. The book should be of interest to general readers and scientists and students as well as industry and government agencies concerned with energy and ocean management. NGH is a solid crystalline material that compresses gas by about a factor of about 164 during crystallization from natural gas (mainly methane) - rich pore waters over time. NGH displaces water and may form large concentrations in sediment pore space. Its formation introduces changes in the geotechnical character of host sediment that allows it to be distinguished by seismic and electric exploration methods. The chemical reaction that forms NGH from gas and water molecules is highly reversible, which allows controlled conversion of the NGH to its constituent gas and water. This can be achieved rapidly by one of a number of processes including heating, depressurization, inhibitor injection, dissolution, and molecular replacement. The produced gas has the potential to make NGH a valuable unconventional natural gas resource, and perhaps the largest on earth. Estimates for NGH distribution, concentration, economic targets, and volumes in the Arctic Ocean have been carried out by restricting the economic target to deepwater turbidite sands, which are also sediment hosts for more deeply buried conventional hydrocarbon deposits. Resource base estimates are based on NGH petroleum system analysis approach using industry-standard parameters along with analogs from three relatively well known examples (Nankai-Japan, Gulf of Mexico-United States, and Arctic permafrost hydrate). Drilling data has substantiated new geotechnical-level seismic analysis techniques for estimating not just the presence of NGH but prospect volumes. In addition to a volumetric estimate for NGH having economic potential, a sedimentary depositional model is proposed to aid exploration in the five different regions around the deep central Arctic Ocean basin. Related topics are also discussed. Transport and logistics for NGH may also be applicable for stranded conventional gas and oil deposits. Arising from a discussion of new technology and methodologies that could be applied to developing NGH, suggestions are made for the lowering of exploration and capital expenses that could make NGH competitive on a produced cost basis. The basis for the extraordinarily low environmental risk for exploration and production of NGH is discussed, especially with respect to the environmentally fragile Arctic region. It is suggested that because of the low environmental risk, special regulations could be written that would provide a framework for very low cost and safe development.
The state-of-the-art in the theoretical statistical physics treatment of the Janus fluid is reported with a bridge between new research results published in journal articles and a contextual literature review. Recent Monte Carlo simulations on the Kern and Frenkel model of the Janus fluid have revealed that in the vapor phase, below the critical point, there is the formation of preferred inert clusters made up of a well-defined number of particles: the micelles and the vesicles. This is responsible for a re-entrant gas branch of the gas-liquid binodal. Detailed account of this findings are given in the first chapter where the Janus fluid is introduced as a product of new sophisticated synthesis laboratory techniques. In the second chapter a cluster theory is developed to approximate the exact clustering properties stemming from the simulations. It is shown that the theory is able to reproduce semi-quantitatively the micellization phenomenon.
Addiction Recovery Management: Theory, Research, and Practice is the first book on the recovery management approach to addiction treatment and post-treatment support services. Distinctive in combining theory, research, and practice within the same text, this ground-breaking title includes authors who are the major theoreticians, researchers, systems administrators, clinicians and recovery advocates who have developed the model. State-of-the art and the definitive text on the topic, Addiction Recovery Management: Theory, Research, and Practice is mandatory reading for clinicians and all professionals who work with patients in recovery or who are interested in the field.
Muslims for hundreds of years have been involved in philanthropic activities targeting poor and needy people through varied types of 'third sector' organizations (TSOs). Nonetheless, many people in Muslim majority countries (MMCs), not having freedom from hunger, face human security crises. Not much is known about the TSOs or their human security provisions in MMCs. To fill this knowledge gap, this Volume documents and analyses philanthropy and all types of third sector organizations including the awqaf (Muslim endowments) vis-à-vis human security in MMCs. The study is comprehensive in treating the subject matter (analyzing the legal environment, characteristics, extent and functioning of all forms of the third sector and their human security performances) and in geographic coverage (incorporating all forty-seven Muslim majority countries in Africa and Asia). It is also innovative expounding TSO density analysis, state support score (SSS) and a third-sector capability measure (TCM) to study their interrelationships. It is an essential unique reference book for students and scholars of the third sector and human security, international organizations, development agencies, donor governments, security experts and in particular anybody with interests in Islam and MMCs.
