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The book introducesthe oscillatory reaction and pattern formation in the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction that became model for investigating awide range of intriguing pattern formations in chemical systems. So manymodifications in classic version of BZ reaction have been carried out invarious experimental conditions that demonstrate rich varieties of temporaloscillations and spatio-temporal patterns in non- equilibrium conditions. Mixed-mode versions of BZ reactions, which comprise a pair of organicsubstrates or dual metal catalysts, have displayed very complex oscillatingbehaviours and novel space-time patterns during reaction processes. Thesecharacteristic spatio-temporal properties ofBZ reactions have attracted increasing attention of the scientific community inrecent years because of its comparable periodic structures in electrochemicalsystems, polymerization processes, andnon-equilibrium crystallization phenomena. Instead, non-equilibriumcrystallization phenomena which lead to development of novel crystalmorphologies in constraint of thermodynamic equilibrium conditions have beeninvestigated and are said to be stationary periodic structures. Efforts havecontinued to analyze insight mechanisms and roles of reaction-diffusionmechanism and self-organization in the growth of such periodic crystalpatterns. In this book, non-equilibrium crystallization phenomena, leading togrowth of some novel crystal patterns in dual organic substrate modes ofoscillatory BZ reactions have been discussed. Efforts have been made to findout experimental parameters where transitions of the spherulitic crystalpatterns take place. The book provides the scientific community and entrepreneurs witha thorough understanding and knowledge of the growth and form of branchedcrystal pattern in reaction-diffusion systemand their morphological transition.
In this edited volume leading scholars from different disciplinary backgrounds wrestle with social science integration opportunities and challenges. This book explores the growing concern of how best to achieve effective integration of the social science disciplines as a means for furthering natural resource social science and environmental problem solving. The chapters provide an overview of the history, vision, advances, examples and methods that could lead to integration. The quest for integration among the social sciences is not new. Some argue that the social sciences have lagged in their advancements and contributions to society due to their inability to address integration related issues. Integration merits debate for a number of reasons. First, natural resource issues are complex and are affected by multiple proximate driving social factors. Single disciplinary studies focused at one level are unlikely to provide explanations that represent this complexity and are limited in their ability to inform policy recommendations. Complex problems are best explored across disciplines that examine social-ecological phenomenon from different scales. Second, multi-disciplinary initiatives such as those with physical and biological scientists are necessary to understand the scope of the social sciences. Too frequently there is a belief that one social scientist on a multi-disciplinary team provides adequate social science representation. Third, more complete models of human behavior will be achieved through a synthesis of diverse social science perspectives.
This volume explores the latest developments in a novel area of molecular biology and a hot topic in the field of oncology: cancer stem cells. These chapters from expert contributing authors present concepts such as the universal stem cell, new molecular pathways, new targeted agents, the different roles that cancer stem cells seem to have according to the organ they are placed in, and the future role that targeting cancer stem cells may have in the management of patients in the clinic. Exploring the latest research including new data from randomized trials, this book examines important proposals over the origin of cancer stem cells such as the possibility that cancer stem cells may arise from mutated stem cells or a fully differentiated cell that may undergo several mutations that drive it back to a stem-like state. The authors consider the role that stem cells seem to have in the onset, development and resistance to classical antitumoral treatments of cancer and discuss possible potential future treatment modalities for the management of advanced cancer patients. The question, "Are stem cells involved in cancer?" may not have a simple answer, but ongoing investigations, in-depth consideration and a broad spectrum of information can be found in this book, allowing the reader to arrive at his or her own answer. This book will appeal to researchers in the field of oncology and cancer research and biomedical scientists with an interest in stem cells.
