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Plants are sessile, highly sensitive organisms that actively compete for environmental resources both above and below the ground. They assess their surroundings, estimate how much energy they need for particular goals, and then realise the optimum variant. They take measures to control certain environmental resources. They perceive themselves and can distinguish between 'self' and 'non-self'. They process and evaluate information and then modify their behaviour accordingly. These highly diverse competences are made possible by parallel sign(alling)-mediated communication processes within the plant body (intraorganismic), between the same, related and different species (interorganismic), and between plants and non-plant organisms (transorganismic). Intraorganismic communication involves sign-mediated interactions within cells (intracellular) and between cells (intercellular). This is crucial in coordinating growth and development, shape and dynamics. Such communication must function both on the local level and between widely separated plant parts. This allows plants to coordinate appropriate response behaviours in a differentiated manner, depending on their current developmental status and physiological influences. Lastly, this volume documents how plant ecosphere inhabitants communicate with each other to coordinate their behavioural patterns, as well as the role of viruses in these highly dynamic interactional networks.
This second volume of the "Handbook of Digital Homecare" reviews the attempts to develop new ICT services for digital homecare, i.e. services to deliver, maintain and improve care in the home environment using the latest ICT technology and devices. The book highlights the successful projects as well as failures of Digital homecare and provides several "lessons learned" to the wide audience of Health and ICT professionals.
This textbook offers a comprehensive theory of medical decision making under uncertainty, combining informative test theory with the expected utility hypothesis. The book shows how the parameters of Bayes' theorem can be combined with a value function of health states to arrive at informed test and treatment decisions. The authors distinguish between risk neutral, risk averse and prudent decision makers and demonstrate the effects of risk preferences on physicians' decisions. They analyze individual tests, multiple tests and endogenous tests where the test result is determined by the decision maker. Finally, the topic is examined in the context of health economics by introducing a trade-off between enjoying health and consuming other goods, so that the extent of treatment and thus the potential improvement in the patient's health become endogenous.
Tina Chen and Blake Reynolds have been together for almost a year. In that time, they've grown closer on just about every front. The one exception? Blake's father has never let anything stop him. Tina's parents have never let anyone push them around. And they've never met. That's about to change. But don't worry--fireworks are traditional at Chinese New Years. Note: This is a short story (10,000 words) that assumes that you've already read Trade Me.
The compound Sr3Ru2O7 of the strontium ruthenate family has been intensely studied because experimental evidence suggests that quantum fluctuations dominate the magnetic phase diagram in the vicinity of a novel low-temperature phase. In order to understand the interplay between the quantum critical fluctuations and the phase formation, comprehensive thermodynamic information is essential. This thesis reports the results of both specific-heat and magnetocaloric experiments carried out with a bespoke experimental apparatus whose design particularly addresses the demanding constraints of the low-temperature, high-magnetic-field environment. The experimental data give evidence for unusual thermodynamic properties of the novel phase and its bounding phase transitions. Furthermore they show that the phase formation takes place against a background of strongly peaking entropy, suggesting that quantum criticality plays a key role in the physics of this system.
Conjoint analysis is probably the most significant development in marketing research in the past few decades. It can be described as a set of techniques ideally suited to studying customers' decision-making processes and determining tradeoffs. Though this book is oriented towards methods and applications of conjoint analysis in marketing, conjoint methods are also applicable for other business and social sciences. After an introduction to the basic ideas of conjoint analysis the book describes the steps involved in designing a ratings-based conjoint study, it covers various methods for estimating partworth functions from preference ratings data, and dedicates a chapter on methods of design and analysis of conjoint-based choice experiments, where choice is measured directly. Chapter 5 describes several methods for handling a large number of attributes. Chapters 6 through 8 discuss the use of conjoint analysis for specific applications like product and service design or product line decisions, product positioning and market segmentation decisions, and pricing decisions. Chapter 9 collates miscellaneous applications of marketing mix including marketing resource allocation or store location decisions. Finally, Chapter 10 reviews more recent developments in experimental design and data analysis and presents an assessment of future developments.