This reference offers the nuanced understanding and practical guidance needed to address domestic violence, sexual assault, and human trafficking in diverse religious communities. Introductory chapters sort through the complexities, from abusers' distorting of sacred texts to justifying their actions to survivors' conflicting feelings toward their faith. The core of the book surveys findings on gender violence across Christian, Jewish, Islamic, Eastern, and Indigenous traditions--both attitudes that promote abuse and spiritual resources that can be used to promote healing. Best practices are included for appropriate treatment of survivors, their children, and abusers; and for partnering with communities and clergy toward stemming violence against women. Among the topics featured: Ecclesiastical policies vs. lived social relationships: gender parity, attitudes, and ethics. Women's spiritual struggles and resources to cope with intimate partner aggression. Christian stereotypes and violence against North America's native women. Addressing intimate partner violence in rural church communities. Collaboration between community service agencies and faith-based institutions. Providing hope in faith communities: creating a domestic violence policy for families. Religion and Men's Violence against Women will gain a wide audience among psychologists, social workers, marriage and family therapists, and other mental health professionals who treat religious clients or specialize in treating survivors and perpetrators of domestic and intimate partner violence, stalking, sexual assault, rape, or human trafficking.
Cultural forces govern a synergistic relationship among information institutions that shapes their roles collectively and individually. Cultural synergy is the combination of perception- and behavior-shaping knowledge within, between, and among groups. Our hyperlinked era makes information-sharing among institutions critically important for scholarship as well as for the advancement of humankind. Information institutions are those that have, or share in, the mission to preserve, conserve, and disseminate information objects and their informative content. A central idea is the notion of social epistemology that information institutions arise culturally from social forces of the cultures they inhabit, and that their purpose is to disseminate that culture. All information institutions are alike in critical ways. Intersecting lines of cultural mission are trajectories for synergy for allowing us to perceive the universe of information institutions as interconnected and evolving and moving forward in distinct ways for the improvement of the condition of humankind through the building up of its knowledge base and of its information-sharing processes. This book is an exploration of the cultural synergy that can be realized by seeing commonalities among information institutions (sometimes also called cultural heritage institutions): museums, libraries, and archives. The hyperlinked era of the Semantic Web makes information sharing among institutions critically important for scholarship as well as the advancement of mankind. The book addresses the origins of cultural information institutions, the history of the professions that run them, and the social imperative of information organization as a catalyst for semantic synergy.
In this age of climatic and financial uncertainty, it becomes increasingly important to balance the cost, benefits and risk of wildfire management. In the United States, increased wildland fire activity over the last 15 years has resulted in drastic damage and loss of life. An associated rapid increase in fire management costs has consumed higher portions of budgets of public entities involved in wildfire management, challenging their ability to fulfill other responsibilities. Increased public scrutiny highlights the need to improve wildland fire management for cost effectiveness. This book closely examines the development of basic wildfire suppression cost models for the United States and their application to a wide range of settings from informing incident decision making to programmatic review. The book also explores emerging trends in suppression costs and introduces new spatially explicit cost models to account for characteristics of the burned landscape. Finally, it discusses how emerging risk assessment tools can be better informed by integrating management cost models with wildfire simulation models and values at risk. Economics of Wildfire Management is intended for practitioners as a reference guide. Advanced-level students and researchers will also find the book invaluable.
