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The function of a component part can be profoundly affected by its surface topography. There are many examples in nature of surfaces that have a well-controlled topography to affect their function. Examples include the hydrophobic effect of the lotus leaf, the reduction of fluid drag due to the riblet structure of shark skin, the directional adhesion of the gecko foot and the angular sensitivity of the multi-faceted fly eye. Surface structuring is also being used extensively in modern manufacturing. In this way many properties can be altered, for example optical, tribological, biological and fluidic. Previously, single line (profile) measurements were adequate to control manufacture of surfaces, but as the need to control the functionality of surfaces increases, there is a growing need for three-dimensional (areal) measurement and characterisation techniques. For this reason there has been considerable research, development and standardisation of areal techniques. This book will present the areal framework that is being adopted by the international community. Whereas previous books have concentrated on the measurement aspects, this book concentrates on the characterisation techniques, i.e. how to interpret the measurement data to give the appropriate (functional) information for a given task. The first part of the book presents the characterisation methods and the second part case studies that highlight the use of areal methods in a broad range of subject areas - from automobile manufacture to archaeology. Contents Introduction to Surface Topography The Areal Field Parameters The Areal Feature Parameters Areal Filtering Methods Areal Form Removal Areal Fractal Methods Choosing the Appropriate Parameter Characterisation of Individual Areal Features Multi-Scale Signature of Surface Topography Correlation of Areal Surface Texture Parameters to Solar Cell EfficiencyCharacterisation of Cylinder Liner Honing Textures for Production Control Characterisation of the Mechanical Bond Strength for Copper on Glass Plating Applications Inspection of Laser Structured Cams and Conrods Road Surfaces
This book provides a general introduction to the three-dimensional analysis and design of buildings for resistance to the effects of fire and is intended for a general readership, especially those with an interest in the design and construction of buildings under severe loads. A major aspect of design for fire resistance involves the building elements or components. The emphasis is placed on structure, which has a primary role in preventing serious damage or structural collapse. Much of the material in this book examines building structures. The designed examples are based on three-dimensional finite elements.
Long-memory processes are known to play an important part in many areas of science and technology, including physics, geophysics, hydrology, telecommunications, economics, finance, climatology, and network engineering. In the last 20 years enormous progress has been made in understanding the probabilistic foundations and statistical principles of such processes. This book provides a timely and comprehensive review, including a thorough discussion of mathematical and probabilistic foundations and statistical methods, emphasizing their practical motivation and mathematical justification. Proofs of the main theorems are provided and data examples illustrate practical aspects. This book will be a valuable resource for researchers and graduate students in statistics, mathematics, econometrics and other quantitative areas, as well as for practitioners and applied researchers who need to analyze data in which long memory, power laws, self-similar scaling or fractal properties are relevant.
Few dermatologic problems carry as many emotional overtones as hair loss in women, which is by far the most common hair problem encountered in daily clinical practice. Fortunately, a specific diagnosis can usually be established through the application of appropriate examinations and tests, and treatment suited to the diagnosis is likely to control the problem. This comprehensively illustrated monograph provides both specialists and primary care physicians with the practical know-how required for successful management of hair loss in female patients of all ages. The book opens by critically examining various myths about hair loss. The different examination techniques are then described, and the various forms of hair loss and their treatment are discussed in detail. Approaches to follow-up are outlined, and the management of patient expectations is carefully considered. The potential role of hair care and cosmetics is also explored in some depth.
Scheck's Quantum Physics presents a comprehensive introductory treatment, ideally suited for a two-semester course. Part One covers the basic principles and prime applications of quantum mechanics, from the uncertainty relations to many-body systems. Part Two introduces to relativistic quantum field theory and ranges from symmetries in quantum physics to electroweak interactions. Numerous worked-out examples as well as exercises, with solutions or hints, enables the book's use as an accompanying text for courses, and also for independent study. For both parts, the necessary mathematical framework is treated in adequate form and detail. The book ends with appendices covering mathematical fundamentals and enrichment topics, plus selected biographical notes on pioneers of quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. The new edition was thoroughly revised and now includes new sections on quantization using the path integral method and on deriving generalized path integrals for bosonic and fermionic fields.
Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Information Technology and Software Engineering presents selected articles from this major event, which was held in Beijing, December 8-10, 2012. This book presents the latest research trends, methods and experimental results in the fields of information technology and software engineering, covering various state-of-the-art research theories and approaches. The subjects range from intelligent computing to information processing, software engineering, Web, unified modeling language (UML), multimedia, communication technologies, system identification, graphics and visualizing, etc. The proceedings provide a major interdisciplinary forum for researchers and engineers to present the most innovative studies and advances, which can serve as an excellent reference work for researchers and graduate students working on information technology and software engineering. Prof. Wei Lu, Dr. Guoqiang Cai, Prof. Weibin Liu and Dr. Weiwei Xing all work at Beijing Jiaotong University.
Proceedings of the FISITA 2012 World Automotive Congress are selected from nearly 2,000 papers submitted to the 34th FISITA World Automotive Congress, which is held by Society of Automotive Engineers of China (SAE-China ) and the International Federation of Automotive Engineering Societies (FISITA). This proceedings focus on solutions for sustainable mobility in all areas of passenger car, truck and bus transportation. Volume 4: Future Automotive Powertrain (II) focuses on: *Advanced Battery Technology *Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle *Charging Infrastructure and Smart Grid Technology *Demonstration of Electric Vehicles in Cities Above all researchers, professional engineers and graduates in fields of automotive engineering, mechanical engineering and electronic engineering will benefit from this book. SAE-China is a national academic organization composed of enterprises and professionals who focus on research, design and education in the fields of automotive and related industries. FISITA is the umbrella organization for the national automotive societies in 37 countries around the world. It was founded in Paris in 1948 with the purpose of bringing engineers from around the world together in a spirit of cooperation to share ideas and advance the technological development of the automobile.
Humanity has been forced to the brink of extinction. Even as we take our first steps into space, civil strife, the enigmatic legacy of an ancient civilization, and a fanatical covenant of alien races each threaten to destroy us. All eyes turn to the Spartan super-soldiers to save us, and in particular to their symbol and leader, Master Chief John-117.Once a legendary instrument of death, he has now become an unlikely symbol of hope.If we can emerge from the chaos of war and reclaim the ancient mantle of stewardship over a troubled galaxy, we may find the secret to our ultimate evolution.
Set against the backdrop of the American South from the 1820s until the dawn of the Civil War, this is a remarkable story of fortitude, heartbrea, and indomitable will - and a tale that will forever illuminate the reading of Margaret Mitchell's unforgettable classic, Gone with the Wind.On the Caribbean island of Saint Domingue, an island consumed by the flames of revolution, a senseless attack leaves only one survivor: an infant girl. She falls into the hands of two French émigrés, Henri and Solange Fournier, who take the beautiful child they call Ruth to the bustling American city of Savannah.What follows is the sweeping tale of Ruth's life as shaped by her strong-willed mistress and other larger-than-life personalities she encounters in the South: Jehu Glen, a free black man with whom Ruth falls madly in love; the shabbily genteel family that first hires Ruth as Mammy; Solange's daughter Ellen and the rough Irishman, Gerald O'Hara, whom Ellen chooses to marry; the Butler family of Charleston and their shocking connection to Mammy Ruth; and finally Scarlett O'Hara-the irrepressible Southern belle Mammy raises from birth.
In September 2013, on the Late Late Showin front of an audience of more than half a million, Majella O'Donnell had her hair shaved off and raised a phenomenal 600,000 euros for the Irish Cancer Society. It was a public declaration from a private woman, a statement of enormous courage in her fight against breast cancer. In this searingly moving and empowering memoir, Majella takes the reader on a journey through her life to that point. It begins with her childhood in the 1960s, growing up in a small town in Ireland, her early love of music and dreams of a future full of hope and excitement, only to be dashed by a broken marriage and an uphill battle with depression. Her confidence and self-esteem at a low ebb, Majella decided to take charge of her own life and make a fresh start. Then destiny lent a hand when she met Daniel O'Donnell, and their marriage in 2002 brought her immense happiness and fulfilment. It was a decade or so later that tragedy struck, with the diagnosis of breast cancer. This is the compelling story of a woman made extraordinary by the courage with which she faced her greatest challenge. A woman who has learned about life the hard way, but who, with the love and support of her family and her husband Daniel, and the public by her side, has come through with a force of character and a deep-seated determination that will inspire us all.