These proceedings provide the latest results on dark matter and dark energy research. The UCLA Department of Physics and Astronomy hosted its tenth Dark Matter and Dark Energy conference in Marina del Rey and brought together all the leaders in the field. The symposium provided a scientific forum for the latest discussions in the field. Topics covered at the symposium: *Status of measurements of the equation of state of dark energy and new experiments *The search for missing energy events at the LHC and implications for dark matter search *Theoretical calculations on all forms of dark matter (SUSY, axions, sterile neutrinos, etc. ) *Status of the indirect search for dark matter *Status of the direct search for dark matter in detectors around the world *The low-mass wimp search region *The next generation of very large dark matter detectors *New underground laboratories for dark matter search
This book provides a fresh analysis of the demography, health and well-being of a major African city. It brings a range of disciplinary approaches to bear on the pressing topics of urban poverty, urban health inequalities and urban growth. The approach is primarily spatial and includes the integration of environmental information from satellites and other geospatial sources with social science and health survey data. The authors Ghanaians and outsiders, have worked to understand the urban dynamics in this burgeoning West African metropolis, with an emphasis on urban disparities in health and living standards. Few cities in the global South have been examined from so many different perspectives. Our analysis employs a wide range of GIScience methods, including analysis of remotely sensed imagery and spatial statistical analysis, applied to a wide range of data, including census, survey and health clinic data, all of which are supplemented by field work, including systematic social observation, focus groups, and key informant interviews. This book aims to explain and highlight the mix of methods, and the important findings that have been emerging from this research, with the goal of providing guidance and inspiration for others doing similar work in cities of other developing nations.
This book is based on the premise that marketing is central to understanding and advancing companies, businesses, countries, major economic areas and every-day problems. It opposes the view held by some social scientists that the positive effects of marketing in a society are a product of capitalist enterprises and that marketing involves excessive exploitation and is a tool for creating and maintaining their power structures. To illustrate its point, the book examines successful marketing practices with implications for consumers' quality of life. Its compilation of cases from all over the world provides a unique and concise review of best practices in marketing and their impact on QOL. Each case in the book presents a specific social problem and discusses details of the marketing strategy adopted to resolve it, as well as the results obtained both for society at large and in terms of the citizens' quality of life. In addition, each case addresses the theoretical background of the specific area of marketing used in the case.
With so many terms available to define the same thing, it would seem nearly irresponsible to introduce yet another term (complex situation) to describe a phenomenological state of such as a system. However, a complex situation infers both a broader meaning and imposes a different perspective. Complex in this context is dependent on understanding and reality rather than observer and knowledge. Situation imposes a gestalt that cannot be characterized within a singular perspective that relegates paradox to a superior/subordinate hierarchy. This also infers that complex situation has no monotonic definition or each definition is by default incomplete. Therefore the perennial derivations for systems such as complex systems, system of systems, federation of systems is no longer a sufficient descriptor for complex situation. Ergo system and its genealogy lack the constitution to define complex situations. The books' intent is to explore this pathology through a series of papers written by authors that work in complex situations and have dealt with the limitations of the status quo: systems.
The work builds on the results of the COMPETE Bioenergy Competence Platform for Africa, which was supported by the European Commission and coordinated by WIP Renewable Energies, Germany. The five sections cover biomass production and use, biomass technologies and markets in Africa, biomass policies, sustainability, and financial and socio-economic issues. This valuable work is, in effect, a single-source treatment of a key energy sector in a part of the world which still has a lot of unrealised potential for development.
Issues In Agroecology - Present Status and Future Prospectus not only reviews aspects of ecology, but the ecology of sustainable food production systems, and related societal and cultural values. To provide effective communication regarding status and advances in this field, this series connects with many disciplines such as sociology, anthropology, environmental sciences, ethics, agriculture, economics, ecology, rural development, sustainability, policy and education, and integrations of these general themes so as to provide integrated points of view that will help lead to a more sustainable construction of values than conventional economics alone. Such designs are inherently complex and dynamic, and go beyond the individual farm to include landscapes, communities, and biogeographic regions by emphasizing their unique agricultural and ecological values, and their biological, societal, and cultural components and processes.
Forest biodiversity is crucial to the ecological, economic, and social well-being of earth's civilisations. Unfortunately, however, forest biodiversity is threatened to a serious degree in nearly all countries. Therefore, many countries have agreed to be parties to international agreements focused on maintaining, restoring, and monitoring biodiversity; further, these countries have agreed to report to international bodies on forest biodiversity status and trends. NFIs are the primary source of large-scale information available for this purpose, but the large variety of definitions, protocols, sampling designs, and plot configurations used by NFIs makes comparable international reporting extremely difficult. This book presents the results of Working Group 3 of COST Action E43 in the development of harmonization techniques for common reporting of estimates of forest biodiversity indicators using NFI data. Harmonization tests were carried out on a large common data base containing raw NFI data from 13 European countries and the USA. With its collection of practical examples for the estimation of forest biodiversity indicators, it's a practical tool for anyone involved in forest inventories and in forest resource monitoring and management as well as for those involved in biodiversity assessment and reporting.