Discover what it takes to develop products that blow your users away--and take market share from your competitors. This book will explain how the principles behind agile product development help designers, developers, architects, and product managers create awesome products; and how to look beyond a shiny user interface to build a great product. Most importantly, this book will give you a shared framework for your product development team to collaborate effectively. Product development involves several key activities--including ideation, discovery, design, development, and delivery--and yet too many companies and innovators focus on just a few of them much to the detriment of the product's success in the marketplace. As a result we still continue to see high failure rates in new product development, be it inside organizations or startups. Unfortunately, or rather fortunately, these failures are largely avoidable. In the last fifteen years, advances in agile software development, lean product development, human-centered design, design thinking, lean startups and product delivery have helped improve individual aspects of product development. However, not enough guidance has been available to integrate them in the context of the product development life cycle. Until now. Product developer extraordinaire Tathagat Varma in Agile Product Development integrates individual knowledge areas into a field manual for product developers. Organized in the way an idea germinates, sprouts, and grows, the book synthesizes the body of knowledge in a pragmatic way that is more natural to the entire product creation process rather than from individual practices that constitute it. In today's hyper-innovative world, being first to the market, or delivering feature-loaded products, or even offering the latest technology doesn't guarantee success anymore. Sure, those elements are all needed in the right measures, but they are not sufficient by themselves. And getting it right couldn't be more important: Building products that deliver awesome user experiences is the top challenge facing businesses today, especially in a post-Apple world where user experience and design has been elevated to a cult status. What you'll learn How to stimulate creativity and prioritization of ideas in product design How to get early feedback on initial product idea iterations How to design and develop products using sound engineering practices How to apply principles of agility into software delivery Who this book is for Entrepreneurs, designers, developers, product managers, software architects. Table of Contents Chapter 1: Preamble Chapter 2: Discover Chapter 3: Deliberate Chapter 4: Describe Chapter 5: Design Chapter 6: Develop Chapter 7: Deliver
This volume provides a brief résumé of the history of testosterone research, from the early pioneers through to the most recent advances in the field. We discover how steroid hormones were first identified and how testosterone was shown to be essential for male development. Moving forward we explore how and where testosterone is produced, and how the body controls testosterone production. We then investigate the impact testosterone has on different body systems both during their development and function, and how perturbation of testosterone action is associated with disease. We complete our story with an exploration of the emerging roles of testosterone in clinical therapy, and the future potential for manipulation of the testosterone signaling system for human health benefit.
Community Based System Dynamics introduces researchers and practitioners to the design and application of participatory systems modeling with diverse communities. The book bridges community- based participatory research methods and rigorous computational modeling approaches to understanding communities as complex systems. It emphasizes the importance of community involvement both to understand the underlying system and to aid in implementation. Comprehensive in its scope, the volume includes topics that span the entire process of participatory systems modeling, from the initial engagement and conceptualization of community issues to model building, analysis, and project evaluation. Community Based System Dynamics is a highly valuable resource for anyone interested in helping to advance social justice using system dynamics, community involvement, and group model building, and helping to make communities a better place.
Statistical shape analysis is a geometrical analysis from a set of shapes in which statistics are measured to describe geometrical properties from similar shapes or different groups, for instance, the difference between male and female Gorilla skull shapes, normal and pathological bone shapes, etc. Some of the important aspects of shape analysis are to obtain a measure of distance between shapes, to estimate average shapes from a (possibly random) sample and to estimate shape variability in a sample. One of the main methods used is principal component analysis. Specific applications of shape analysis may be found in archaeology, architecture, biology, geography, geology, agriculture, genetics, medical imaging, security applications such as face recognition, entertainment industry (movies, games), computer-aided design and manufacturing. This is a proposal for a new Brief on statistical shape analysis and the various new parametric and non-parametric methods utilized to facilitate shape analysis.
This book explains the chemistry of Organophosphorus compounds (OPs), their mechanism of toxicity and the history of OPs from their initial discovery to the development of new compounds such as Novichoks. It details the harmful effects to human health both as a result of acute and chronic OP exposure and the necessary clinical management of affected patients to reduce their toxic side effects. The book also explains the detrimental effect that OPs have had on the environment and the efforts being made to prevent this in the future. Finally, the book looks at the incidents where OPs have been used as chemical warfare agents. Basic and Clinical Toxicology of Organophosphorus Compounds aims to act as a comprehensive guide to all aspects of OPs and is a key resource for clinical toxicologists and related health professionals involved in the prevention, diagnosis and clinical management of OP patients, toxicologists and other scientists involved in research on OPs including regulatory issues and postgraduate students in Toxicology and related fields.
The paradigm for atrial fibrillation (AF) management has changed significantly in recent years. A new era has begun for the prevention of one of the most tremendous complication of AF, stroke. Prevention of ischemic stroke in AF patients with oral anticoagulants represents a huge challenge because of the narrow therapeutic change of these drugs, interindividual and intraindividual variability, and the unsatisfactory time in therapeutically range (TTR) with this type of medication. New guidelines have emerged as a result of new mechanisms for initiation and perpetuation for pharmacotherapy to cure AF and trials with new classes of antithrombotic drugs are ongoing. The treatment of AF is still in its infancy, but recent research is revealing how it can be applied with optimal efficacy. This book assists trainees, recertifying physicians, practicing physicians and other professional staff in internal medicine, cardiology, emergency medicine, and clinical pharmacology to apply new diagnostic tools for selecting the best treatment options for AF patients.