A love bigger than a war. A beautiful woman lost. A mystery unsolved ... until now.2000: The wreckage of a downed WWII fighter plane is discovered in the forests near Russia's Ukrainian border. The aircraft belonged to Natalya Azarova, ace pilot and pin-up girl for Soviet propaganda, but the question of her fate remains unanswered. Was she a German spy who faked her own death, as the Kremlin claims? Her lover, Valentin Orlov, now a highly decorated general, refuses to believe it. Lily, a young Australian woman, has moved to Moscow to escape from tragedy. She becomes fascinated by the story of Natalya, and when she meets an elderly woman who claims to know the truth behind the rumours, Lily is drawn deeper into the mystery. From the pomp and purges of Stalin's Russia through the horrors of war and beyond - secrets and lies, enduring love and terrible betrayal, sacrifice and redemption all combine in this sweeping saga from Belinda Alexandra.
The Homesman is a devastating, humane story of early pioneers to America's West in the 1850's. It celebrates the ones we hear nothing of-the brave women whose hearts and minds were broken by that life of bitter hardship. When a nineteen-year-old mother loses her three children to diphtheria in three days, or a woman left alone for two nights has to shoot wolves as they crash through the window, it is no wonder they should lose their minds. After a dreadful winter, the Rev. Dowd finds there are four such cases in his parish and, as yet, no asylum in this frontier town. A 'homesman' must be found to escort the women East to civilization. Not a job anyone would volunteer for, it falls to Mary Bee Cuddy, ex-teacher, spinster-indomitable, resourceful, "plain as an old tin pail." Brave as she is, Mary Bee knows she cannot succeed alone, and the only companion available is the low-life and untrustworthy "George Briggs," a claim-jumper.Thus begins a trek East, against the tide of colonization, against hardship, Indian attacks, ice storms, loneliness, andthe unceasing aggravation of a disparate group of mad women, which provides a series of tough, fast-paced adventures and introduces two wonderful, idiosyncratic characters. Coming to cinemas in 2014 with an incredible cast - featuring Tommy Lee Jones, Meryl Streep, Hilary Swank and John Lithgow. Not to be missed!
Just two hours' drive west of London, a secret way of life that has been operating for centuries is clinging to a fragile existence. This is the world of the last English poachers - men who have lived off the land, taking game and wildlife from the big country estates, risking the wrath of gamekeepers in order to feed their families and make a modest livelihood. Poachers have lived cheek by jowl with landowners and the gentry throughout the history of the British class system. Their customs, hunting skills and knowledge of animals is comparable to that of indigenous communities in pre-industrial societies, yet the poacher has been vilified, ridiculed and, in olden times, even put to death for his activities. Hence, a war of attrition has been waged across the generations, played out in the woodlands of Britain, often undercover of night in clandestine operations comparable to military manoeuvres. Bob and BrianTovey are poachers of the old stripe: a father and son of 75 and 50 years old respectively, who are continuing their ancestors' traditions, reluctant to surrender the old ways of sourcing food from nature. Writer John McDonald has obtained unique access to the men's lives and histories, and tells their fascinating story in their own words. The book is filled with anecdotes both moving and hilarious, as their sense of self-preservation, mistrust of outsiders and suspicions of modern technology express themselves in daily life. It is set against the backdrop of country sports as they used to be - and will colourfully explain the shoots, the once-legal coursing meets, the centuries' old techniques of lamping, ferreting and netting and, of course, how the poachers outwit the keepers and police and escape with their quarry. It is a genuine, colourful and offbeat chronicle that documents rural life from a whole new perspective and a sense of humour.
WINNER OF THE 1996 WILLIAM HILL SPORTS BOOK OF THE YEAR PRIZE. In the early 1990s, Donald McRae set out to discover the truth about the intense and forbidding world of professional boxing. Travelling around the States and Britain, he was welcomed into the inner sanctums of some of the greatest fighters of the period - men such as Mike Tyson, Chris Eubank, Oscar de la Hoya, Frank Bruno, Evander Holyfield and Naseem Hamed among them. They opened up to him, revealing unforgettable personal stories from both inside and outside the ring, and explaining why it is that some are driven to compete in this most brutal of sports, risking their health and even their lives. The result is a classic account of boxing that remains as fresh and entertaining as when it was first published almost 20 years ago. McRae approaches his subjects with wit, compassion and insight, and the result was a book that was a deserved winner of the William Hill Sports Book of the Year prize.
This volume collects 22 papers presented at the 4th International Symposium of the ICA Commission on the History of Cartography, held at Eotvos Lorand University, Budapest, Hungary, on 28-29 June 2012. The overall conference theme is 'Exploration - Discovery - Cartography', but preference has been given to papers dealing with cartography in the 19th and 20th centuries. The papers are classified according to regional sub-themes, i.e. papers on the Americas, papers on Africa, etc.
