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The dramatic events of Maidan in February 2014 shone a spotlight on the immense problems facing Ukraine. At the same time that Ukraine was undergoing turmoil, its western neighbor Poland was celebrating twenty-five years of post-communism with a rosy economic outlook and projections of continued growth. How could two countries who shared similar linguistic, cultural, economic and political heritages diverge so wildly in economic performance in such a short span of time? The main argument of this book is that institutions, and more specifically the evolution or neglect of the particular institutions needed for a market economy, explain the economic divergence between Ukraine and Poland. This book discusses the evolution of key institutions such as property rights, trade, and the role of the executive branch of government to explain the recent relative performance of the two countries.
This book explores the constitutional, legally binding dimension to legisprudence in the light of the German Federal Constitutional Court´s approach to rational lawmaking. Over the last decades this court has been remarkably active in applying legisprudential criteria and standards when reviewing parliamentary laws. It has thus supplied observers with a unique material to analyse the lawmakers' duty to legislate rationally, and to assess the virtues and drawbacks of this strand of judicial control in a constitutional democracy. By bringing together legislation experts and public law scholars to elaborate on 'legisprudence under review', this contributed volume aspires to shed light on the constitutionalisation of rational lawmaking as a controversial trend gaining ground in both national and international jurisdictions. The book is divided into five parts. Part I frames the two key issues pervading the whole collection: the intricate relationship between judicial review and democracy, on the one hand, and the possibility of improving and rationalizing the task of legislation under the current circumstances of politics, on the other. Part II provides an overview of the judicial review of rational lawmaking, laying special emphasis on the duty of legislative justification imposed on lawmakers by the German Constitutional Court. Part III is devoted to the review of the systemic rationality of legislation, in particular to the requirements of legislative consistence and coherence as developed by this court. Contributions in Part IV revolve around the judicial scrutiny of the socio-empirical elements of rational lawmaking, with the control of legislative facts and impacts and the problem of symbolic laws being the central topics. Finally, Part V draws on the German case law to discuss the links between rational lawmaking, balancing and proportionality, and the interdependence between process review and substantive review of legislation.
War is often described as an extension of politics by violent means. With contributions from twenty-five eminent historians, Volume 2 of The Cambridge History of the Second World War examines the relationship between ideology and politics in the war's origins, dynamics and consequences. Part I examines the ideologies of the combatants and shows how the war can be understood as a struggle of words, ideas and values with the rival powers expressing divergent claims to justice and controlling news from the front in order to sustain moral and influence international opinion. Part II looks at politics from the perspective of pre-war and wartime diplomacy as well as examining the way in which neutrals were treated and behaved. The volume concludes by assessing the impact of states, politics and ideology on the fate of individuals as occupied and liberated peoples, collaborators and resistors, and as British and French colonial subjects.
Essays on the Doctrinal Study of Law is a summary of the author's 40 years of research in the fields of civil law and the philosophy of law. The main focus is on the two main tasks in the doctrinal study of law: the interpretation and systematisation of legal norms. In this regard, Professor Aarnio deals with the theory of argumentation as well as with its foundations - i.e., with the ontology, epistemology and methodology of legal thinking - and develops the ideas that were first presented in The Rational as Reasonable (Kluwer 1987) in all of these dimensions. The work includes an updated discussion on the writings of Robert Alexy, Jûrgen Habermas, Ronald Dworkin and Alf Ross. A focal point of view concerns the distinction between positivism and non-positivism, in which the core of the criticism focuses on Scandinavian realism.
Presenting recent advances in clinical diagnosis and treatment derived from an increased understanding of the biology of the hip, this unique text examines hip disease and pathophysiology through the lenses of kinematics, biomechanics, anatomy and metabolism. Opening chapters examine the impact of health care organization on hip care and prevalence and burden of osteoarthritis. Biomechanical considerations of the hip and gait pathomechanics in hip disease are then discussed, followed by chapters covering femoroacetabular impingement, possible links between OA and metabolic syndrome, osteonecrosis, osteoporosis and Paget's disease. Considerations of risk reduction surrounding hip arthroplasty conclude the text, including device and surgical options for THA, hip sepsis and prevention of perioperative infection, and management of venous thromboembolism. Taken together, this represents a new and important context for the discussions and management of hip disease for orthopedic surgeons and researchers alike.