The Multi-Agent Based Beam Search (MABBS) method systematically integrates four major requirements of manufacturing production - representation capability, solution quality, computation efficiency, and implementation difficulty - within a unified framework to deal with the many challenges of complex real-world production planning and scheduling problems. Multi-agent Based Beam Search for Real-time Production Scheduling and Control introduces this method, together with its software implementation and industrial applications. This book connects academic research with industrial practice, and develops a practical solution to production planning and scheduling problems. To simplify implementation, a reusable software platform is developed to build the MABBS method into a generic computation engine. This engine is integrated with a script language, called the Embedded Extensible Application Script Language (EXASL), to provide a flexible and straightforward approach to representing complex real-world problems. Adopting an in-depth yet engaging and clear approach, and avoiding confusing or complicated mathematics and formulas, this book presents simple heuristics and a user-friendly software platform for system modelling. The supporting industrial case studies provide key information for students, lecturers, and industry practitioners alike. Multi-agent Based Beam Search for Real-time Production Scheduling and Control offers insights into the complex nature of and a practical total solution to production planning and scheduling, and inspires further research and practice in this promising research area.
The Energy Return on Energy Invested (EROI or EROEI) is the amount of energy acquired from a particular energy source divided by the energy expended, or invested, in obtaining that energy. EROI is an essential and seemingly simple measure of the usable energy or "energy profit" from the exploitation of an energy source, but it is not so easy to determine all of the energy expenditures that should be included in the calculation. Because EROI values are generally low for renewable energy sources, differences in these estimates can lead to sharply divergent conclusions about the viability of these energy technologies. This book presents the first complete energy analysis of a large-scale, real-world deployment of photovoltaic (PV) collection systems representing 3.5 GW of installed, grid-connected solar plants in Spain. The analysis includes all of the factors that limit and adjust the real electricity output through one full-year cycle, and all of the fossil fuel inputs required to achieve these results. The authors' comprehensive analysis of energy inputs, which assigns energy cost estimates to all financial expenditures, yields EROI values that are less than half of those claimed by other investigators and by the solar industry. Sensitivity analysis is used to test various assumptions in deriving these EROI estimates. The results imply that the EROI of current, large-scale PV systems may be too low to seamlessly support an energy and economic transition away from fossil fuels. Given the pervasiveness of fossil fuel subsidies in the modern economy, a key conclusion is that all components of the system that brings solar power to the consumer, from manufacturing to product maintenance and life cycle, must be improved in terms of energy efficiency. The materials science of solar conversion efficiency is only one such component. Sunny Spain represented an ideal case study as the country had the highest penetration of solar PV energy at 2.3 percent of total national demand as well as state-of-the-art expertise in solar power including grid management of intermittent, modern renewable systems. This book, written by a uniquely qualified author team consisting of the chief engineer for several major photovoltaic projects in Spain and the world's leading expert on the concept and application of EROI, provides a comprehensive understanding of the net energy available to society from energy sources in general and from functioning PV installations under real-world conditions in particular. The authors provide critical insight into the capacity of renewable energy sources to fill the foreseeable gap between world energy demand and depletion rates for fossil fuels. · Presents the first comprehensive study of the EROI of large-scale solar PV systems in a developed country · Uses real-world operational data rather than laboratory approximations and extrapolations · Describes the dependence of one alternative energy source on the goods and services of a fossil-fueled economy · Has global implications for the potential of renewable energy sources to replace dwindling reserves of fossil fuels · Written with the first-hand knowledge of the chief, on-site engineer for many solar installations in Spain together with the leader in the development and application of the concept of EROI
The demographic pressure caused by migration offers a considerable challenge for urban centers today. It results in an uneven development of the community and focus of urban planners becomes how to provide decent, low-cost housing and transportation in order to facilitate the integration of poorer residents among the rest of the community. In large industrialized countries the challenges of urban policy-makers are made even more complicated since these governments depend on state or federal legislators to obtain the massive amounts of funding required for adequately addressing these local issues that are in global cause. The book analyzes the strategies for urban development in Leipzig, Germany, and shows how civic leaders were able to harmonize planning and equity. They relied heavily on two interesting approaches in that process: the promotion of culture as a key component of urban development and the reconciliation of the inevitable process of gentrification with social equity. The book also looks at the globalization aspect of urban development, reviews research in social equity in urban development in Europe and the United States and describes sustainability as an important element of urban renaissance.