Manufacturing is the basic industrial activity generating real value. Cutting and abrasive technologies are the backbone of precision production in machine, automotive and aircraft building as well as of production of consumer goods. We present the knowledge of modern manufacturing in these technologies on the basis of scientific research. The theory of cutting and abrasive processes and the knowledge about their application in industrial practice are a prerequisite for the studies of manufacturing science and an important part of the curriculum of the master study in German mechanical engineering. The basis of this book is our lecture "Basics of cutting and abrasive processes" (4 semester hours/3 credit hours) at the Leibniz University Hannover, which we offer to the diploma and master students specializing in manufacturing science.
On a Sustainable Future of the Earth's Natural Resources is divided into three sections, with individual chapters contributed by experts on diff erent facets of the earth sciences, natural resources management and related issues. The first section focuses on the status of Earth's resources; land, water, biota and atmosphere. Reviews on the rate of exploitation and the need to conserve these resources for future sustenance are also covered in this section. Th e following section includes chapters elucidating environmental, ecological, climatological and anthropological pressures on sustained nourishment with the Earth's resources. The last section describes management practices, issues and perspectives on sociological, legal, administrative, ICT and strategic efforts that need to be implemented in order to sustain our natural resources. This book covers a broad spectrum of the Earth's resources and sustenance, offering a comprehensive perspective on their past, present and future.
This book helps advanced undergraduate, graduate and postdoctoral students in their daily work by offering them a compendium of numerical methods. The choice of methods pays significant attention to error estimates, stability and convergence issues as well as to the ways to optimize program execution speeds. Many examples are given throughout the chapters, and each chapter is followed by at least a handful of more comprehensive problems which may be dealt with, for example, on a weekly basis in a one- or two-semester course. In these end-of-chapter problems the physics background is pronounced, and the main text preceding them is intended as an introduction or as a later reference. Less stress is given to the explanation of individual algorithms. It is tried to induce in the reader an own independent thinking and a certain amount of scepticism and scrutiny instead of blindly following readily available commercial tools.
Basic Sciences in Ophthalmology aims to link clinical ophthalmology directly to its basic science roots. This first volume describes the physics and chemistry required for a sound understanding of modern ophthalmology. The book opens with an extensive discussion of the interaction of light with matter and the way in which light is used in ophthalmic examinations and treatments. After describing traditional methods of imaging, particular emphasis is placed on modern instrumentation such as OCT. The interaction between light and tissues in different types of laser treatment is also addressed. The chemistry section focuses on compounds particularly relevant to the eye, such as oxygen and water. The origin and consequences of oxidative stress are reviewed, and the physical behavior of chemical compounds in the eye is explained. Understanding is facilitated through the use of many examples taken from the field of ophthalmology. The text is complemented by about 450 figures.
T. L.S. Kishbaugh: Metalation of Pyrrole.- K.-S. Yeung: Furans and Benzofurans.- P. E. Alford: Lithiation-Based and Magnesation-Based Strategies for the Functionalization of Imidazole: 2001-2010.- L. Fu: Metalation of Oxazoles and Benzoxazoles.- S. Roy * S. Roy * G. W. Gribble: Metalation of Pyrazoles and Indazoles.- J. C. Badenock: Metalation Reactions of Isoxazoles and Benzisoxazoles.- Y.-J. Wu: Thiazoles and Benzothiazoles.- C. F. Nutaitis: Isothiazoles and Benzisothiazoles.- E. R. Biehl: Recent Advances in the Synthesis of Thiophenes and Benzothiophenes.- J. M. Lopchuk: Mesoionics.- J. M. Lopchuk: Azoles with 3-4 Heteroatoms.
The present work is the first comprehensive study of mineralogy of the world's second largest mercury mine Idria. In the first chapter the readers are acquainted with the history of mining and its relation to mineralogy. Mineralogy is explained in terms of geological processes that were active during the formation of the ore deposit. Among these, hydrocarbons present in the host rocks play a very important role during crystallization. The central part of the book is dedicated to the main mineral of the ore deposit, cinnabar. It occurs in a variety of crystal forms, of which the most special are lateral interpenetration twins. The book is written for a broad readership, and will be interesting for geologists, mineralogist and crystallographers, as well as for those interested in the history of mineral collecting in Idria.