Europe currently is the oldest continent in the world and its population is still ageing. This demographic shift affects society, economy, and welfare states. Scholars from various disciplines and the public noted this development and wonder what effects it may have, but lack adequate information. They call for explanations that are concise and easily accessible. The book at hand fills this lacuna. It introduces readers to the most important developments, theories, concepts, and discussions in ageing studies - always keeping an eye on the current situation in Europe. Each chapter adopts the perspective of a different discipline, e.g. public health, sociology, economics, or technology. To make the explanations easy to understand, the book includes learning tools such as learning objectives, multiple choice questions, and a glossary.
Power Electronics and Electric Drives for Traction Applications offers a practical approach to understanding power electronics applications in transportation systems ranging from railways to electric vehicles and ships. It is an application-oriented book for the design and development of traction systems accompanied by a description of the core technology. The first four introductory chapters describe the common knowledge and background required to understand the preceding chapters. After that, each application-specific chapter: highlights the significant manufacturers involved; provides a historical account of the technological evolution experienced; distinguishes the physics and mechanics; and where possible, analyses a real life example and provides the necessary models and simulationtools, block diagrams and simulation based validations. Key features: Surveys power electronics state-of-the-art in all aspects of traction applications. Presents vital design and development knowledge that is extremely important for the professional community in an original, simple, clear and complete manner. Offers design guidelines for power electronics traction systems in high-speed rail, ships, electric/hybrid vehicles, elevators and more applications. Application-specific chapters co-authored by traction industry expert. Learning supplemented by tutorial sections, case studies and MATLAB/Simulink-based simulations with data from practical systems. A valuable reference for application engineers in traction industry responsible for design and development of products as well as traction industry researchers, developers and graduate students on power electronics and motor drives needing a reference to the application examples.
This unique anthology of new, contributed essays offers a range of perspectives on various aspects of ontic vagueness. It seeks to answer core questions pertaining to onticism, the view that vagueness exists in the world itself. The questions to be addressed include whether vague objects must have vague identity, and whether ontic vagueness has a distinctive logic, one that is not shared by semantic or epistemic vagueness. The essays in this volume explain the motivations behind onticism, such as the plausibility of mereological vagueness and indeterminacy in quantum mechanics and they offer various arguments both for and against ontic vagueness; onticism is also compared with other, competing theories of vagueness such as semanticism, the view that vagueness exists only in our linguistic representation of the world. Gareth Evans's influential paper of 1978, "Can There Be Vague Objects?" gave a simple but cogent argument against the coherence of ontic vagueness. Onticism was subsequently dismissed by many. However, in recent years, researchers have become aware of the logical gaps in Evans's argument and this has triggered a new wave of interest in onticism. Onticism is now widely regarded as at least a coherent view. Reflecting this growing consensus, the present anthology for the first time puts together essays that are focused on onticism and its various facets and it fills in the lacuna in the literature on vagueness, a much-discussed subject in contemporary philosophy.
Cambridge Studies in Nineteenth-Century Literature and Culture: English Fiction and the Evolution of Language, 1850–1914by Will Abberley
Victorian science changed language from a tool into a natural phenomenon, evolving independently of its speakers. Will Abberley explores how science and fiction interacted in imagining different stories of language evolution. Popular narratives of language progress clashed with others of decay and degeneration. Furthermore, the blurring of language evolution with biological evolution encouraged Victorians to re-imagine language as a mixture of social convention and primordial instinct. Abberley argues that fiction by authors such as Charles Kingsley, Thomas Hardy and H. G. Wells not only reflected these intellectual currents, but also helped to shape them. Genres from utopia to historical romance supplied narrative models for generating thought experiments in the possible pasts and futures of language. Equally, fiction that explored the instinctive roots of language intervened in debates about language standardisation and scientific objectivity. These textual readings offer new perspectives on twenty-first-century discussions about language evolution and the language of science.