TheR Quick Syntax Referenceis a handy reference book detailing the intricacies of the R language. Not only is R a free, open-source tool, R is powerful, flexible, and has state of the art statistical techniques available. With the many details which must be correct when using any language, however, the R Quick Syntax Reference makes using R easier. Starting with the basic structure of R, the book takes you on a journey through the terminology used in R and the syntax required to make R work. You will find looking up the correct form for an expression quick and easy. With a copy of the R Quick Syntax Reference in hand, you will find that are able to use the multitude of functions availableto the R user and are even able to write your own functions to explore and analyze data. Takes you through learning R, from download to statistical analysis. Clears the confusion around object types and how to use and convert the types. Tells you how to search for statistical techniques using the R help pages. What you'll learn Download R and R packages for your platform. Work with R within your file structure. Enter data from the keyboard and from external files. Determine and assign modes, classes, and types of objects Do calculations using the computational tools in R. Use R functions and create new functions. Who this book is for TheR Quick Syntax Referenceis for statisticians and other data analysts who are starting to use the R language. It is also for veteran R users who want a quick reference to the language. The book is an excellent choice for the busy data scientist who likes to experiment with new ways of analysis and who needs the flexibility of the data editing available in R. Table of Contents Downloading R and Setting R Up in a File SystemThe R PromptAssignments and OperatorsModes of ObjectsThe Classes and TypesPackaged FunctionsUser Defined FunctionsHow to Use a Function Inputting or Creating Data Outputting Data and Output Manipulating Objects Flow Conditioners Condition Based Functions Some Examples of Conditioning Some Common Functions The Packages base, stats, and graphics Tricks of the Trade"
This book presents an ethnographic study of environmental Christian networks involved in the climate and transition towns movements. Maria Nita examines the ways in which green Christians engage with their communities and networks, as well as other activist networks in the broader green movement. The book interrogates key categories in the field of religious studies which intersect activist concerns, including spirituality, community, and ritual. In this sociological exploration the author uses existing research tools, such as discourse analysis, and proposes new theoretical models for the investigation of network expansion, religious identity, and relationality through ritual. Nita examines the mechanisms underlying the greening of religion and thus offers an in-depth analysis of prayers, rituals, and religious practices, such as praying through painting, fasting for the planet, and sharing the green Eucharist in or with nature.
Organizational executives must change the way they think about how to invest in and manage IT if they want to get lasting value from computer-based innovations. The old way of thinking has not served organizations well. They continue to experience high levels of technological and operational failures even though they apply a wide variety of industry best practices. The rapid pace of technological advancement has tended to hide some fundamental problems that have existed from the start. These involve, not the technology only, but also the management and application of that technology. The human and organizational factors have not kept pace. They have remained relatively static and, to a shocking degree, ineffective. As a result, the IT department in many organizations has remained a breed apart. Communication between IT and the rest of the organization is fraught with misunderstanding. This leads to failures, recrimination, and, sometimes, wholesale changes which fall well short of their goals. The authors wrote this book because they wanted to help both business and IT to shift their focus from technology project implementation to that of value realization. In The Value Imperative readers will be introduced to a new business model called The Agricultural Model created by the authors for managing IT in organizations. This innovative model will help you learn how to change the mindset of people in your organization about how IT should be invested in and managed; key considerations for ensuring that business value is delivered from IT investments; how to measure that value that has been delivered and whether there has been effective return on the investments made; and finally the authors challenge business and IT managers to focus on the business value that customers seek which will help companies.