This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed proceedings of the 11th Italian Research Conference on Digital Libraries, IRCDL 2015, held in Bozen-Bolzano, Italy, in January 2015. The 13 full papers, 4 short papers and 2 invited poster papers presented were carefully selected from 19 submissions. They are organized under the following five categories: semantic modeling; projects; models and applications; content analysis; and digital libraries infrastructures. The papers deal with numerous multidisciplinary aspects ranging from computer science to humanities in the broader sense, including research areas such as archival and library information sciences; information management systems; semantic technologies; information retrieval; new knowledge environments; new organizational/business models.
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 21st Ada-Europe International Conference on Reliable Software Technologies, Ada-Europe 2016, held in Pisa, Italy, in June 2016. The revised 12 full papers presented together with one invited paper were carefully reviewed and selected from 28 submissions. They are organized in topical sections on concurrency and parallelism, testing and verification, program correctness and robustness, and real-time systems.
This book serves as a basic reference for thoseinterested in the application of metaheuristics to speech enhancement. Themajor goal of the book is to explain the basic concepts of optimization methodsand their use in heuristic optimization in speech enhancement to scientists,practicing engineers, and academic researchers in speech processing. Theauthors discuss why it has been a challenging problem for researchers todevelop new enhancement algorithms that aid in the quality and intelligibilityof degraded speech. They present powerful optimization methods to speechenhancement that can help to solve the noise reduction problems. Readers willbe able to understand the fundamentals of speech processing as well as theoptimization techniques, how the speech enhancement algorithms are implementedby utilizing optimization methods, and will be given the tools to develop newalgorithms. The authors also provide a comprehensive literature surveyregarding the topic.
Crash has never let the circumstances of his birth, or his lack of a last name, bother him. His associations may be unsavory, but money, friends, and infamy open far more interesting doors than respect ever could. His sole regret? Once lovely, sweet Daisy Whitlaw learned the truth about how he made his fortune, she cut him off. Daisy's father is dead, her mother is in ill health, and her available funds have dwindled to a memory. When the local parish announces a charity bequest to help young people start a trade, it's her last chance. So what if the grants are intended for men? If she's good enough, she might bluff her way into a future. When Crash offers to show her how to swagger with confidence, she knows he is up to no good. But with her life in the balance, she's desperate enough to risk the one thing she hasn't yet lost: her heart. Her Every Wish is a companion novella in the Worth Saga. It stands on its own, but those who wish to read in order might want to read the first book in the series, Once Upon a Marquess, before this one. The books in the Worth Saga are: 1. Once Upon a Marquess 1½. Her Every Wish 2. After the Wedding 3. The Devil Comes Courting 4. The Return of the Scoundrel 5. The Kissing Hour 6. A Tale of Two Viscounts 7. The Return of the Earl
This volume is a collection of research studies on the modeling of emotions in complex autonomous systems. Several experts in the field are reporting their efforts and reviewing the literature in order to shed lights on how the processes of coding and decoding emotional states took place in humans, which are the physiological, physical, and psychological variables involved, invent new mathematical models and algorithms to describe them, and motivate these investigations in the light of observable societal changes and needs, such as the aging population and the cost of health care services. The consequences are the implementation of emotionally and socially believable machines, acting as helpers into domestic spheres, where emotions drive behaviors and actions. The contents of the book are highly multidisciplinary since the modeling of emotions in robotic socially believable systems requires a holistic perspective on topics coming from different research domains such as computer science, engineering, sociology, psychology, linguistic, and information communication. The book is of interest both to experts and students since last research works on a so complex multidisciplinary topic are described in a neat and didactical scientific language.
Distinguishingbetween tangible user interfaces (TUI) and tangible interactive systems (TISs),this book takes into account not only the user interfaces but also looks at howinteraction can be enabled by using digital information through the physicalenvironment. TISs go far beyond the concept of tangible user interfaces,addressing large complex systems in the framework of human-centred design andputting the human at the center of the design process from the start. Howcan human-centered designers grasp the real world with computers? This questionis explored by looking at concepts such as innovation, complexity, flexibility,maturity, stability, sustainability and art to see whether we can assess bothphysical and figurative tangibility during the design process before productdelivery. Concepts like creativity, design thinking and team spirit arefundamental to TIS's human-centered design, and are presented together withhuman-systems integration (HSI), agile development and formative evaluations tobuild a greater understanding of this new area of research. TangibleInteractive Systems wouldbe an essential read to designers, academics and other professionals concernedwith product design within HCI, industrial design, virtual engineering andother related areas.