The study of origin and domestication of legumes described in this book emerged when it became apparent that while this kind of information is adequate for cereals, the pulses lagged behind. At the end of the 1960s the senior author initiated a study on the chickpea's wild relatives followed by similar attempts for broad bean, fenugreek, common vetch, bitter vetch, and lentil. The junior author joined the project in the late 1980s with a study of the genetics of interspecific hybrid embryo abortion in lentil and later has extensively investigated chickpea domestication and wild peas. While this book mainly describes our research findings, pertinent results obtained by others are also discussed and evaluated. Studying the wild relatives of legumes included evaluation of their taxonomic status, their morphological variation, ecological requirements, exploration of their distribution, and seed collection in their natural habitats. Seeds were examined for their protein profile as preliminary hints of their affinity to the cultigens and plants grown from these seeds were used for establishing their karyotype, producing intra- and interspecific hybrids and analyses of their chromosome pairing at meiosis and fertility. The aim of these investigations was the identification of the potential wild gene pool of the domesticated forms. Assessment of genetic variation among accessions, particularly in the genus Lens, was made by isozymes and chloroplast DNA studies. The main findings include the discovery of the chickpea wild progenit studies of lentil in three crossability groups; wild peas proceeded in two lines of study; faba bean and fenugreek and their wild progenitors have not yet been identified; common vetch and its related form were treated here as an aggregate (A. sativa); we found gene flow between members of different karyotypes is possib<= bitter vetch and its relation to the domesticated form were established by breeding experiments.
Carl Abbott, who has taught urban studies and urban planning in five decades, brings together urban studies and literary studies to examine how fictional cities in work by authors as different as E. M. Forster, Isaac Asimov, Kim Stanley Robinson, and China Miéville might help us to envision an urban future that is viable and resilient. Imagining Urban Futures is a remarkable treatise on what is best and strongest in urban theory and practice today, as refracted and intensely imagined in science fiction. As the human population grows, we can envision an increasingly urban society. Shifting weather patterns, rising sea levels, reduced access to resources, and a host of other issues will radically impact urban environments, while technology holds out the dream of cities beyond Earth. Abbott delivers a compelling critical discussion of science fiction cities found in literary works, television programs, and films of many eras from Metropolis to Blade Runner and Soylent Green to The Hunger Games, among many others.
This book explores the idea that daily lived experiences of climate change are a crucial missing link in our knowledge that contrasts with scientific understandings of this global problem. It argues that both kinds of knowledge are limiting: the sciences by their disciplines and lived experiences by the boundaries of everyday lives. Therefore each group needs to engage the other in order to enrich and expand understanding of climate change and what to do about it. Complemented by a rich collection of examples and case studies, this book proposes a novel way of generating and analysing knowledge about climate change and how it may be used. The reader is introduced to new insights where the book: * Provides a framework that explains the variety of simultaneous, co-existing and often contradictory perspectives on climate change. * Reclaims everyday experiential knowledge as crucial for meeting global challenges such as climate change. * Overcomes the science-citizen dichotomy and leads to new ways of examining public engagement with science. Scientists are also human beings with lived experiences that filter their scientific findings into knowledge and actions. * Develops a 'public action theory of knowledge' as a tool for exploring how decisions on climate policy and intervention are reached and enacted. While scientists (physical and social) seek to explain climate change and its impacts, millions of people throughout the world experience it personally in their daily lives. The experience might be bad, as during extreme weather, engender hostility when governments attempt mitigation, and sometimes it is benign. This book seeks to understand the complex, often contradictory knowledge dynamics that inform the climate change debate, and is written clearly for a broad audience including lecturers, students, practitioners and activists, indeed anyone who wishes to gain further insight into this far-reaching issue.