The purpose of this ground-breaking book is to inspire the principle of innovation as a permeating program for Europe's societies. After demonstrating early success from the realization of a single market and single currency, the European cooperation process is falling short of delivering much needed results in policy areas which are key for sustainable economic growth and employment, notably innovation policy. Written by authors involved in an independent tripartite High Level Group on EU innovation policy management, Revolutionising EU Innovation Policy analyses the principle causes and offers solutions in order to increase both efficacy and democratic accountability. Presenting the benefits of an overarching innovation policy, the authors draw attention to issues that have been overlooked by research and technology based approaches to innovation, for example culture and education. Importantly, the book examines the interplay between EU innovation policies and the demands of businesses, enterprises, and social and political organizations to fully deploy their innovation potential.
Religion and science were fundamental aspects of Eastern European communist political culture from the very beginning, and remained in uneasy tension across the region over the decades. While both topics have long attracted a great deal of scholarly attention, they almost invariably have been studied discretely as separate stories. Religion, Science and Communism in Cold War Europe is the first scholarly effort to explore the delicate interface of religion, science and communism in Cold War Europe. It brings together an international team of researchers who address this relationship from a number of national viewpoints and thematic perspectives, ranging from mysticism to social science, space exploration to the socialist lifecycle, and architectural heritage to pop culture.
What happens when East travelsWest? In today's increasingly globalized world, these collisions are becoming increasingly common in universities- especially due to the growth of migratory students . As the largestinternational population studying abroad in the world, Chinese students'learning experience in an intercultural environment calls for more attention. Thisbook covers an array of problems common to Chinese students studyingabroad and explores how these students academically adjust to an intercultural environment. It also highlights how they familiarize themselves with the education system, ranging from the types of courses, academic tasks and examinations to the structure of the education as a whole in thehost country, as they negotiate the gulf between academic expectations at home versusthose in the host university environment and communicate with domestic lecturersand students.
Taking care of oneself is increasingly interpreted as taking care of one's brain. Apart from pills, books, food, and games for a better brain, people can also use neurotechnologies for self-improvement. This book explores how the use of brain devices to understand or improve the self changes people's subjectivity. This book describes how the effects of several brain devices were and are demonstrated; how brains and selves interact in the work of early brainwave scientists and contemporary practitioners; how users of neurofeedback (brainwave training) constitute a new mode of self that is extended with a brain and various other (physiological, psychological, material, and sometimes spiritual) entities, how clients, practitioners and other actors (computers, brain maps, brainwaves) perform a dance of agency during the neurofeedback process. Through these topics, Jonna Brenninkmeijer provides a historical, ethnographical, and theoretical exploration of the mode of being that is constituted when people use a brain device to improve themselves.
Services and the Green Economy addresses a significant gap in theknowledge and understanding of sustainable economic development. Bringingtogether a range of expert contributions the book analyses the role of servicesand service industries in the transition to a greener economy. Framed by anapproach within environmental economic geography, chapters written by leadingresearchers from a range of disciplines explore how service industries, servicefirms and service activities are at heart of green economic processes. Adoptinga global perspective, it includes research from the US, Europe, South Americaand Japan, providing a detailed insight into how the crucial role of serviceindustry activity has often been ignored in current understandings of a greeneconomic transition.
Challengingthe assumptions of 'mainstream' International Political Economy (IPE), thisHandbook demonstrates the considerable value of critical theory to thediscipline through a series of cutting-edge studies. The field of IPE hasalways had an inbuilt vocation within Historical Materialism, with an explicitambition to make sense, from a critical standpoint, of the capitalist mode ofproduction as a world system of sometimes paradoxically and sometimes smoothlyoverlapping states and markets. Having spearheaded the growth of a vigorouscritical scholarship in the 1960s and 1970s, however, Marxism and neo-Gramscianapproaches became increasingly marginalized over the course of the 1980s. Theauthors respond to the exposure of limits to mainstreamcontemporary scholarship in the wake of the onset of the Global FinancialCrisis, and provide a comprehensive overview of the field of CriticalInternational Political Economy. Problematizing socioeconomic and politicalstructures, and considering these as potentially transitory and subject tochange, the contributors aim not simply to understand a world of conflict, butfurthermore to uncover the ways in which purportedly objective analyses reflectthe interests of those in positions of privilege and power.