This book covers the topic of vibration energy harvesting using piezoelectric materials. Piezoelectric materials are analyzed in the context of their electromechanical coupling, heterogeneity, microgeometry and interrelations between electromechanical properties. Piezoelectric ceramics and composites based on ferroelectrics are advanced materials that are suitable for harvesting mechanical energy from vibrations using inertial energy harvesting which relies on the resistance of a mass to acceleration and kinematic energy harvesting which couples the energy harvester to the relative movement of different parts of a source. In addition to piezoelectric materials, research efforts to develop optimization methods for complex piezoelectric energy harvesters are also reviewed. The book is important for specialists in the field of modern advanced materials and will stimulate new effective piezotechnical applications.
This book explains why the current education model, which was developed in the 19th century to meet the needs of industrial expansion, is obsolete. It points to the need for a new approach to education designed to prepare young people for global uncertainty, accelerating change and unprecedented complexity. The book offers a new educational philosophy to awaken the creative, big-picture and long-term thinking that will help equip students to face tomorrow's challenges. Inside, readers will find a dialogue between adult developmental psychology research on higher stages of reasoning and today's most evolved education research and practice. This dialogue reveals surprising links between play and wisdom, imagination and ecology, holism and love. The overwhelming issues of global climate crisis, growing economic disparity and the youth mental health epidemic reveal how dramatically the current education model has failed students and educators. This book raises a planet-wide call to deeply question how we actually think and how we must educate. It articulates a postformal education philosophy as a foundation for educational futures. The book will appeal to educators, educational philosophers, pre-service teacher educators, educational and developmental psychologists and educational researchers, including postgraduates with an interest in transformational educational theories designed for the complexity of the 21st century. This is the most compelling book on education I have read for many years. It has major implications for all who are in a position to influence developments in teacher education and educational policy. Gidley is one of the very rare scholars who can write intelligently and accessibly about the past, present and future in education. I was challenged and ultimately convinced by her contention that 'what masquerades as education today must be seen for what it is - an anachronistic relic of the industrial past'. Gidley's challenge is to 'co-evolve' a radically new education. All who seek to play a part must read this book. Brian J. Caldwell, PhD, Educational Transformations, former Dean of Education at the University of Melbourne and Deputy Chair, Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA)
Thisbook provides a comprehensive framework for treatment and management ofbronchopulmonary dysplasia. In recent years great strides have been made towardunderstanding the pathogenesis and clinical aspects of BPD, which is the mostcommon chronic lung disease affecting infants. This one-stop resource iswritten by leading scientists and clinicians in the field, and chapters discussthe most recent developments in the basic scientific, translational, and clinicalcharacteristics of the disease. Topics such as hyperoxia, pre- and post-natalinflammation, and genetics and biomarkers of BPD are included, as well asnon-invasive ventilation techniques, nutrition, and radiology applications frompre-term birth to adulthood. The book closes with an in-depth look at emergingtherapeutic options for prevention of BPD. BronchopulmonaryDysplasia is an essential volume for all neonatologists, pediatricpulmonologists, and scientists interested in developmental disorders of thelung.
This bookis a timely guide for Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) researchers, policymakers and strategists. SMEs are the most important sources of job creation andlocal development especially in knowledge-based economies. As turbulence in theglobalized economies expands SMEs will have to learn to sustain competitivenessby developing their 'dynamic capabilities'. Based on the findings of a 4-yearEuropean and Latin American research project, this book provides a theoreticalframework, practical instruments and cases on how SMEs in diverse economic,social and cultural contexts can develop crisis resilience, increase agility,innovate and thus successfully compete in turbulent times.