This book provides a snapshot of the state-of-the art in the study of mammalian cell nuclear architecture, and features a diverse range of chapters written by top researchers. A key aspect is an emphasis on precise and repeatable quantitative analysis and simulation in addition to the more familiar biological perspective. The fusion of such material frames the future of the discipline. Quantitative contributions stress reproducible and robust 3D analysis, using a variety of tools ranging from point pattern analysis to shape registration methods. Biological insights include the role of nuclear subdomains in cancer, nuclear molecular motors, and a holistic view of gene transcription.
Soils into which crop plants root and from which they obtain essential minerals and water contain huge arrays of microbes. Many have highly beneficial effects on crop growth and productivity, others are pathogens causing diseases and losses to yield and quality, a few microbes offer protection from these pathogenic forms and others have little or no effect. These intimate and often complex inter-relationships are being explored with increasing success providing exciting opportunities for increasing crop yields and quality in sustainable harmony with the populations of beneficial soil microbes and to the detriment of pathogens. This book explores current knowledge for each of these aspects of soil microbiology and indicates where future progress is most likely to aid in increasing crop productivity by means which are environmentally benign and beneficial.
Internet is starting to permeate politics much as it has previously revolutionised education, business or the arts. Thus, there is a growing interest in areas of e-government and, more recently, e-democracy. However, most attempts in this field have just envisioned standard political approaches facilitated by technology, like e-voting or e-debating. Alternatively, we could devise a more transforming strategy based on deploying web based group decision support tools and promote their use for public policy decision making. This book delineates how this approach could be implemented. It addresses foundations, basic methodologies, potential implementation and applications, together with a thorough discussion of the many challenging issues. This innovative text will be of interest to students, researchers and practitioners in the fields of e-government, e-democracy and e-participation and research in decision analysis, negotiation analysis and group decision support.
This booklet summarizes our current knowledge of founder mutation populations ('extended families') in the Netherlands, among other aspects providing insight in where these patients can be expected (coloured maps of the prevalence in the 99 Dutch postal code regions are provided for every phenotype) and what their precise phenotype is.
This book examines in detail the diagnostic impact of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the evaluation of urinary tract pathology, paying particular attention to the diagnostic gain that may be expected in relation to other imaging techniques such as CT and MRI. The role of contrast-enhanced ultrasound is evaluated in a range of pathologies, including ischemia, trauma, inflammation, cystic lesions, and solid tumors, as well as in the imaging of anatomic variants. New applications, for example monitoring of kidney transplantation, assessment of urinary bladder lesions, and diagnosis of vesico-ureteric reflux, are also covered. The presented cases, drawn from the authors' personal clinical caseload, include images obtained using multimodality techniques, sometimes with 3D CT reconstruction. The authors' own experiences are compared with the most recent reports in the scientific literature.
This book is intended as a reference guide for graduate students, postgraduate students and researchers with a basic knowledge of protein chemistry who would like to know more about the biomedical applications of natural proteins to promote healthier lives. The book is divided into ten chapters, each of which explains different natural proteins and their established biomedical applications. The first chapter extensively deals with protein based natural fibers and provides an overview of all protein based fibers currently available. In turn, chapter two mainly focuses on the biomedical applications of a special class of proteins called Heat Shock Proteins; the biomedical applications of silkworm pupae proteins are dealt in chapter three. Chapter four examines an interesting use of Eri silk fibroin as a biomaterial for Tissue Engineering, while chapter five discusses the key experimental details involved in converting Tasar silk sericin into self-assembled nanoparticles. Chapter six offers brief descriptions of bioactive proteins with respect to their sources, synthesis and applications. Chapter seven is dedicated to Interleukine-8 and its role in human life, while chapter eight addresses the importance of natural proteins in infectious diseases. Chapter nine explores the issue of excess intake of dietary proteins and its adverse effects, and finally, chapter ten discusses the efficiency of drug delivery systems made up of gelatin nanocomposites. The book is above all intended as a valuable resource for students and researchers alike, sparking their curiosity with regard to the applications of natural proteins and motivating them to focus their own energies on the discovery or identification of additional natural proteins for diverse biomedical uses.