The Prokaryotes is a comprehensive, multi-authored, peer reviewed reference work on Bacteria and Achaea. This fourth edition of The Prokaryotes is organized to cover all taxonomic diversity, using the family level to delineate chapters. Different from other resources, this new Springer product includes not only taxonomy, but also prokaryotic biology and technology of taxa in a broad context. Technological aspects highlight the usefulness of prokaryotes in processes and products, including biocontrol agents and as genetics tools. The content of the expanded fourth edition is divided into two parts: Part 1 contains review chapters dealing with the most important general concepts in molecular, applied and general prokaryote biology; Part 2 describes the known properties of specific taxonomic groups. Two completely new sections have been added to Part 1: bacterial communities and human bacteriology. The bacterial communities section reflects the growing realization that studies on pure cultures of bacteria have led to an incomplete picture of the microbial world for two fundamental reasons: the vast majority of bacteria in soil, water and associated with biological tissues are currently not culturable, and that an understanding of microbial ecology requires knowledge on how different bacterial species interact with each other in their natural environment. The new section on human microbiology deals with bacteria associated with healthy humans and bacterial pathogenesis. Each of the major human diseases caused by bacteria is reviewed, from identifying the pathogens by classical clinical and non-culturing techniques to the biochemical mechanisms of the disease process. The 4th edition of The Prokaryotes is the most complete resource on the biology of prokaryotes.
A group of 40-something women explore the relationships each has with their mother, agreeing to improve those relationships before it's too late When Natasha Fennell's mother was diagnosed with a progressive illness, she wasn't ready to do deal with the inevitability of what this would bring. Sitting outside the hospital after visiting one day, Natasha wondered how she would cope when her mother was gone. There started a panic and self-scrutiny. Had she been a good enough daughter? Would she have enough time to do all the things she wanted to do with her mother before she died? Natasha knew that she couldn't be the only one feeling this way. She began her research and quickly learned that other daughters had similar fears and had never spoken about them before. Love for their mothers, regret for opportunities missed, resentments and emotional complexities all bubbled to the surface. Through these conversations, a friendship blossomed with Róisín Ingle, popular columnist at the Irish Times. After a call out in Róisín's column, hundreds of responses poured in and there The Daughterhood was formed. The Daughterhood is the funny, poignant, and occasionally heart-breaking story of nine daughters coming together to talk about their mothers and the joy and despair that this relationship brings. Over a period of months they commit to completing various tasks all in the hope of improving their relationship with the most important woman in their lives - before she dies.
A brilliant and penetrating new history of the First World War by one of the world's foremost experts on the conflict. Reissued with a new introduction from the author. Hew Strachan is one of the world's foremost experts on the Great War of 1914-18. His on-going three-volume history of the conflict, the first of which was published in 2001, is likely to become the standard academic reference work: Max Hastings called it 'one of the most impressive books of modern history in a generation', while Richard Holmes hailed it as a 'towering achievement'. Now, Hew Strachan brings his immense knowledge to a one-volume work aimed squarely at the general reader. The inspiration behind the major Channel 4 series of the same name, to which Hew was chief consultant, THE FIRST WORLD WAR is a significant addition to the literature on this subject, taking as it does a uniquely global view of what is often misconceived as a prolonged skirmish on the Western Front. Exploring such theatres as the Balkans, Africa and the Ottoman Empire, Strachan assesses Britain's participation in the light of what became a struggle for the defence of liberalism, and show how the war shaped the 'short' twentieth century that followed it. Accessible, compelling and utterly convincing, this is modern history writing at its finest.
The heartfelt and uplifting story of how a project to scatter 60 Postcards in memory of her mother helped a young girl come to terms with her loss.On 11 February 2012 Rachael Chadwick lost her Mother to cancer, just sixteen days after first being diagnosed, and her world shattered right in front of her. Utterly fed up of the milestones and reminders, in December of that year she decided she would do something different and created a project based around her Mum's approaching 60th Birthday. Desperate to spread the word about the wonderful person she had lost, Rachael had the brainwave of leaving notes around a city in her memory. Deciding she would take it a step further she wondered what would happen if she could ask people to respond to her? Full of hope and energy she hand-wrote sixty postcards, each with her email address at the bottom asking the finder to get in touch. But one question remained, where should she go? Knowing how much she longed to visit Paris, the last gift that Rachael's mum had given her was Eurostar vouchers, and so it seemed fitting that this would be her chosen city. So off she went with a group of friends to celebrate, discover, and to scatter her memories. Filling their time in Paris with sight-seeing, food and drink, laughter, and of course postcards. When Rachael returned to her London home, she desperately tried to switch off, switch off from the wondering (and hoping) whether she might actually hear from a postcard finder. And then, they started flowing in...
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