This book presents powerful techniques for solving global optimization problems on manifolds by means of evolutionary algorithms, and shows in practice how these techniques can be applied to solve real-world problems. It describes recent findings and well-known key facts in general and differential topology, revisiting them all in the context of application to current optimization problems. Special emphasis is put on game theory problems. Here, these problems are reformulated as constrained global optimization tasks and solved with the help of Fuzzy ASA. In addition, more abstract examples, including minimizations of well-known functions, are also included. Although the Fuzzy ASA approach has been chosen as the main optimizing paradigm, the book suggests that other metaheuristic methods could be used as well. Some of them are introduced, together with their advantages and disadvantages. Readers should possess some knowledge of linear algebra, and of basic concepts of numerical analysis and probability theory. Many necessary definitions and fundamental results are provided, with the formal mathematical requirements limited to a minimum, while the focus is kept firmly on continuous problems. The book offers a valuable resource for students, researchers and practitioners. It is suitable for university courses on optimization and for self-study.
This book provides a comprehensive overview of the two important issues relating to disease in elderly: the age-related changes and the pathophysiology of the diseases. The book contains 19 chapters that are arranged by organ system and structured to cover the specific areas for a quick but in-depth understanding of diseases in aging patients. Unlike any other book on the market, this text is concise and yet thorough in approach to the stipulated areas. This book includes multiple-choice questions that reinforce the concepts that are most vital to understanding and treating geriatric patients, making it an outstanding resource on its own or as a companion to larger geriatric texts. Diseases in the Elderly is the ultimate resource for geriatricians, medical students, primary care physicians, hospital doctors, geriatric nurses, and all other medical professionals treating and diagnosing diseases in elderly patients.
Utilizing the results of a case study on the Gare-Lac sector in the city of Yverdon-les-Bains - the site is currently a large urban brownfield, intended to host ca. 3,800 additional inhabitants and 1,200 jobs upon completion - this work examines how to design attractive urban neighbourhoods that generate endogenous economic activity and foster socio-cultural dynamics, while moving towards local energy self-sufficiency. Exploring the different dimensions influencing energy self-sufficiency at the neighbourhood scale by integrating parameters related to buildings, infrastructure, mobility, food, goods and services, the work focuses on three scenarios (technological, behavioural and symbiotic) for the future development of this neighbourhood through 2035. The scenarios test different design strategies related to industrial symbioses, production, storage, transportation, and urban agriculture.
Providing many unique MATLAB codes and functions throughout, this book covers the basics of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), leading to an in-depth understanding of the concepts and tools required for analysis and interpretation of Phase Contrast MR Angiography (PC-MRA). The concept of PC-MRA is often difficult, but essential for practicing engineers and scientists working in MR related areas. The concepts are better understood by uniquely combining the physical principles of fluid flow and MR imaging, laid out by modeling the theory and applications using a commonly used software tool MATLAB®. The book starts with a detailed theory of PC-MRA followed by a description of various image processing methods, including detailed MATLAB codes used for their implementation. The flow concepts in the context of MR imaging are explained using MATLAB based simulations.
In this volume devoted to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and Sjögren syndrome, leading specialists from different disciplines present the latest research findings on many aspects of the diseases and describe the most recent trends in treatment, such as the "treat to target" approach. Both basic science and clinical medicine are addressed, with emphasis on the most promising clinical and laboratory-based studies. The coverage is comprehensive in scope, encompassing, for example, epidemiology, pathogenesis, autoantibodies and biomarkers, disease manifestations, involvement of different organs or systems, relationships with other disorders, biological therapy of SLE, and systemic treatment of Sjögren syndrome. Readers will find this first volume of Connective Tissue Disease to be an excellent source of information on the current understanding of, and clinical approach to, SLE and Sjögren syndrome that clearly conveys the progress made in recent years.