This book collects and reports on the results of a study conducted on the Chinese Software and Services Outsourcing (SSO) industry, focusing on one of its main players as a key case study. Two sets of research findings are presented: first, the knowledge management and communication processes inherent within a highly collaborative software development project between the case study company and one of its long-term UK clients are explored and distilled into specific practices; second, at the organizational level, the strategies used by the company to build and exploit capabilities and to dynamically configure resources to promote specific value positions along its outsourced services value networks are identified and discussed. The significance of these findings for similar China-based global high-tech firms and the value of this organizational form in moving closer to the goals of the 2020 enterprise vision are both discussed, along with the implications of the findings for EU/UK businesses operating in similar digital domains.
The book contains suggestion on suitable crop rotations for salt-affected soils to maximize the productivity of lands and water under current climate and under climate change in 2030. This book discusses droughts and water scarcity, which are important issues related to natural phenomena and affected by climate variability and change. It calls for reassessing the prevailing crop structure in Egypt under rain fed irrigation in North Egypt and under surface irrigation in the Nile Delta and Valley. Droughts affect rain fed agriculture, while water scarcity affects irrigated agriculture. The book investigates proposals for improving crop structure in these areas, taking into account the sustainability of water and soil resources. Further, it explores improved management options for crop production in both rain fed and irrigated agriculture. Lastly, it examines suggestions on more rational use of irrigation water in irrigated agriculture to conserve irrigation water under present climate conditions and to help meet the anticipated demand under climate change conditions.
This book investigates the current level and trend of poverty in the Muslim World, including selected countries in Africa, the Middle East and Central Asia, East Asia, the Pacific and South America. Authors explore themes of poverty reduction, poverty alleviation and the extent of influences on social and economic development, particularly natural resource endowments (especially mineral resources) and their utilization. Chapters explore theory and practice, including governance and programmes, and take a detailed look at Zakat as a faith-based policy tool, to reduce poverty and improve livelihoods and thus contribute to better environmental stewardship. The final chapters look at development questions in the Muslim World and make policy recommendations, including a proposed multi-dimensional development collaboration model called the Development Collaboration Octagon Model (DeCOM). Readers will discover theoretical explanations of poverty and how poverty hampers the development of many nations because the poor are unable to partake actively in the development process. Poverty indicators and measurement are discussed, and trends of economic growth including productivity, manufacturing, trade patterns, investment and saving activity, and socio-economic developments are all explored: supporting data is presented in tables and figures, throughout this text. Authors explore the potency and success stories of public poverty alleviation strategies and programmes pursued in the Muslim world, especially the extent to which the institution of Zakat has been effectively incorporated into public poverty alleviation strategies. Policy options required to enhance social and economic development are proposed, to help pull the poor out of the poverty trap into the mainstream economy in the Muslim world. This work will appeal to anyone wishing to scrutinise poverty, its parameters and its relationship with the development of countries in the Muslim world. Scholars in the fields of economics, sociology, geography and Islamic studies will all find something of value here.
In 2012, over four billion people tuned in to watch the London Summer Olympics. As the single largest mega-event in the world, the Olympics has the power to captivate the global imagination. Long before athletes vie for a gold medal, however, competition between cities eager to host the Games kicks off with a rigorous bid process. The lengthy and expensive endeavor to host the Olympics is as high-stakes as any sporting event. Rather than encouraging cities to refrain from bidding, Bidding for Development takes a policy approach that challenges stakeholders to bid responsibly and strategically in pursuit of concrete outcomes. Every bid city has the potential to accelerate long-term transportation development through a strategic and robust planning process. This book concentrates on the phenomenon of repeat Olympic bids and the opportunities that may come from bidding, particularly for those cities that never win the Games. In this context, Bidding for Development explores the intersection between transportation infrastructure development, the Olympic bid process, and the resulting legacies experienced by bid losers. The findings address the central question: how can participating in the Olympic bid process accelerate transportation development regardless of the bid result? In response, this book presents a Bid Framework outlining how and when cities may use the bid to unite resources, align transportation priorities, and empower leaders to achieve urban development objectives in preparation for the Olympic bid. The Bid Framework is then applied to two case studies, Manchester and Istanbul, to examine each bid loser's effectiveness in using the bid process to catalyze transportation development. Concurrently, the book takes into consideration how the International Olympic Committee's evolving bid regulations and requirements relate to urban development and positive social legacy. Bidding for Development delivers actionable recommendations for all Olympic stakeholders to improve the value of the bid process and transportation benefits beyond the Games.