The book provides a generalized theoretical technique for solving the fewbody Schrödinger equation. Straight forward approaches to solve it in terms of position vectors of constituent particles and using standard mathematical techniques become too cumbersome and inconvenient when the system contains more than two particles. The introduction of Jacobi vectors, hyperspherical variables and hyperspherical harmonics as an expansion basis is an elegant way to tackle systematically the problem of an increasing number of interacting particles. Analytic expressions for hyperspherical harmonics, appropriate symmetrisation of the wave function under exchange of identical particles and calculation of matrix elements of the interaction have been presented. Applications of this technique to various problems of physics have been discussed. In spite of straight forward generalization of the mathematical tools for increasing number of particles, the method becomes computationally difficult for more than a few particles. Hence various approximation methods have also been discussed. Chapters on the potential harmonics and its application to Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) have been included to tackle dilute system of a large number of particles. A chapter on special numerical algorithms has also been provided. This monograph is a reference material for theoretical research in the few-body problems for research workers starting from advanced graduate level students to senior scientists.
This book presents a basic introduction to micromechanisms and microactuators, particularly to their basic configurations and design. This book fills the persisting gap in the published literature on the mechanical manipulative aspects of micromechanisms. It also helps in offering specialized introductory courses on micromechanisms and microactuators not as part of MEMS sensing devices, but as mechanical manipulative systems. The level of the book is suitable for use in both undergraduate and introductory graduate programmes. The book presents an overview of miniaturization and scaling laws, basic design principles of micro-sized mechanisms and actuators, micro-fabrication processes, and some futuristic issues. The volume contains a large number of figures and illustrations for easy understanding by the readers. It will also be useful to researchers and professionals looking for an introduction to the topic.
This book contributes towards the integration of the R&D function with regard to societies, nations, industries and organizations, as well as to leaders within organizations. It covers the management aspects and approaches to R&D management and provides information on the major contexts of R&D such as in production, HR, marketing and finance - functions that are essential to attracting, developing and retaining scientific manpower. The book further elaborates on organizations' human strategic prospectives. It also suggests various types of practices to help organizations achieve their objectives and analyzes how R&D can contribute to technology, innovation and science to improve organizations' productivity. In closing, it discusses some of the challenges faced by developing countries and presents R&D management from a global perspective.
This book offers a new understanding of how firms determine their location and what kinds of regional economic policies are needed to attract factories to a country and a region in a highly globalized economic setting. The theoretical and empirical analyses examine the influence of the transfer pricing system, corporate tax rates, and a country's industrial structure on a firm's decision to locate and the impact of firms' location on regional economic activities. The theoretical analysis elucidates the importance of the above-mentioned factors in the firm's selection of possible location. The empirical analysis uses as an example the case of a supply chain in East Asia. The empirical analysis is illustrated with the regional/spatial development experiences at the country level and city level of selected countries and cities. The analysis offers a perspective for understanding the spatial patterns of a cross-border production system.
This book describes cutting-edge science and technology of the characterization, breeding, and development of yeasts and fungi used worldwide in fermentation industries such as alcohol beverage brewing, bread making, and bioethanol production. The book also covers numerous topics and important areas the previous literature has missed, ranging widely from molecular mechanisms to biotechnological applications related to stress response/tolerance of yeasts and fungi. During fermentation processes, cells of yeast and fungus, mostly Saccharomyces and Aspergillus oryzae spp. , respectively, are exposed to a variety of fermentation "stresses". Such stresses lead to growth inhibition or cell death. Under severe stress conditions, their fermentation ability and enzyme productivity are rather limited. Therefore, in terms of industrial application, stress tolerance is the key characteristic for yeast and fungal cells. The first part of this book provides stress response/tolerance mechanisms of yeast used for the production of sake, beer, wine, bread, and bioethanol. The second part covers stress response/tolerance mechanisms of fungi during environmental changes and biological processes of industrial fermentation. Readers benefit nicely from the novel understandings and methodologies of these industrial microbes. The book is suitable for both academic scientists and graduate-level students specialized in applied microbiology and biochemistry and biotechnology and for industrial researchers and engineers who are involved in fermentation-based technologies. The fundamental studies described in this book can be applied to the breeding of useful microbes (yeasts, fungi), the production of valuable compounds (ethanol, CO2, amino acids, organic acids, and enzymes) and the development of promising processes to solve environmental issues (bioethanol, biorefinery).