This interdisciplinary volume brings together many of the world's leading clinicians and researchers to discuss current and anticipated developments in the understanding of narcolepsy. The volume is broadly divided into four main sections: Section I: Etiology; Section II: Clinical Considerations; Section III: Psychosocial considerations; and Section IV: Management. The areas covered include findings from research investigations on the genetic predisposition and pathophysiology, psychosocial aspects, and clinical management of narcolepsy by means of pharmacological and non-pharmacological methods. Special attention is paid to the translational aspects of narcolepsy. This volume is suitable for sleep disorders specialists and researchers, psychiatrists, neurologists, psychologists, social workers, behavioral scientists, graduate medical students, and any professionals and researchers interested in the interdisciplinary area of sleep medicine. Key Features · Focus on issues faced in day-to-day clinical settings - helps to inform and change clinical practice; · Chapters address both clinical and research basis - highlights potential areas of future research; · Interdisciplinary and translational approach - suitable for a wide range of clinicians and biomedical professionals.
This practical guide introduces functional behavioral assessment as a critical tool in planning interventions to reduce disruptive and other problematic behaviors. The book offers proven methods and strategies as a four-stage protocol in an easy-to-follow format with checklists, Q&A sections, applications, and an extended case example including an assessment report and intervention plan. Step-by-step instructions are delivered in an accessible teaching style, making all phases of assessment equally manageable. And although functional behavioral assessment is typically associated with schoolchildren, this material is also useful for working with adults in residential and community settings. The Guide gives readers: The basics of functional behavioral assessment. Guidance in preparing for conducting a functional behavioral assessment. An overview of assessment methods: formal and informal measures, interview, and observation. A framework for translating assessment data into an appropriate intervention plan. In-depth understanding of the role of prevention in behavioral intervention. A kit of questionnaires, worksheets, and other ready-to-use resources. Practitioner's Guide to Functional Behavioral Assessment is an essential resource for clinicians and related professionals as well as researchers and graduate students in school and clinical child psychology; behavior therapy; assessment, testing and evaluation; special education; and educational psychology.
This book presents a comparative analysis of intergroup relations and migrant integration at the neighbourhood level in Europe. Featuring a unique collection of portraits of urban relations between the majority population and immigrant minorities, it examines how relations are structured and evolve in different and increasingly diverse local societies. Inside, readers will find a coordinated set of ethnographic studies conducted in eleven neighbourhoods of five European cities: London, Barcelona, Budapest, Nuremberg, and Turin. The wide-ranging coverage encompasses post-industrial districts struggling to counter decline, vibrant super-diverse areas, and everything in between. Featuring highly contextualised, cross-disciplinary explorations presented within a solid comparative framework, this book considers such questions as: Why does the native-immigrant split become a tense boundary in some neighbourhoods of some European cities but not in others? To what extent are ethnically framed conflicts driven by site-specific factors or instead by broader, exogenous ones? How much does the structure of urban spaces count in fuelling inter-ethnic tensions and what can local policy communities do to prevent this? The answers it provides are based on a multi-layer approach which combines in-depth analysis of intergroup relations with a strong attention towards everyday categorization processes, media representations, and narratives on which local policies are based. Even though the relations between the majority and migrant minorities are a central topic, the volume also offers readers a broader perspective of social and urban transformation in contemporary urban settings. It provides insightful research on migration and urban studies as well as social dynamics that scholars and students around the world will find relevant. In addition, policy makers will find evidence-based and practically relevant lessons for the governance of increasingly diverse and mobile societies.
This volume illustrates the salient aspects of cancer biology relevant to the successful implementation of immunotherapy. Topics include enhancement of antigen-specific immune responses by anti-cancer vaccines, modulation of the function of T cells within the tumor microenvironment, and the effects of genetic, epigenetic, developmental, and environmental determinants on T cell function. Other topics covered include the ex vivo expansion of T or other immune cells and their genetic modification or reprogramming to increase their ability to survive and expand when adoptively transferred back to the patients. Specific attention is devoted to the genetic manipulation of T cells through the introduction of re-directed T cell receptors, chimeric antibody receptors, and other genetic manipulation aimed at improving their effectiveness as anti-cancer agents. Furthermore, the revolutionary role of checkpoint inhibitors and their potential in combination with other immunotherapeutic approaches or with standard chemo and radiation therapy are extensively discussed.
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