This book presents diverse topics in mathematical logic such as proof theory, meta-mathematics, and applications of logic to mathematical structures. The collection spans the first 100 years of modern logic and is dedicated to the memory of Irving Anellis, founder of the journal 'Modern Logic', whose academic work was essential in promoting the algebraic tradition of logic, as represented by Charles Sanders Peirce. Anellis's association with the Russian logic community introduced their school of logic to a wider audience in the USA, Canada and Western Europe. In addition, the collection takes a historical perspective on proof theory and the development of logic and mathematics in Eastern Logic, the Soviet Union and Russia. The book will be of interest to historians and philosophers in logic and mathematics, and the more specialized papers will also appeal to mathematicians and logicians.
The Expression of Emotion collects cutting-edge essays on emotional expression written by leading philosophers, psychologists, and legal theorists. It highlights areas of interdisciplinary research interest, including facial expression, expressive action, and the role of both normativity and context in emotion perception. Whilst philosophical discussion of emotional expression has addressed the nature of expression and its relation to action theory, psychological work on the topic has focused on the specific mechanisms underpinning different facial expressions and their recognition. Further, work in both legal and political theory has had much to say about the normative role of emotional expressions, but would benefit from greater engagement with both psychological and philosophical research. In combining philosophical, psychological, and legal work on emotional expression, the present volume brings these distinct approaches into a productive conversation.
Little has been written about the legal position and conditions of detention of persons detained by international criminal tribunals, particularly as regards their internal legal position (their rights and duties inside the remand facility). The primary purpose of this book is to set out the law governing the detention of persons detained under the tribunals' jurisdiction. The book provides a detailed account of this area of international criminal law. It sets out the applicable law, including the law's underlying principles, and focuses on a number of specific procedural and substantive legal issues. As to procedural issues, it examines the available complaints and disciplinary procedures as well as procedures applicable to the designation of States for the enforcement of the tribunals' sentences. In respect of substantive law, it examines the detainees' right to contact with the outside world, including contact with their relatives, with their lawyers and with the media. The book will be an extremely useful guidance for practitioners in applying the law and principles of the tribunals' detention law, particularly because it is the first monograph written on the topic.
"I swore an oath to avenge the death of my father. I may be half a man, but I swore a whole oath."<P><P> Prince Yarvi has vowed to regain a throne he never wanted. But first he must survive cruelty, chains, and the bitter waters of the Shattered Sea. And he must do it all with only one good hand.<P> The deceived will become the deceiver.<P> Born a weakling in the eyes of his father, Yarvi is alone in a world where a strong arm and a cold heart rule. He cannot grip a shield or swing an axe, so he must sharpen his mind to a deadly edge.<P> The betrayed will become the betrayer.<P> Gathering a strange fellowship of the outcast and the lost, he finds they can do more to help him become the man he needs to be than any court of nobles could.<P> Will the usurped become the usurper?<P> But even with loyal friends at his side, Yarvi finds that his path may end as it began--in twists, and traps, and tragedy.