During the past 4 years, faith in the present financial model has been shaken in terms of policy, regulation, the financial sector itself, and exchange-rate regimes. Past and present policies of the world's most respected central banks have come under fire. Regulations that defined the system have undergone major reviews. Complicated financial instruments that provided new ways of financial intermediation have been exposed as culprits behind the financial meltdown. After 10 years of success, Europe's single currency is under threat. In short, the established financial model not only has been unable to prevent the crisis but, arguably, has been a cause of it. There is no longer one obvious model that meets all needs. The burst of Japan's bubble was followed by two "lost decades". Before a contrite Japan completely adopted Western ways of finance, the "Lehman shock" hit, followed by the euro crisis. Monetary policy, financial regulation and the state of the financial sector all must be reconsidered. Currencies and exchange rates make up another important aspect of finance. If the Western model of finance is discredited, does that mean the dominance of Western currencies is also eroded? What does the crisis in the euro area tell us about exchange rate regimes in general? Clearly, a new model is needed, one that is conducive to both stability and prosperity. But who will provide it? This volume records the cumulative results of three EU Studies Institute (EUSI) conferences that have addressed these issues, and examines how Asia and Europe compare in the quest for the next financial model. While many books on Europe and Asia focus on integration and what Asia can learn from Europe, this book emphasizes mutual lessons in the common search for a new model. EU Studies Institute The EU Studies Institute in Tokyo (EUSI) was launched on 1 April 2009 as a consortium comprising Hitotsubashi University, Tsuda College, and Keio University. The Institute is sponsored by the European Commission for a four-and-a-half-year period. As a centre for academic education, research and outreach, it aims to strengthen EU-Japan relations. Details are at http://eusi.jp/content_en/
This book seeks to analyze how small and medium businesses react to the economic and financial crisis. Its focus is on the activities and strategies of SMEs in the areas of innovation, R&D investment, labor markets and finance. The book takes an international perspective and includes both comparative and national analyses and policies, with authors representing acdemia and international institutions such as the ECB, OECD, Kauffman Foundation, Federal Reserve, and US Small Business Administration.
This book presents a detailed overview of the development of new viral vector-based vaccines before discussing two major applications: preventive vaccines for infectious diseases and therapeutic cancer vaccines. Viral vector-based vaccines hold a great potential for development into successful pharmaceutical products and several examples at the advanced pre-clinical or clinical stage are presented. Nevertheless, the most efforts were focused on novel and very innovative technologies for new generation of vector-based vaccines. Furthermore, specific topics such as delivery and adjuvant and protection strategies for cell-mediated-based vaccines are presented. Given its scope, the book is a "must read" for all those involved in vaccine development, both in academia and industrial vaccine development.
Philosophers from Descartes to Kripke have struggled with the glittering prize of modern and contemporary philosophy: the mind-body problem. The brain is physical. If the mind is physical, we cannot see how. If we cannot see how the mind is physical, we cannot see how it can interact with the body. And if the mind is not physical, it cannot interact with the body. Or so it seems. In this book the philosopher Jonathan Westphal examines the mind-body problem in detail, laying out the reasoning behind the solutions that have been offered in the past and presenting his own proposal. The sharp focus on the mind-body problem, a problem that is not about the self, or consciousness, or the soul, or anything other than the mind and the body, helps clarify both problem and solutions. Westphal outlines the history of the mind-body problem, beginning with Descartes. He describes mind-body dualism, which claims that the mind and the body are two different and separate things, nonphysical and physical, and he also examines physicalist theories of mind; antimaterialism, which proposes limits to physicalism and introduces the idea of qualia; and scientific theories of consciousness. Finally, Westphal examines the largely forgotten neutral monist theories of mind and body, held by Ernst Mach, William James, and Bertrand Russell, which attempt neither to extract mind from matter nor to dissolve matter into mind. Westphal proposes his own version of neutral monism. This version is unique among neutral monist theories in offering an account of mind-body interaction.
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