Sometimes a girl is touched by Mother War.<P><P> Thorn is such a girl. Desperate to avenge her dead father, she lives to fight. But she has been named a murderer by the very man who trained her to kill.<P> Sometimes a woman becomes a warrior.<P> She finds herself caught up in the schemes of Father Yarvi, Gettland's deeply cunning minister. Crossing half the world to find allies against the ruthless High King, she learns harsh lessons of blood and deceit.<P> Sometimes a warrior becomes a weapon.<P> Beside her on the journey is Brand, a young warrior who hates to kill, a failure in his eyes and hers, but with one chance at redemption.<P> And weapons are made for one purpose.<P> Will Thorn forever be a pawn in the hands of the powerful, or can she carve her own path?
Written by experts in the field, this volume presents a comprehensive investigation into the relationship between argumentation theory and the philosophy of mathematical practice. Argumentation theory studies reasoning and argument, and especially those aspects not addressed, or not addressed well, by formal deduction. The philosophy of mathematical practice diverges from mainstream philosophy of mathematics in the emphasis it places on what the majority of working mathematicians actually do, rather than on mathematical foundations. The book begins by first challenging the assumption that there is no role for informal logic in mathematics. Next, it details the usefulness of argumentation theory in the understanding of mathematical practice, offering an impressively diverse set of examples, covering the history of mathematics, mathematics education and, perhaps surprisingly, formal proof verification. From there, the book demonstrates that mathematics also offers a valuable testbed for argumentation theory. Coverage concludes by defending attention to mathematical argumentation as the basis for new perspectives on the philosophy of mathematics.
A fascinating account of the phenomenon known as the Black Death, this volume offers a wealth of documentary material focused on the initial outbreak of the plague that ravaged the world in the fourteenth century. A comprehensive introduction that provides important background on the origins and spread of the plague is followed by nearly 50 documents organized into topical sections that focus on the origin and spread of the illness; the responses of medical practitioners; the societal and economic impact; religious responses; the flagellant movement and attacks on Jews provoked by the plague; and the artistic response. Each chapter has an introduction that summarizes the issues explored in the documents; headnotes to the documents provide additional background material. The book contains documents from many countries -- including Muslim and Byzantine sources -- to give students a variety of perspectives on this devastating illness and its consequences. The volume also includes illustrations, a chronology of the Black Death, questions to consider, a selected bibliography, and an index.
This book embarks on a contemporary analysis of the interaction of economics and law relating to air transport, delving into the major issues that plague the industry. It shows how some of the thorny and frustrating issues could be approached sensibly. Among the issues discussed are the anomaly of exponential growth of air transport which makes airline profitability continue to be poor; the legislative impediments in most countries that preclude direct foreign investment in the industry; the confounding and muddled mess behind the economics of aircraft engine emissions; and the inexplicable reality that, although civil aviation is primarily meant to meet the needs of the people of the world, State regulators have upended the equation and given priority to national interests over the interests of the passenger. The book will be of interest to economists and lawyers alike who deal with air transport issues, and also to academics and students in the area of transportation as well as regulators and airlines.
The aviation community, in which the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), the International Air Transport Association (IATA) and the Civil Air Navigation Services Organization (CANSO) play leading roles, is hard at work in bringing aviation into the 21st Century. In doing so, the United States and Europe have taken proactive steps forward in introducing modernization, particularly in moving towards more efficient air traffic management systems within NextGen and SESAR. Elsewhere, in the fields of personnel licensing, rules of the air, accident investigation and aeronautical charts and information, significant strides are being made in moving from mere regulation to implementation and assistance calculated to make all ICAO member States self sufficient in international civil aviation. However, these objectives can be achieved only if the aviation industry has a sustained understanding of the legal and regulatory principles applying to the various areas of air navigation. This book provides that discussion. Some of the subjects discussed in this book are: sovereignty in airspace; flight information and air defence identification zones; rules of the air; personnel licensing; meteorological services; operations of aircraft; air traffic services; accident and incident investigation; aerodromes; efficiency aspects of aviation and environmental protection; aeronautical charts and information; the carriage of dangerous goods; and NextGen and SESAR . Except for NextGen and SESAR, these subjects form the titles of the Annexes to the Chicago Convention that particularly involve the rights and liabilities of the key players involved in air navigation.
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